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  • Publication Date: 12-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: The end of the Cold War has had a major impact on global trade in conventional armaments, just as it has on most facets of national security and defense. The nature of global demand for arms has shifted from the context of rivalry between superpowers and their associated client states to providing for national defense within the context of regional security needs. While these changes have led to a decline in total global demand for arms, countries continue to seek to acquire substantial amounts of increasingly sophisticated weapons. Ironically, in many respects, the post-Cold War world is more unstable than the Cold War era, and is characterized by increased violence, by increased proliferation of military technology, and by the potential for these trends to continue. In this context, while the nature of the political-military issues that the U.S. and friendly nations now confront has changed, arms exports will continue to be a means of advancing U.S. national security and foreign policy objectives.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, NATO, Arms Control and Proliferation, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Keith Krause, Ken Epps, Bill Weston, David Mutimer
  • Publication Date: 01-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: The global proliferation of conventional weapons has earned a prominent place in the post-Cold War foreign policy agenda. The human and material toll of the relatively unconstrained flow of conventional weapons is large: the vast majority of the 20 million war-related deaths since 1945 have been in conflicts fought exclusively with conventional weapons, and the thirty-nine major ongoing conflicts in 1994 have been fueled by arms, especially light weapons, that have been amassed in the world's arsenals. Conventional proliferation is perhaps the last remaining important issue on the arms control and non-proliferation agenda that has not been comprehensively addressed.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: Sam G. Amoo
  • Publication Date: 02-1991
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The conflict in Chad is a microcosm of the widespread instability in Africa. Since its independence in 1960, peace, security, and stability have eluded Chad just as they have been scarce in most of Africa. Since 1960, 18 full-fledged civil wars have been fought in Africa. Eleven genocides and politicides occurred in Africa between 1960 and the late 1980s, compared with 24 elsewhere in the world. During the decade of the 1980s alone, it is estimated that conflict and violence claimed over 3 million lives. At the beginning of 1990, 43 percent of the global population of refugees were African, most of them fleeing from political violence. The mediation and resolution of conflicts should indeed be the primary preoccupation of the continent's leadership.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Peace Studies, Population
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 05-1990
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: During the entire electoral process, the political system in Nicaragua gradually opened so that by election day, the major political parties acknowledged that they had an adequate opportunity to explain their positions to the Nicaraguan people. The Council of Freely-Elected Heads of Government shared the conclusion of the parties: the Nicaraguan people were free to vote their preferences in a fair election, and the official results reflected the collective will of the nation.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Government, Peace Studies, Politics
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Central America