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  • Author: Lucreita Giese, Carmen Boullosa, Marjorie Agosín, Sandra Berler, Elena Gascón-Vera, Laura Riesco, Margo Glantz
  • Publication Date: 01-1995
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University
  • Abstract: The present volume includes essays presented March 4, 1994 at the symposium “Mexico: The Artist Is a Woman” at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. The event commemorated the work of Latin American women in film, photography, and literature. The contributions of these artists in their respective fields reveal the originality and diversity of contemporary Mexican art. Each of the participants has an outstanding artistic career.
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Mexico
  • Author: John Hollister Hedley
  • Publication Date: 01-1995
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University
  • Abstract: A changing world fraught with new uncertainties and complexities challenges America to understand the issues and dangers U.S. foreign and defense policy must confront. Economically and politically, however, it is a fact of life that the United States must engage the post-Cold War world with a smaller, more cost-efficient intelligence capability than the 13-organization, $28-billion-dollar intelligence apparatus of today. This might be achieved by a meat-cleaver approach—such as across-the-board cuts based on the erroneous assumption that every part of the apparatus is equally dispensable or indispensable. Preferably, it can—and will—be accomplished by prudently eliminating redundancy and by abandoning missions no longer deemed essential or affordable.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Cold War, Intelligence, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, America
35353. Not Even One
  • Publication Date: 02-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: We gathered at The Carter Center, 26 people from various fields and disciplines, all concerned with protecting and lengthening the lives of children, to seek a path forward amid the carnage of our children caused by firearms. What could be done to stem the hemorrhage in the streets?
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 09-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: In September 1994, the Commission on Radio and Television Policy, bringing together the New Independent States, Poland, the Czech Republic, and the United States, met in St. Petersburg, Russia, to discuss the most important policy issue of the electronic media: how to strengthen the independence of radio and television. The members of the Commission represented several different approaches and types of government, but, in the end, there was unanimous agreement on a communiqué urging all parties to defend and extend autonomy of the media.
  • Topic: Democratization, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Publication Date: 08-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The national elections on August 21, 1994 will be an important milestone in Mexico's political opening. During the last four years, the Mexican Congress approved a number of important reforms to the electoral process. Yet the Mexican population remains highly skeptical about the integrity of the elections. Opinion polls show that nearly one-half of respondents expect fraud, and more than one half expect post-electoral violence.
  • Topic: Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: Latin America, North America, Mexico
  • Author: Richard Joseph
  • Publication Date: 05-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: On May 13-14, 1994, a group of 32 scholars and practitioners took part in a seminar on Democratization in Africa at The Carter Center. This consultation was a sequel to two similar meetings held in February 1989 and March 1990. Discussion papers from those seminars have been published under the titles, Beyond Autocracy in Africa and African Governance in the 1990s. During the period 1990-94, the African Governance Program of The Carter Center moved from discussions and reflections to active involvement in the complex processes of renewed democratization in several African countries. These developments throughout Africa were also monitored and assessed in the publication, Africa Demos.
  • Topic: Democratization, Government, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Africa, North America
  • Publication Date: 02-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Not even one child's death from firearms is acceptable or inevitable. What will we do about it? We gathered at The Carter Center, 26 people from various fields and disciplines, all concerned with protecting and lengthening the lives of children, to seek a path forward amid the carnage of our children caused by firearms. What could be done to stem the hemorrhage in the streets? Could we do enough to make a difference? Could we do anything at all? Author Norman Cousins has said that the greatest t the United States has given the world is to demonstrate that it is possible to plan a rational future. It is easy to lose hope when faced with a situation as horrible as thousands of children dying from firearms. Yet even here, we affirm that it is possible to plan a rational future. Our gathering was framed around a modest focus on: 1. Children, not all people; 2. Firearms, not all violence; 3. Initiatives that could make an urgent and significant impact in the next five to 10 years; 4. Things we could work on immediately.
  • Topic: Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Civil Society, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 12-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: The end of the Cold War has had a major impact on global trade in conventional armaments, just as it has on most facets of national security and defense. The nature of global demand for arms has shifted from the context of rivalry between superpowers and their associated client states to providing for national defense within the context of regional security needs. While these changes have led to a decline in total global demand for arms, countries continue to seek to acquire substantial amounts of increasingly sophisticated weapons. Ironically, in many respects, the post-Cold War world is more unstable than the Cold War era, and is characterized by increased violence, by increased proliferation of military technology, and by the potential for these trends to continue. In this context, while the nature of the political-military issues that the U.S. and friendly nations now confront has changed, arms exports will continue to be a means of advancing U.S. national security and foreign policy objectives.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, NATO, Arms Control and Proliferation, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Keith Krause, Ken Epps, Bill Weston, David Mutimer
  • Publication Date: 01-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: The global proliferation of conventional weapons has earned a prominent place in the post-Cold War foreign policy agenda. The human and material toll of the relatively unconstrained flow of conventional weapons is large: the vast majority of the 20 million war-related deaths since 1945 have been in conflicts fought exclusively with conventional weapons, and the thirty-nine major ongoing conflicts in 1994 have been fueled by arms, especially light weapons, that have been amassed in the world's arsenals. Conventional proliferation is perhaps the last remaining important issue on the arms control and non-proliferation agenda that has not been comprehensively addressed.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: Anthony McDermott
  • Publication Date: 01-1994
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University
  • Abstract: The way that peacekeeping under the auspices of the United Nations has evolved has become a painful and very visible truism. The sights of suffering in countries such as Cambodia, Somalia, and, above all, the former Yugoslavia, have brought home both the importance and impotence of what used to be called peacekeeping. The term now used is peace enforcement, with all the risks that this entails.
  • Political Geography: Yugoslavia, Cambodia, Somalia
  • Publication Date: 11-1993
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Changing economic relations are among the most important issues in the future of telecommunications throughout the world. Everywhere, governments and private companies are attentive to profound changes introduced by the processes of privatization, democratization, and development and implementation of new technologies. The future is already upon us, with great speed and often unexpected consequences.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Jimmy Carter
  • Publication Date: 02-1993
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: On the following pages, the reader will find a comprehensive summary of the 1993 International Negotiation Network (INN) Consultation, "Resolving Intra-National Conflicts: A Strengthened Role for Intergovernmental Organizations."
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Cooperation, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia
  • Author: John Keane
  • Publication Date: 10-1993
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for the Study of Democracy, University of Westminster
  • Abstract: What is a nation? Do nations have a right to self-determination? If so, does that mean that the national identity of citizens is best guaranteed by a system of democratic government, in which power is subject to open disputation and to the consent of the governed living within a carefully defined territory? And what of nationalism? Does it differ from national identity? Is it compatible with democracy? If not, cam its growth be prevented, or at least controlled, so as to guarantee the survival or growth of democracy?
  • Topic: Civil Society, Nationalism, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Judith Reppy, Joseph Pilat
  • Publication Date: 10-1993
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Cornell University Peace Studies Program
  • Abstract: The primary mission of the nuclear weapons laboratories during the Cold War was research, development and testing of nuclear weapons, and that mission largely shaped the laboratories. It is, therefore, difficult to disassociate the future of the laboratories from the future of the nuclear weapons mission. That mission, and the longer term role of nuclear weapons, are changing, and these changes will affect the laboratories and will open opportunities for new directions, including defense conversion. The scope and nature of those opportunities will be defined in the first instance by the evolving nuclear mission.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Industrial Policy, Nuclear Weapons
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Jimmy Carter
  • Publication Date: 12-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The Conference for Global Development Cooperation, convened by former President Jimmy Carter and United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, was held at The Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia on December 4 and 5, 1992.
  • Topic: Economics, Government, International Cooperation, International Political Economy, Third World
  • Political Geography: United Nations, Georgia
  • Publication Date: 11-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The meeting in Alma Ata of the Commission on Radio and Television Policy marked a new and important stage in the collaboration between the United States and the former Soviet Union. I was proud to serve as co-chairman, together with Eduard Sagalaev. The Commission now has been enlarged to include the major television stations of newly independent republics of the former Soviet Union and the head of an organization of independent stations. It is a unique body.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Publication Date: 11-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Robert Pastor, Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Program at The Carter Center and Executive Secretary of the Council, opened the conference with a reference to Mexican Nobel Laureate Octavio Paz who once said, "A nation without free elections is a nation without a voice, without eyes, and without ears." Pastor noted that the right to free and fair elections is a universal right enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and the Charter of the Organization of American States. In the spirit of honoring that right, the Council was formed in 1986 to lend support and assistance to the democratization movement in the Americas.
  • Topic: Democratization, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, United Nations, Latin America
  • Author: Robert Pastor
  • Publication Date: 07-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: Within a single year, two events unprecedented in the history of the United States shook the nation's confidence in itself as the moral leader of the Free World. In August 1974, the president resigned under a pall of scandal, and eight months later, the United States suffered the humiliation of military defeat as it watched the U.S. ambassador to Vietnam fold the American flag under his arm and flee his post by helicopter.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, Vietnam, South America, Latin America, Central America, Caribbean, North America
  • Author: The Conference Center
  • Publication Date: 07-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: In the two years that have elapsed since The Carter Center hosted "Investigating Abuses and Introducing Human Rights Safeguards in the Democratization Process," the issues we discussed then have become even more pivotal as our views of governance and the rights of individuals and of state sovereignty itself are being fundamentally transformed. It was our view that, although the Center did not previously publish the seminar proceedings, making them available at this time would serve to further inform those who are working in this field by providing insightful observations by many human rights activists, journalists, and academicians who were involved directly in political transitions in their own countries and by others who studied these events from the outside.
  • Topic: Democratization, Government, Human Rights, International Cooperation
  • Author: Dayle E. Spencer, William J. Spencer
  • Publication Date: 11-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: For several years The Carter Center of Emory University's (CCEU) Conflict Resolution Program has been engaged in developing an International Negotiation Network (INN) to alleviate the tremendous suffering resulting from intranational conflicts. Our efforts have led to the convening of direct negotiation between warring parties engaged in prolonged conflicts. We have been involved in activities advancing free elections and elections monitoring where such efforts have helped to facilitate the peaceful transfer of power in previously conflict-burdened countries. We have been involved in quiet, back-channel linkages of disputing parties and resources available to them. Some of our efforts have received widespread media coverage. However, the vast majority of our work has not been widely known.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 01-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: This report is a summary of the inaugural consultation of the International Negotiation Network (INN), held at The Carter Center of Emory University CCEU), in Atlanta, Georgia, January 14-17, 1992. The consultation brought together over 200 invited guests from 40 countries and more than 150 organizations or governments. It was made possible through the generous support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and shaped in part by that foundation's president, David Hamburg, who has served as one of the INN's advisors.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, Sovereignty
  • Political Geography: Africa, New York, Europe, Asia, Georgia
  • Author: Jesus Velasco
  • Publication Date: 01-1992
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Congress became very concerned about the increasing role played by the President in foreign affairs. On November 7, 1973, and as a mechanism to diminish the power achieved by the Chief Executive in international matters, Congress passed the War Powers Resolution (WPR) over Richard Nixon's veto. The basic aim of the law was to prevent the President from unilaterally introducing the armed forces abroad without congressional authorization. In so doing, Congress sought "to fulfill the intent of the framers of the American Constitution."
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Government
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 11-1991
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The first meeting of the Commission on Television Policy culminated a project that began with basic research on the impact of television on the electoral process in many countries. From this research, a Working Group developed a document presenting a wide range of options and trade-offs in broadcast practice and rules worldwide. With this reference document, Commissioners from the United States and the independent states from the territory of the former Soviet Union began their discussions at The Carter Center on November 15 and 16, 1991.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Sam G. Amoo
  • Publication Date: 02-1991
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The conflict in Chad is a microcosm of the widespread instability in Africa. Since its independence in 1960, peace, security, and stability have eluded Chad just as they have been scarce in most of Africa. Since 1960, 18 full-fledged civil wars have been fought in Africa. Eleven genocides and politicides occurred in Africa between 1960 and the late 1980s, compared with 24 elsewhere in the world. During the decade of the 1980s alone, it is estimated that conflict and violence claimed over 3 million lives. At the beginning of 1990, 43 percent of the global population of refugees were African, most of them fleeing from political violence. The mediation and resolution of conflicts should indeed be the primary preoccupation of the continent's leadership.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Peace Studies, Population
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Joseph M. Grieco
  • Publication Date: 04-1990
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for German and European Studies, University of California, Berkeley
  • Abstract: Germany's foreign economic policy places enormous weight on formal European institutions. In contrast, Japan has not had an institutionalist orientation in regard to its East Asian neighbors. This paper addresses the question of why Germany and Japan differ so greatly on this issue of regional economi. institutions. It suggests that the differences observed in German and Japanese interests in regard to such arrangements constitute a puzzle if they are examined from the perspective of liberal ideas about the functional bases of international collaboration, or from the viewpoint of realist propositions about hegemony and cooperation and about the impact of polarity on state preferences. The paper also puts forward a realist-inspired analysis (focusing on American power in the post-Cold War era as well as American national strategy in the early years of that conflict) that might help account for the strong German bias in favor of regional economic institutions and the equally pronounced Japanese aversion to date for such arrangements.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Cold War, International Organization
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, America, Europe, Israel, East Asia, Asia, Germany
  • Publication Date: 05-1990
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: During the entire electoral process, the political system in Nicaragua gradually opened so that by election day, the major political parties acknowledged that they had an adequate opportunity to explain their positions to the Nicaraguan people. The Council of Freely-Elected Heads of Government shared the conclusion of the parties: the Nicaraguan people were free to vote their preferences in a fair election, and the official results reflected the collective will of the nation.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Government, Peace Studies, Politics
  • Political Geography: Latin America, Central America
  • Publication Date: 02-1989
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The aim of the inaugural seminar of the Governance in Africa Program (G.A.P.) was to bring together a diverse group of scholars to reflect on some of the central issues which confront the continent. The program takes its acronym from the increasing gap between the democratic and developmental aspirations expressed during the anti-colonial struggle and the monopolization of power and the deepening economic predicament today.
  • Topic: Democratization, Government, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Jimmy Carter
  • Publication Date: 04-1988
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The United States faces a competitiveness crisis. The indicators are abundant. An alarming number of American students and workers do not seem to have the skills needed to succeed in the more demanding jobs of the modern economy. Many American inventions never make it from drawing board to marketplace, or arrive too late - long after aggressive foreign firms have captured customer loyalty. Some American products have been improperly designed or priced too high to compete with top-quality foreign imports. Partly as a result, not enough American companies have penetrated foreign markets with U.S. goods and services.
  • Topic: Economics, Government, Industrial Policy
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: The Carter Center
  • Publication Date: 03-1988
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: When one examines all the foreign policy issues likely to face the next U.S. administration, southern Africa, while inherently difficult, may be the most promising of all in terms of actually influencing positive developments and obtaining measurable results in a short time span. Current policies have begun to capitalize on a tentative movement among nations in the region to address certain situations which are prohibiting stabilization. However, with the existence of an international consensus concerning the illegality of the occupation of Namibia and the dehumanization of the policy of apartheid more could be done to advance a multilateral approach toward southern Africa. In short, a real opportunity to bring peace to a troubled region is being missed. Part of the problem is lack of accurate information and understanding of what is happening in the region. Advocacy and passion have often clouded or distorted reality.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States