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  • Author: Marc J. Cohen, Mecuria Tigist, Simon Parrish
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More than 600 development organizations publish to the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) Standard. IATI provides up-to-date and reliable aid data to improve accountability, coordination and effectiveness. Aid flow traceability throughout the implementation chain is a key part of this. This research report shows that, using 2013-2015 IATI data, it is only possible to verify that 7% of US aid to Ghana ($28m) arrived in the country. It concludes that this traceability gap stems from limited IATI reporting by the international NGOs and firms that implemented most aid activities. To enhance traceability, the US government should require its implementers to publish to IATI.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation, Governance, Accountability, NGOs
  • Political Geography: North America, Global Focus, United States of America
  • Author: Amelie Gauthier
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: More than half of Central African Republic’s population is in need of urgent humanitarian aid – amidst chronic underfunding, persisting violence across the country and unsuccessful peace agreements. This briefing calls for a huge and concerted effort by the government, donors and all stakeholders to consolidate progress, to support peace and reconciliation and to ensure that CAR does not revert back into a deeper crisis. It presents a fair share analysis and urges donors to step up their commitments and meet their funding responsibility to stabilize the fragile situation in the country.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Humanitarian Aid, Political stability, Violence, Peace, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Africa, Central African Republic
  • Author: Man-Kwun Chan
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Investments which support households to better meet their unpaid care responsibilities – such as childcare, food preparation and laundry – can yield substantial returns in terms of macro-economic growth, job creation and other key government priorities. This briefing looks at selected evidence and examples and argues that governments should: include commitments to support households’ unpaid care work in relevant policies and programmes, and collect data on unpaid care to support policy making; increase households’ access to care-supporting infrastructure and services; encourage men and boys to share care work; and step up efforts to give women a real voice in policy making, and a real opportunity to speak out about unpaid care.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Labor Issues, Health Care Policy, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Melanie Kesmaecker-Wissing, Lucy Knight, Ruth Mayne, Jola Miziniak
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Commentary and Analysis
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Effective behaviour change strategies can play a vital role in combating poverty, injustice and environmental degradation. They can help prevent violence against women and girls; enable better health, hygiene and environmental behaviours; motivate and empower people to participate in campaigns or to become change makers; or influence people to make more equitable, ethical or sustainable purchasing and investment decisions. There is growing understanding among civil society organizations, governments and others about how to enable behaviour change, but many interventions still rely too much on information provision and awareness raising. This discussion paper draws on learning from theory and practice to provide practitioners with an understanding of the range of influences that shape different behaviours at individual, group, societal and system levels. It suggests a menu of possible interventions to address them, and highlights the need for resources and skill-building. It will be relevant for practitioners involved in programming, humanitarian, influencing and campaigning work, as well as for government officials and donors.
  • Topic: Development, Infrastructure, Inequality, Gender Based Violence , Behavior
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Diego Alejo Vazquez Pimentel, Max Lawson, Inigo Macias Aymar
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Last year saw the biggest increase in billionaires in history, one more every two days. This huge increase could have ended global extreme poverty seven times over. 82% of all wealth created in the last year went to the top 1%, and nothing went to the bottom 50%. Dangerous, poorly paid work for the many is supporting extreme wealth for the few. Women are in the worst work, and almost all the super-rich are men. Governments must create a more equal society by prioritizing ordinary workers and small-scale food producers instead of the rich and powerful.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Trade and Finance, Food, Health Care Policy, Inequality, Economic Growth, Tax Systems, Supply Chains
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Investment in small-scale agriculture is needed in order to meet the ambitious objective set by the United Nations and signed by the world leaders in 2015: to eradicate hunger, ensure food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture by 2030 (SDG 2). However, reaching this ambitious goal with the current level of resources committed will not be possible without concerted action on global challenges such as worsening climate change, fluctuating energy prices, diversification of diets in emerging economies and a growing pressure on natural resources such as land and water for purposes other than food. In the world today, 795 million people – one in nine people – still experience limited access to healthy and nutritious food; essential for children to develop properly and for fostering good health. Most of the people affected live in developing countries – 98 percent –and in Africa, one person in four suffers from hunger.1 Paradoxically, those who suffer from hunger are mainly farmers or people who depend on agriculture as their main source of income. To end the injustice of hunger in the world, there is therefore a need for a shared effort from public and private players, geared to allocate more and better investment for the promotion of sustainable agricultural development. In this paper, Oxfam investigates the flows of official development aid (ODA) committed by Italy in the last ten years to promoting food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development in its partner countries. The analysis aims to identify the main features of Italian ODA in this sector in order to evaluate its level of transparency and accountability. It also aims to verify the coherence, in financial terms, between the real allocation of resources and the political importance that Italy has historically assigned to food security issues. In parallel, this paper examines the involvement of Italian agri-food industries in rural development programmes financed through Italian ODA. In light of the wide- ranging debate which aims to promote a greater involvement of the private sector in development, Oxfam investigated the experience gained to date by Italy in one of the priority sectors of its development cooperation policy. The paper’s analysis focuses on three case studies featuring different modalities and objectives for private sector involvement, with the aim to assessing the impacts of their contribution in terms of the reduction of poverty and food insecurity in local communities. Oxfam’s purpose is to contribute to the ongoing national debate in Italy on the eligibility criteria that would promote private sector support for co- financed cooperation initiatives in partner countries; in line with the objectives and goals of the Italian International Development Cooperation policy.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Climate Change, Environment, Poverty, United Nations, Food, Hunger, Rural
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy, Global Focus
  • Author: Jorrit Kamminga, Akram Zaki
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Huge numbers of people are returning to Afghanistan – more than two million since 2015 – while the country is still highly fragile, with ongoing fighting and internal displacement in many areas and high levels of poverty. Oxfam’s field research in Herat, Kabul, Kunduz and Nangarhar finds that for as long as these conditions do not improve, a safe and dignified return cannot be guaranteed, and forced returns remain irresponsible. With more people returning on a daily basis, tensions are likely to grow and pressure on scarce resources will increase, exacerbating inequalities in this unstable and fragile country. Sending Afghans back to volatile areas will likely result only in more displacement and fragility.
  • Topic: Refugees, Fragile States, Displacement, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Research Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Refugees in the UK often find themselves separated from their families by their brutal experiences of conflict and persecution, just at the time when they need each other the most. This separation can drag on for years or sometimes indefinitely because of the UK’s restrictive rules on refugee family reunion. This joint report by the Refugee Council and Oxfam is one of the first to look at how family reunion and ongoing forced separation from loved ones affect the ability of refugees to successfully integrate into UK society.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugee Crisis, Displacement, Conflict, Borders, Family, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, Europe, Global Focus
  • Author: Iulia Andreea Toma
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Case Study
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo is currently gripped by national political deadlock and plagued by localized armed conflicts, both old and new. In the central region of Kasai, the conflict between government forces and the Kamwina Nsapo militia escalated dramatically in the first quarter of 2017 and has caused a serious humanitarian crisis extending over five provinces. The crisis has led to major food insecurity, and exacerbated the existing vulnerabilities of the local population. Women in DRC play a limited role in public life and their access to services and opportunities is constrained. The crisis in Kasai is entrenching existing inequalities in gender norms. In this context, Oxfam conducted a gender analysis in October-November 2017 in order to identify the impacts that the conflict is having on women, girls, boys and men in the province and their coping mechanisms. This report presents the findings of the analysis and recommendations intended to inform Oxfam’s own humanitarian programmes and those of its partners and other organizations, as well as the wider humanitarian response.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Norms
  • Political Geography: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Author: Elysia Buchanan
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In December 2017, South Sudan marked four years of devastating conflict. Only a few months later, it has reached another critical point: more South Sudanese are hungry than ever before. While the February 2018 Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) does not declare famine, any classification of IPC 3 upwards means people need aid to survive. This means that 6.3 million people are struggling to get enough to eat, and are dependent on humanitarian aid that is increasingly difficult to access. This report examines the impact of the ongoing conflict on hunger through the prism of livelihoods; women’s empowerment; displacement; water, sanitation and hygiene; and the spread of disease. It provides recommendations for the international community and warring parties on what they can do to stop the violence, increase access to humanitarian aid and allow the people of South Sudan to recover.
  • Topic: Hunger, Humanitarian Intervention, Conflict, Sanitation
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan