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  • Author: Rashid I. Khalidi
  • Publication Date: 01-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: AT FIRST GLANCE the contents of this issue of the Journal appear disparate, ranging as they do over the Israeli settlement project, Tony Blair's tenure as Quartet Middle East representative, the role of Islamic Jihad, and the effect of recent upheavals in the Arab world on the Palestinian issue. But taken as a whole they show how much the contemporary Middle East-with the Palestine question at its center-is in dialogue with its history. Although history may not repeat itself, there are nevertheless striking parallels and linkages between past and current events.
  • Topic: Islam, War
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Palestine, Arabia, Egypt
  • Publication Date: 01-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: For some time, the Journal of Palestine Studies' sister quarterly, Majallat al-Dirasat al-Filastiniyya (MDF), has held small, open-ended roundtable discussions at the Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS) headquarters in Beirut to address issues of importance to Palestine and the Arab world, with a view to publishing the proceedings. On 15 December 2012, JPS followed suit, and in cooperation with MDF organized an English-language roundtable at the IPS Beirut headquarters to consider the impact, on Palestine, of the regional changes subsumed under the “Arab Spring” rubric. Participants ranged over an array of topics, including geopolitical changes at the global and regional levels; political, social, and intellectual trends from the Maghrib to the Gulf; and internal developments in several states, as well as within Palestinian communities in historic Palestine and the Diaspora. Especially noteworthy is the grounding of current developments in a historical framework evolving since World War I. The roundtable was transcribed by JPS Editorial Assistant Linda Khoury and the transcript edited by JPS Associate Editor Linda Butler.
  • Topic: Development, War
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Arabia
  • Author: Rashid I. Khalidi
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: THIS ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL carries an article, a report, and three essays which share a focus on recent events, as well as two substantial articles on historical topics with continuing relevance, about the Greek Orthodox and Armenian communities of Palestine.
  • Topic: Development, United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Gaza, Armenia
  • Author: Laura Robson
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The Greek Orthodox Church in Palestine, the largest of the Christian denominations, had long been troubled by a conflict (“controversy”) between its all-Greek hierarchy and its Arab laity hinging on Arab demands for a larger role in church affairs. At the beginning of the Mandate, community leaders, reacting to British official and Greek ecclesiastical cooperation with Zionism, formally established an Arab Orthodox movement based on the structures and rhetoric of the Palestinian nationalist movement, effectively fusing the two causes. The movement received widespread (though not total) community support, but by the mid-1940s was largely overtaken by events and did not survive the 1948 war. The controversy, however, continues to negatively impact the community to this day.
  • Topic: Nationalism, War
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Arabia
  • Author: Bedross Der Matossian
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: For the Armenians of Palestine, the three decades of the Mandate were probably the most momentous in their fifteen hundred-year presence in the country. The period witnessed the community's profound transformation under the double impacts of Britain's Palestine policy and waves of destitute Armenian refugees fleeing the massacres in Anatolia. The article presents, against the background of late Ottoman rule, a comprehensive overview of the community, including the complexities and role of the religious hierarchy, the initially difficult encounter between the indigenous Armenians and the new refugee majority, their politics and associations, and their remarkable economic recovery. By the early 1940s, the Armenian community was at the peak of its success, only to be dealt a mortal blow by the 1948 war, from which it never recovered.
  • Topic: Religion, War
  • Political Geography: Britain, Palestine, Armenia
  • Author: Alain Gresh
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay addresses the Palestine question within a European context. After reflecting on why Palestine has been widely embraced as a “universal cause,” the author explores its relationship to the “Jewish question” in the changed context following World War II: Whereas prior to the war it was the Jews who were perceived as a threat to European civilization, today it is the Muslim immigrants who have the scapegoat role. Also discussed are philosemitism (and its manifestations in the West) and anti-Semitism (as it relates to the Arab world), and how these phenomena have been impacted by the ongoing Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The essay concludes with “utopian musings” on possibilities for a future Palestinian-Israeli peace.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Mustafa Abbasi
  • Publication Date: 06-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: In studies of the 1948 war, little attention has been paid to the swift fall of one of Palestine's most storied cities, the walled and fortified seaport of Acre. This article, based on archival sources, focuses on the six months leading up to the city's conquest on 17 May 1948. Describing in detail the preparations of the city's defense, the various military and political forces involved, and the dissensions and rivalries among them, the article goes on to trace the tightening siege and mounting harassment of the city and the growing despair of its residents, the city's place in Haganah strategy, and the actual battle. Of particular interest is the role of the Druze Regiment stationed nearby. Most important, the author provides a clear understanding of why events unfolded as they did. ACRE IS ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS CITIES in the history of Palestine, its name associated with walls and fortifications that have withstood the attacks of powerful armies. In 1799, Napoleon and his army laid siege to the town but despite desperate attempts were forced to withdraw. In 1832, Ibrahim Pasha and the Egyptian army laid siege to Acre for a full six months before they could overcome the city's fierce resistance. Yet on 17 May 1948, three days after the establishment of the State of Israel, this city of walls and fortifications fell to the Haganah forces in a military operation that met with relatively little resistance. ACRE BEFORE THE WAR After suffering decline and stagnation under Egyptian rule (1832–40), Acre began a new chapter with its return to Ottoman rule, entering a process of slow recovery that accelerated during the reforms of the late Ottoman period and continued under the British Mandate. This was reflected in the town's demographic growth as recorded in the Mandate's three censuses: from 6,420 in the 1922 census to 8,165 in the 1931 census. In the 1946 census, the population stood at 13,560, of which 10,930 were Muslim, 2,490 were Christian, 90 were from other denominations, and 50 were Jews. In other words, Acre was almost totally Arab. The city of Acre was the administrative, political, and economic center of a large district of the same name that contained 63 villages in 1922 and a total population of 55,970 in 1944. The city was governed by families well known and established at least since late Ottoman times. Prominent among these were the Abu al-Huda, Sa`di, Shuqayri, and Khalifa families. Tawfiq Bey Abu al-Huda, a well-known city leader who had once been Acre's mayor, after 1948 became prime minister of Jordan. Shaykh As`ad al-Shuqayri, a senior religious figure, was a prominent local and national leader until his death in 1940. Of the Sa`di family, the most noteworthy was `Abd al-Fatah al-Sa`di, a dignitary who served as Acre's mayor until his death in 1927. A prominent member of the Khalifa family was Husni Khalifa, Acre's last Arab mayor and, as such, the one who had to cope with the catastrophe that befell the city in 1948. When clashes began to break out in Palestine following the 29 November 1947 passage of the UN partition plan, which divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, the fact that Acre was included in the Arab state gave its residents confidence during the following months. The hopes of the Galilee's inhabitants also hung on the city, regarded as the region's stronghold. The confidence that Acre would somehow be able to withstand the military forces of the Yishuv, a feeling that owed much to the town's glorious past, was soon revealed to be ill-founded. The conquest of Acre, which, after Jaffa, was the first major town outside the territory allotted to the Jewish state to fall to the Haganah forces, was an important event. Despite this, it has not yet been the subject of any in-depth or comprehensive research. Most sources—both Israeli and Palestinian —deal with the subject at the macro level and in the wider context of the 1948 war. This study is based primarily on archival material from the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the Haganah, and State of Israel archives, which contain extensive Hebrew and Arabic material that can shed new light on the subject. ORGANIZING FOR ACRE'S DEFENSE AND FAILED ATTEMPTS AT DIALOGUE The vote on the UN partition plan had been awaited by the Palestinian Arabs with dread, as it was well known that if the resolution passed, the country would be plunged into a full-blown crisis. On 27 November 1947, therefore, two days before the vote, the Arab Higher Committee (AHC), the highest political authority of the Arabs of Palestine, decreed the establishment of national committees in all the Arab cities and villages throughout the country. The AHC instructed the heads of public authorities to act immediately to establish these committees, even transmitting clear instructions regarding their composition, fields of operation, and functions. In Acre, as in other Palestinian towns, the task of establishing national committees was complicated by local power struggles that often hinged on political alignments, notably in relation to Haj Amin al-Husayni, the Mufti of Jerusalem and head of the AHC, and persons or groups opposed to him. From the beginning of the Mandate, Acre's leadership had been identified with the Palestinian opposition, and relations between the city's leaders (particularly Shaykh As`ad al-Shuqayri) and Haj Amin were habitually tense. The nearly month-long struggle over the composition of the Acre national committee between the oppositional camp led by the mayor, Husni Khalifa, and certain local and external forces aligned with Haj Amin was a testament to these tense relations.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Norbert Scholz
  • Publication Date: 06-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: REFERENCE AND GENERAL Hamoudi, Haider A. “Orientalism and the Fall and Rise of the Islamic State.” Middle East Law and Governance 2, no. 1 (10): 81–103. Smith, Robert O. “Toward a Lutheran Response to Christian Zionism.” Dialog 48, no. 3 (Fall 09): 279–91. HISTORY (THROUGH 1948) AND GEOGRAPHY Bouchard, Mathieu. “Les intellectuels et la question palestinienne (1945–1948).” CM, no. 72 (Win. 09): 19–27. Cahill, Richard A. “The Image of 'Black and Tans' in Late Mandate Palestine.” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 43–51. Chazan, Meir. “The Dispute in Mapai over 'Self-Restraint' and 'Purity of Arms' during the Arab Revolt.” Jewish Social Studies 15, no. 3 (Spr.–Sum. 09): 89–113. Cohen, Michael J. “Was the Balfour Declaration at Risk in 1923? Zionism and British Imperialism.” JIsH 29, no. 1 (Mar. 10): 79–98. Greenberg, Zalman, and Rakefet Kahanov. “The League of Nations Malaria Commission to Palestine” [in Hebrew]. Cathedra, no. 134 (Dec. 09): 49–64. Horowitz, Elliott. “'Remarkable Rather for Its Eloquence Than Its Truth': Modern Travelers Encounter the Holy Land—and Each Other's Accounts There.” Jewish Quarterly Review 99, no. 4 (Fall 09): 439–64. Kedar, Nir. “Democracy and Judicial Autonomy in Israel's Early Years.” IsS 16, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 25–46. Matossian, Bedross D. “The Young Turk Revolution: Its Impact on Religious Politics of Jerusalem (1908–1912).” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 18–33. Mazza, Roberto. “Antonio de la Cierva y Lewita: The Spanish Consul in Jerusalem 1914–1920.” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 34–42. Radzyner, Amihai. “A Constitution for Israel: The Design of the Leo Kohn Proposal, 1948.” IsS 16, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 1–24. Robson, Laura C. “Archeology and Mission: The British Presence in Nineteenth-Century Jerusalem.” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 5–17. Smith, Daniella O. “Hotel Design in British Mandate Palestine: Modernism and the Zionist Vision.” JIsH 29, no. 1 (Mar. 10): 99–123. PALESTINIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY Abu Dakka, Muhammad. “After the 6th Conference: Fatah's Priorities and Its New Political Rhetoric” [in Arabic]. Siyasat, no. 11 (10): 75–90. Bistofli, Robert. “Les chrétiens dans la résistance palestinienne.” CM, no. 72 (Win. 09): 135–38. Dajani, Mohammed. “Il est temps de voire naitre un nouveau parti palestinien.” CO, no. 96 (Oct. 09): 49–55. Dajani, Munther. “La bande de Gaza est dans les limbes.” CO, no. 96 (Oct. 09): 19–23. Frisch, Hillel. “Strategic Change in Terrorist Movements: Lessons from Hamas.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 32, no. 12 (09): 1049–65. Hilal, Jamil. “The Polarization of the Palestinian Political Field.” JPS 39, no. 3 (Spr. 10): 24–39. Hitti, Nassif. “La question palestinienne, une question résoluble mais un conflit structurant.” CO, no. 96 (Oct. 09): 37–48. Ibraghith, Sawfat. “La Palestine entre le marteau de l'occupation et l'enclume des divisions.” CO, no. 96 (Oct. 09): 27–36. Issa, Shawqi. “Palestine: Notes from the Inside.” Race and Class 51, no. 3 (Jan. 10): 66–72. Karmi, Ghada. “Interview: Ghada Karmi, a Voice from Exile.” MEP 17, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 82–89. Khalidi, Ahmad S. “An Evaluation of Salam Fayyad's Plan” [in Arabic]. MDF, nos. 80–81 (Fall–Win. 09–10): 26–28. Mi'ari, Mahmoud. “Transformation of Collective Identity in Palestine.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 44, no. 6 (Dec. 09): 579–98. Pradhan, Bansidhar. “Palestinian Politics in the Post-Arafat Period.” International Studies 45, no. 4 (Oct.–Dec. 08): 295–339. Raafat, Saleh, et al. (roundtable). “Palestinian Politics: The Dilemma and Setbacks of Options” [in Arabic]. Siyasat, no. 11 (10): 111–27. Talhami, Daoud. “The Palestinian People's Choices and the Lack of Solutions in the Short Run” [in Arabic]. MDF, nos. 80–81 (Fall–Win. 09–10): 10–20. Tilley, Virginia. “A Palestinian Declaration of Independence: Implications for Peace.” MEP 17, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 52–67. Younes, Anna-Esther. “A Gendered Movement for Liberation: Hamas's Women's Movement and Nation Building in Contemporary Palestine.” CAA 3, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 21–37. Zayd, Sayyid. “Local Authorities in Palestine: Revenues and Ways of Development” [in Arabic]. Siyasat, no. 11 (10): 139–47. JERUSALEM Jacir, Emily (interview). “Destination: Jerusalem Servees; Interview by Adila Laïdi-Hainieh.” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 59–67. Khamaisi, Rassem. “Resisting Creeping Urbanization and Gentrification in the Old City of Jerusalem and Its Surroundings.” CAA 3, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 53–70. Matossian, Bedross D. “The Young Turk Revolution: Its Impact on Religious Politics of Jerusalem (1908–1912).” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 18–33. Omer-Sherman, Ranen. “Yehuda Amichai, Jerusalem, and the Fate of Others.” Cross Currents 59, no. 4 (Dec. 09): 467–83. Robson, Laura C. “Archeology and Mission: The British Presence in Nineteenth-Century Jerusalem.” JQ, no. 40 (Win. 09–10): 5–17. Israeli Politics, Society, and Zionism Ben-Shalom, Uzi, and Shaul Fox. “Military Psychology in the Israel Defense Forces: A Perspective of Continuity and Change.” Armed Forces and Society 36, no. 1 (Oct. 09): 103–19. Benzion, Uri, Shosh Shahrabani, and Tal Shavit. “Emotions and Perceived Risks after the 2006 Israel-Lebanon War.” Mind and Society 8, no. 1 (Jun. 09): 21–41. Berent, Moshe. “The Ethnic Democracy Debate: How Unique Is Israel?” Israeli Sociology 11, no. 2 (09–10): 303–35. Chaaban, Abdel Hussein, et al. “Israel's Trial between Law and Politics” [in Arabic]. Dirasat Bahith 8, nos. 28–29 (Fall–Spr. 10): 39–67. Charbit, Denis. “La cause laïque en Israël est-elle perdue? Atouts, faiblesses et mutation.” Critique Internationale, no. 44 (Jul.–Sep. 09): 65–80. Cohen, Asher, and Bernard Susser. “Stability in the Haredi Camp and Upheavals in Nationalist Zionism: An Analysis of the Religious Parties in the 2009 Elections.” IsA 16, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 82–104. Conforti, Yitzhak. “East and West in Jewish Nationalism: Conflicting Types in the Zionist Vision?” Nations and Nationalism 16, no. 2 (Apr. 10): 201–19. Diskin, Abraham. “The Likud: The Struggle for the Centre.” IsA 16, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 51–68. Elias, Nelly, and Adriana Kemp. “The New Second Generation: Non-Jewish Olim, Black Jews and Children of Migrant Workers in Israel.” IsS 16, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 73–94. Friedberg, Chen, and Reuven Hazan. “Israel's Prolonged War against Terror: From Executive Domination to Executive-Legislative Dialogue.” Journal of Legislative Studies 15, no. 2–3 (Jun. 09): 257–76. Gavrieli-Nuri, Dalia. “Saying 'War,' Thinking 'Victory'—The Mythmaking Surrounding Israel's 1967 Victory.” IsS 16, no. 1 (Spr. 10): 95–114. Gerstenfeld, Manfred. “The Run-up to the Elections: A Political History of the 2009 Campaign.” IsA 16, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 14–30. Ghanem, As`ad, and Mohanad Mustafa. “Arab Local Government in Israel: Partial Modernisation as an Explanatory Variable for Shortages in Management.” Local Government Studies 35, no. 4 (Aug. 09): 457–73. Goldberg, Giora. “Kadima Goes Back: The Limited Power of Vagueness.” IsA 16, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 31–50. Halperin, Eran, Daniel Bar-Tal, et al. “Socio-Psychological Implications for an Occupying Society: The Case of Israel.” JPR 47, no. 1 (Jan. 10): 59–70. Halperin, Eran, Daphna Canetti, Stevan Hobfoll, et al. “Terror, Resource Gains and Exclusionist Political Attitudes among New Immigrants and Veteran Israelis.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35, no. 6 (Jul. 09): 997–1014.
  • Topic: Islam, War
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Publication Date: 09-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Matthew Hughes
  • Publication Date: 12-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This article examines British human rights abuses against noncombatants during the 1936-39 Arab Revolt in Palestine, contextualizing brutality in Palestine within British military practice and law for dealing with colonial rebellions in force at the time. It shows that the norms for such operations, and the laws that codified military actions, allowed for some level of systemic, systematic brutality in the form of "collective punishments" and "reprisals" by the British army. The article also details the effects of military actions on Palestinian civilians and rebels and describes torture carried out by the British on Palestinians. Finally, it highlights a methodological problem in examining these sorts of abuses: the paucity of official records and the mismatch between official and unofficial accounts of abuse during counterinsurgency.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Palestine, Arabia
  • Author: Mathias Mossberg
  • Publication Date: 12-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: In recent years, faced with a stalled Israeli-Palestinian peace process and Israel's continued creation of facts on the ground, many have started to question whether it is still possible to implement a viable two-state solution, which is the peace process's stated goal. A number of alternative ways forward in the conflict have therefore been suggested that go beyond the usual one-state solution. As part of an exercise of "thinking outside the box," JPS is running two essays that suggest unconventional frameworks for dealing with the conflict.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Peter Lagerquist
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Barred entry to Gaza during Operation Cast Lead, Western photojournalists and TV crews found themselves confined to the Israeli side of the border during the assault, peering along the barrels of IDF artillery. The following essay reflects on what was said and heard among them on a sunny day in January 2009, how they and local Israeli spectators related to the violence, and how these two perspectives were tacitly elided in photographs of the war.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, Gaza
  • Author: Nur Masalha
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The Nakba—a mini-holocaust for the Palestinians—is a key point in the history of Palestine and Israel: In 1948, a country and its people disappeared from international maps and dictionaries. The Nakba resulted in the destruction of much of Palestinian society, and much of the Arab and Islamic landscape was obliterated by the Israeli state—a state created by a an settler-colonial community that immigrated into Palestine in the period between 1882 and 1948. About 90 percent of the Palestinians were ethnically cleansed from the territory occupied by Israel in 1948–49—many by psychological warfare, a large number at gunpoint. After 1948, the historic Arabic names of geographical sites were replaced by newly coined Hebrew names, some of which resembled biblical names.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Mayssun Soukarieh
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This interview is part of a longer conversation that independent researcher Mayssun Soukarieh conducted with Rosemary Sayigh in Beirut during the summer of 2008. Sayigh, an anthropologist, oral historian, and researcher, was born in Birmingham in the United Kingdom and moved to Beirut in 1953, where she married the Palestinian economist Yusif Sayigh. She earned her master's degree from the American University of Beirut (AUB) in 1970 and was awarded a PhD from Hull University in Yorkshire in 1994. Since coming to Beirut fifty-six years ago, Sayigh has dedicated her life to writing and advocating for the Palestinians in Lebanon and elsewhere. She is the author of two groundbreaking books: Palestinians: From Peasants to Revolutionaries; A People's History (Zed Books, 1979) and Too Many Enemies: The Palestinian Experience in Lebanon (Zed Books, 1993). Although these conversations focused on Sayigh's scholarly work rather than her personal history, it became clear that the two are inextricably linked.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, America, Palestine, Lebanon
  • Author: Falestin Naïli
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This article deals with the memory narratives of women from the West Bank village of Artas who were displaced as a result of the 1967 war and are today living in working-class neighborhoods of eastern Amman. Imbued with nostalgia, their narratives extol the values that had governed life in the village before their dispersal, values that have proved to be important for survival in exile. The "peasant past" remembered by these women is examined in the dual context of the history of Artas and the migratory itineraries of the women, many of whom were displaced for a second time during the Gulf War of 1990-91.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Camille Mansour
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay looks at the Gaza war of winter 2008-2009 within its broader politico-military context. At the political level, Israel's post- 2005 disengagement policies and initiatives with regard to Gaza (and Egypt) and their implications relative to the future of the West Bank are emphasized. Militarily, in examining the background and objectives of the war, the author gives particular importance to the testing of lessons drawn from the past, especially the summer 2006 war on Lebanon, in the aim of regaining a kind of "Dahiya" deterrence based on reprisals against civilians rather than on battlefield victory.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, Egypt
  • Author: Mustafa Abbasi
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Tiberias was unique among Palestinian mixed cities for its unusually harmonious Arab-Jewish relations, even during periods of extreme tension like the 1936-39 Arab Revolt. Yet within hours of a brief battle in mid-April 1948, the town's entire Arab population was removed, mostly across the Transjordanian border, making Tiberias a wholly Jewish town overnight. In exploring how this took place, this article focuses on the Arab community's rigid social structure; the leadership's policy of safeguarding intercommunal relations at all costs, heightening local unpreparedness and isolating the town from the rest of Arab Palestine; the growing involvement of the local Jewish community with the Haganah's plans; and the British authorities' virtual abdication of responsibility as they began withdrawing their troops in the last month of the Mandate and as Plan Dalet was launched, engulfing the country in all-out war.
  • Topic: Civil Society, War
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Michael E. Deutsch, Erica Thompson
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: The case of Muhammad Salah, a Palestinian-American grocer and Chicago resident, is the longest-running terrorism case in the United States. He was brought to trial on terrorism-funding charges in October 2006 after a thirteen-year saga that began with his January 1993 arrest in Israel as the "world commander of Hamas" and that continued in the United States following his release from Israeli prison in late 1997. Though acquitted of all terrorism-related charges by a U.S. federal jury in Chicago in February 2007, Salah was convicted on a single count of obstruction of justice. In this exclusive report for JPS, Salah's lawyers recount the unfolding of this landmark and labyrinthine case, analyzing its legal underpinnings and implications. His prosecution served to advance new standards governing the admissibility of coerced confessions at trial and the use of secret evidence, while at the same time establishing new procedures for preventing the cross-examination of key witnesses and closing the courtroom to the press and public during crucial testimony. Even before his U.S. trial, his taped confession extracted under Shin Bet torture served as the linchpin of the U.S. government's investigation and prosecution of persons it suspected of providing material support for Palestinian resistance to Israeli occupation. More broadly, the years covered by the case show the erosion of the rule of law in the United States, as well as the melding of the discourses, strategies, tactics, and aims of U.S. and Israeli law enforcement and intelligence bodies long before the post-9/11 launch of the "global war on terror." Part I of this two-part account lays the ground for the 2006-7 Chicago trial, covering the period of Salah's arrest, interrogation, and imprisonment in Israel and the investigations and legal proceedings against him upon his return. Part II will focus on the crafting of the case by the Justice Department under Pres. George W. Bush and the trial itself.
  • Topic: Terrorism, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Israel, Chicago
  • Author: Hala Halim
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: In awarding Sahar Khalifeh's Sura wa ayquna wa 'ahdun qadim (2002) the American University in Cairo's 2006 Naguib Mahfouz Medal, the jury aptly lauded this "narrative of loss par excellence . . . [as] simultaneously historiciz[ing] for the current Palestinian struggle while summoning a whole array of the symbolic." From its very title, The Image, the Icon, and the Covenant divulges its biblical symbolism, which will be made to bear here further layers of political allusion. Ostensibly the story of a doomed love and the desperate pursuit of its traces decades later, this is a novel of "national allegory," as in Fredric Jameson's formulation.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Palestine, Jerusalem
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: As minister of state in the Northern Ireland Office in 1994, Michael Ancram was the first British minister to meet with Sinn Fin and the Irish Republican Army (IRA) in 25 years, overseeing talks between Sinn Fein and the British government that began the peace process that ultimately resulted in the decommissioning of the Provisional Irish Republican Army in 2005 and the formal implementation of power-sharing in 2007. This essay, entitled "The Middle East Peace Process: The Case for Jaw-Jaw not War-War," first appeared in Accord (Issue 19), Conciliation Resources, March 2008 and was circulated by Conflicts Forum. The full text is available online at www.conflictsforum.org.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Ireland
  • Author: Muhammad Hallaj
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Recollections of the Nakba through a Teenager's Eyes Muhammad Hallaj Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 1 (Autumn 2008), p. 66Palestinian Voices Muhammad Hallaj, a political scientist specializing in Palestinian affairs and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, was born in Qalqilya, Palestine, in 1932. After earning his doctorate from the University of Florida in 1966, he taught at Florida's Jacksonville University and then at the University of Jordan in Amman. Hallaj returned to the West Bank in 1975, where he served as dean of social sciences and later as academic vice president of Birzeit University before becoming the first director of the Council for Higher Education in the West Bank and Gaza. While taking a leave to go to Harvard University as a visiting scholar in 1983, Hallaj was denied a visa to return to the West Bank. Among the positions he has held since then have been editor of Palestine Perspectives (1983-1991), member (and subsequent head) of the Palestinian delegation on Refugees to the multilateral peace talks following the Madrid conference (1991-1993), and executive director of the Palestine Center and the Jerusalem Fund. At the request of JPS, Dr. Hallaj shared his memories of the 1948 war and its aftermath, which he experienced as a high school student in Jaffa, and then in Qalqilya and Tulkarm.
  • Topic: United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Palestine
  • Author: Haim Bresheeth
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Hochberg: In Spite of Partition: Jews, Arabs, and the Limits of Separatist Imagination Reviewed by Haim BresheethJournal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 38, no. 1 (Autumn 2008), p. 90Recent Books In Spite of Partition: Jews, Arabs, and the Limits of Separatist Imagination, by Gil Z. Hochberg. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007. xiii + 141 pages. Notes to p. 165. Bibliography to p. 183. Index to p. 192. $35.00 cloth. Haim Bresheeth, professor of media and cultural studies at the University of East London, is co-editor of "The Conflict and Contemporary Visual Culture in Palestine Israel," Third Text 20, nos. 3-4, Oct. 2006; Cinema and Memory: Dangerous Liaisons [in Hebrew] (Jerusalem: Zalman Shazar Center, 2004); and The Gulf War and the New World Order (London: Zed Books, 1992).
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Israel, London, Palestine, Arabia