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  • Author: Hendrik Tieben
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This paper describes the transformation of Macau's urban image in the first decade after the "handover" of the Portuguese enclave to the People's Republic of China (PRC). In the pre-handover years and the first years of the newly established Macau Special Administrative Region (MSAR), urban interventions created an image thought to assure the continuity of Macau's Eurasian identity along with future financial stability. In 2002, with the governmental decision not to renew the local gambling monopoly, Macau's urban image was radically transformed. The liberalization of the gambling industry after Macau's return to the PRC was combined with the deregulation of building heights, developer-friendly land sales, a growing number of migrant workers, and the liberalization of travel restrictions for mainland visitors. These deregulations were based on decisions by the MSAR and the PRC governments, respectively, and led to the exponential growth of Macau's GDP within only six years. This paper describes how, through these decisions, Macau's urban image and space have been transformed.
  • Political Geography: China, Eurasia
  • Author: Hilary du Cros
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: Recent research on achieving sustainable heritage tourism in Macau advocates a greater collaboration between tourism and heritage management authorities and the local community on reaching sustainable tourism goals. A key theme for Macau in the last ten years has been how the tension between the proponents for greater casino development versus those for cultural heritage product development has played out in government policies for heritage management, private sector tourism development and host community concerns about heritage protection and achieving quality tourism. The indirect influence of the central government on Macau Special Administrative Region's (SAR's) policy development in relation to these topics in the last ten years will be discussed in this context using findings from three recent studies by the Institute For Tourism Studies (IFT) and background information collected on government policy and community views. This paper will outline emerging issues regarding demand, supply, and impacts of cultural tourism with reference to findings from four recent research projects. Special reference will be made to over-use and under-use issues, authenticity, and the management of tourism impacts while enhancing visitor experience. Strategic planning and management of cultural tourism products will also be touched upon.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Werner Breitung
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: The concept of border people refers to people living with borders, dealing with the related difficulties and taking advantage of the respective opportunities. This concept is here applied to the residents of Macau, whose border checkpoint to the mainland has become one of the busiest in the world. Even though the border control is still in place, it has become very common for Macau residents to cross the border on an everyday basis. This paper links the people's border-related attitudes and activities to the process of Macau's integration with China and argues that the "integration from below" manifested in the growing exchange of people is a crucial factor in the overall integration process.
  • Topic: Border Control
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Thomas Chung
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This paper examines the evolving values of urban heritage in Macau in terms of the various conservation approaches and mechanisms employed, and the shifting emphases on heritage and development within the context of continuity and change in Macau. Accumulated over four centuries of cultural interchange, the richly layered Historic Centre of the former Portuguese-administered outpost attained World Heritage status in 2005. After situating the problem pertaining to the multifaceted nature of heritage valorisation, the city's trajectory of urban conservation leading up to the 1999 retrocession will be traced, and germane issues concerning heritage management vis-à-vis effects of post-handover urban developments assessed. As the latest culmination of value imbalances and conflicts arising from urban change, the Guia Lighthouse controversy will be critically appraised to speculate on a timely re-evaluation of Macau's heritage conservation process.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Michael Poerner
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This paper focuses on the description of China in leading German daily and weekly newspapers during the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. On the basis of a brief outline of the main China narratives in German media since the 1950s, this paper analyses China-related articles which were published during the period August 8-15, 2008. It argues that reports on China are mostly based on well established German notions of China and centre around the image of a despotic and/or dangerous China. Therefore, they primarily refer back to the source culture and contain little information of value regarding the target culture.
  • Topic: Mass Media
  • Political Geography: China, Beijing
  • Author: Günter Moser
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: The quality of statistical data covering the economic and social development of the People's Republic of China has been questioned by international and national data users for years. The reasons for this doubt lie mainly in the structure of the Chinese system of statistics. Two parallel systems exist which operate largely autonomously: the national system of statistics and the sectoral system of statistics. In the area of the national statistical system, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) has the authority to order and collect statistics. This competence lies with the ministries and authorities below the ministerial level. This article describes and analyses these structures, the resulting problems, and the reform measures taken to date. It also aims to provide a better understanding of the statistical data about the People's Republic of China and to enable an assessment of them within a changing structural context. In conclusion, approaches to further reforms will be provided based on the author's long-standing experience in cooperation projects with the official Chinese statistics agencies.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: François Godement, Mathieu Duchâtel
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This special issue focuses on Hu Jintao's first mandate in power, between the Sixteenth and the Seventeenth Party Congress (2002-2007). It considers two intertwined issues: power viewed through the lens of party politics, and actual policy changes that may have emanated from a mandate initially loaded with expectations. Besides the domestic dimensions of elite politics and ideological change, two central aspects of Chinese politics, the key question tackled in this issue is the ability of a new general secretary to transform past policies, especially in the realms of foreign affairs and national security since they are by tradition – and constitutionally – the responsibility of China's paramount leader.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Cheng Li
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This article explores two interrelated aspects of the new dynamics within the CCP leadership – the new elite groups and the new ground rules in Chinese politics. The first shows profound changes in the recruitment of the elite and the second aims to reveal the changing mechanisms of political control and the checks and balances of the Chinese political system. The article argues that the future of the CCP largely depends on two seemingly contradictory needs: how broad-based will the Party's recruitment of its new elites be on the one hand and how effective will the top leadership be in controlling this increasingly diverse political institution on the other. The emerging fifth generation of leaders is likely to find the challenge of producing elite harmony and unity within the Party more difficult than their predecessors. Yet, the diverse demographic and political backgrounds of China's new leaders can also be considered a positive development that may contribute to the Chinese-style inner-Party democracy.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Heike Holbig
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: Two decades after the predicted “end of ideology”, we are observing a re-emphasis on party ideology under Hu Jintao. The paper looks into the reasons for and the factors shaping the re-formulation of the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) ideology since 2002 and assesses the progress and limits of this process. Based on the analysis of recent elite debates, it is argued that the re making of ideology has been the consequence of perceived challenges to the legitimacy of CCP rule. Contrary to many Western commentators, who see China's successful economic performance as the most important if not the only source of regime legitimacy, Chinese party theorists and scholars have come to regard Deng Xiaoping's formula of performance-based legitimacy as increasingly precarious. In order to tackle the perceived “performance dilemma” of party rule, the adaptation and innovation of party ideology is regarded as a crucial measure to relegitimize CCP rule.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Jean-Pierre Cabestan
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military's role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). However, China's globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.). But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Globalization
  • Political Geography: China, Taiwan
  • Author: Wu-ueh Chang, Chien-min Chao
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: China's Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach) with coercion (the “carrot ” approach), a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, un- der Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.
  • Political Geography: China, Taiwan
  • Author: Karl Hallding, Guoyi Han, Marie Olsson
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: China is undergoing modernization at a scale and speed the world has never witnessed. As climate change increasingly dominates the global agenda, China faces the challenge of shaping a new growth path in a climate-constrained world. The paper argues that China's current climate and energy policy is, at best, a “repackaging” of existing energy and environmental strategies with co-benefits for the mitigation of climate change. Nevertheless, even though policies are not climate-change driven, the quick (rhetorical) endorsement of low-carbon development and the strong momentum of green technologies indicate that political ambitions are in favour of finding a more sustainable development pathway. A new growth path would, how-ever, require a fundamental shift, with development and energy strategies being set within climate security constraints. The eventual success of this new path remains uncertain.
  • Topic: Security, Climate Change, Economics, Environment
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Andreas Oberheitmann, Eva Sternfeld
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: According to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report, global emissions of carbon dioxide have to be reduced by about 80 per cent by 2050 in order to stabilise the increase in global temperature at 2 to 2.4°C by 2100 compared with its pre-industrial level. An increase of only 2°C would bring about “acceptable” negative impacts on the eco-systems and the world economy. Without a reduction in CO2 emissions in China, however, it will be hard to achieve this goal. Currently, China is already responsible for about 50 per cent of the worldwide increase in CO2 emissions recorded over the past ten years. On the other hand, it is the industrialised countries that are mainly responsible for the greenhouse-gas emissions of earlier years. Taking the challenges of China's economic growth, its impact on future CO2 emissions and the development of China's climate policy into account, this article develops a new post-Kyoto regime based on cumulative per-capita emission rights.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Margot Schüller, Yun Schüllerr-Zhou
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This contribution analyses the impact of the global financial crisis on the Chinese economy and the policies implemented by the Chinese government to cope with it. We argue, first, that China has not been able to decouple its economic performance from that of the U.S. and other developed countries. Second, although economic growth in the second quarter of 2009 showed that the stimulus package is working, the current development does not seem to be sustainable. In order to avoid another round of overheating, the government needs to adjust its stimulus policy. Third, the current crisis offers opportunities to conduct necessary structural adjustments in favour of more market-based and innovative industries, more investment by private companies and a stronger role of private consumption in economic growth. Fourth, with the external demand from the OECD countries declining, Chinese export companies need to further diversify their international markets and re-orient their production and sales strategies to some extent towards the domestic market.
  • Topic: Economics, Government, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United States, China
  • Author: Anna L. Ahlers, Gunter Schubert
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: In March 2006, China's National People's Congress officially promulgated the central government's intention to “build a new socialist countryside”, a new policy initiative and approach to rural development. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in two Chinese counties in 2008 and 2009, this article investigates how the new policy is being substantiated and implemented at the local level. It argues that by combining China's new fiscal system of transfer payments to poor local governments with administrative reforms, intensified internal project evaluation, and efforts to increase the rural income through a mixture of infrastructural investment, agricultural specialization, the expansion of social welfare, and accelerated urbanization, “building a new socialist countryside” constitutes more than a political slogan and has the potential to successfully overcome rural poverty and the rural-urban divide.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Norman Long, Jinlong Liu
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of adopting an ethnographic, actor interface approach to understanding the ongoing dynamics of rural development and policy intervention processes. It does so through the discussion of an EU-fun ded project orientated to introducing village-level forest-management practices in north-west China. The case highlights the ongoing everyday struggles over livelihoods and resources and focuses on the negotiations that take place between the various social actors involved. The case analysis is preceded by a broad- sweep overview of the rise of new ruralities and a discussion of the key elements of an actor interface analysis. The article concludes with a call for more cross-country and cross-regional studies of this kind.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Andrew Watson
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the house- hold registration system of China's planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China's economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China's government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Ye Xingqing
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: The analysis presented here is based on the keynote speech discussing the most recent development s in rural policy on urban-rural integration in China delivered in Chinese by Professor Ye Xingqing at the Ninth European Conference on Agriculture and Rural Development in China (ECARDC9) held at the University of Leeds in the UK on 3-5 April 2009. Professor Ye's paper provides a comprehensive overview of the main initiatives, their rationale and their context, including some of the debates surrounding them. Professor Ye, who is an invited keynote speaker of ECARDC9 and the director-general of the Department for Rural Economy, Research Office of the State Council, People's Republic of China, has been personally involved in the process of formulating these policy initiatives. This translation of his paper seeks to convey properly the author's meanings and to strike a balance between documenting the official perspective and rationales, including the use of concepts, on the one hand and ease of comprehension on the other. The translator's notes are intended only for the clarification of, not commentary on, the content.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: John Q. Tian
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This article examines recent reforms to restructure rural public finance in China and their impact on local-government finance. The focus is on how fiscal income and financial expenditure are managed by local-level governments, particularly at the county and township levels, and how rural public and social services are financed. The article also looks at the development of intergovernmental transfers, ongoing administrative reform, more recent initiatives to extend public finance to cover rural residents as part of the comprehensive rural reform, and a new campaign to build a new socialist rural China.
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Sandra Destradi
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: Regional powers are often conceived of as “regional leading powers,” states which adopt a cooperative and benevolent attitude in their international relations with their neighbors. The paper argues that regional powers can follow a much wider range of foreign policy strategies in their region. Three ideal-typical regional strategies are identified: empire, hegemony, and leadership. The paper is devoted to a theory-led distinction and clarification of these three terms, which are often used interchangeably in the field of international relations. According to the goals pursued, to the means employed, and to other discriminating features such as the degree of legitimation and the type of self-representation by the dominant state, the paper outlines the essential traits of imperial, hegemonic, and leading strategies and identifies subtypes for better classifying hegemony and leadership.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Political Economy, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: China, India, Brazil