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  • Author: Bülent Aras
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: In an age of war on terror, Turkey pursues its own war against the escalating PKK (Kurdistan Workers' Party) terror. The dynamics that led to a parliamentary motion for a cross border operation into Northern Iraq will have implications for Turkey's relations with Washington, Baghdad and other capitals in the region. The Expanded Meeting of the Neighboring Countries of Iraq held in Istanbul on 2-3 November 2007 coincided with Turkey's intensive regional diplomacy. There are serious challenges to ending PKK terrorism and finding a lasting solution to the Kurdish problem. The Erdogan Government must fight terrorism in a way that will not jeopardize the process of democratization and political reforms in Turkey.
  • Topic: Terrorism, War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey
  • Author: Gökhan Bacik
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The recent rapprochement between Turkey and Syria is an important development in the regional politics. An analysis might give a clue to systemic and domestic dynamics interacting to lead to lasting amicable relations between the two states. Naturally both countries are motivated by changing regional and international forces. The article looks at the dynamics of rapprochement between two states. Major issues, such as the role of new international environment, the role of Iraqi crisis are also analyzed in the same vein.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey, Syria
  • Author: Selin M. Bolme
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The adoption of the Armenian Genocide Resolution in the US House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee, doubled with the highly criticized US policy towards the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) has placed the İncirlik Air Base at the top of the Turkish political agenda. The İncirlik Air Base has always played a key role in the Turkish-US relations due to its strategic location in the region. The base has been used by the U.S. in many regional events and operations. In every case, its use has brought the status and functions of İncirlik to the fore. However, it is difficult to find any research that particularly focuses on the İncirlik Air Base and its history. Hence, there are many speculations on the status and the functions of the base. The purpose of this article is briefly trace the history of the İncirlik Air Base and describe the obligations of Turkey and the rights of the US under the existing agreements. In the final part, the last crises will be analyzed to assess its impact on Turkish-American relations.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, Turkey, Armenia
  • Author: Mehmet Ogutcu, Xin Ma
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze the expanding energy linkages between China, one of the most dynamic major consumers, the Middle East, a leading petroleum producer, and the CIS, a core non-OPEC emerging producer, not only because they are well established oil exporting regions, but also because of their geopolitical relevance to China as key players in a possible energy corridor linking China with the Gulf at some point in the future. The paper concludes that the economics and geopolitics of energy supply for China dictate different approaches to each of these regions, with the CIS territory ensuring that its energy to be transported across the ocean where China could be vulnerable to potential maritime disruption in the event of serious international disputes, and with the Gulf offering more flexible commercial arrangements.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: China, Middle East
  • Author: Saltanat Berdikeeva
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This paper examines the evolving energy policy of Turkmenistan and how it has changed in the wake of the late Turkmen President Saparmurad Niyazov. The author argues that little has changed since Niyazov's death, though unavoidable choices will force his successors to drive Turkmenistan's energy policy in a new direction. But despite the efforts of the current Turkmen leadership to embrace a more liberal energy policy, coupled with some modest domestic reforms, the extent to which new president Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov is willing to follow through on initial changes is not clear. In the end, Turkmenistan's ability to successfully tap its energy potential will depend on a complex set of factors, including internal dynamics that affect the country's foreign and energy policies and an inevitable pipeline dilemma with associated issues with its energy partners. As Turkmenistan nears a crossroads in its energy plan strategy, there are many risks, but there are also opportunities for Western countries and companies.
  • Topic: Energy Policy
  • Political Geography: Turkmenistan
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Salwa Ismail, Political Life in Cairo's New Urban Quarters: Encountering the Everyday State University of Minnesota Press, 2006, 264 p, $22,50, ISBN 0-8166-4912-X by Joanna Odencrantz M. Hakan Yavuz (ed.), The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the AK Party University of Utah Press, 2006, 368 pp., $25, ISBN 978-0-87480-863-6 by Barış Kesgin Guenter Lewy, The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide The University of Utah Press, 2005, 370 p., $23, ISBN 978-0-87480-890-2 by Fatih Balcı and Arif Akgül Jillian Schwedler, Faith in Moderation: Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen Cambridge University Press, 2006, 276 p., $29.99, ISBN 0-521-85113-0 by Hüseyin Alptekin.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Yusuf Yazar, Hasan Hüseyin Erkaya
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey is an energy importer. It has a growing economy demanding about 7 % more energy each year. It has about 41,000 MW electric power generation capacity, and this capacity must be doubled in the next 10 year to meet the demand. Natural gas has a significant share in electricity production, which should be reduced. Domestic energy supplies and renewable energies should be employed in meeting increasing energy demand. Turkey has taken major steps toward liberalization of its energy market. Private enterprises are expected to invest in the energy market in a timely manner. The country also has the potential to be an "energy corridor" between the gas and oil producing countries and the importing European countries.
  • Topic: Oil
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: İbrahim S. Arınç
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The EU depends highly on Russian gas and this dependency is expected to increase in the following decades. Conversely, natural gas export revenues significantly contribute to the Russian budget, making it dependent on gas sales to Europe. The relationship between the EU and Russia is therefore one of interdependence. Turkey's impact on this relationship has the potential to benefit all parties, as its strong ties with both the EU and Russia give it a unique position in the region. For the EU, Turkey could contribute to the diversification of supply, and secure transit pipelines connecting Middle Eastern and Caspian reserves to the EU. For Russia, Turkey could provide an export outlet for Russian gas to the Mediterranean and an alternative transit route to Europe.
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Orhan Yılmaz
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey's geographical location on the trade routes, adjacent to energy resources, and its emergence as an energy transit corridor, have made Turkey an attractive center for the investment of international capital. Turkey contains 72% of the world's boron reserves, which are concentrated in eight countries in the world; the USA and Russia have the next largest deposits. Boron, with its various applications and diverse product range, is an essential raw material in most industries. 85% of it is consumed in glass, fiberglass, insulating glass, detergent, ceramics and agriculture, with a total consumption of 3,500,000 metric tons (1,800,000 ton B2O3) per annum around the world. Turkey, with the Eti Maden, a wholly state-owned company, has become the leader in the boron business not only in terms of its reserves but also in production, sales and profitability since 2005. The primary target now is to make Turkey, the leader of world boron business, and an emerging terminal where energy lines intersect, a production base in the sectors identified in growth strategies.
  • Topic: Agriculture
  • Political Geography: Russia, Turkey
  • Author: Xin Ma, Mehmet Öğütçü
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Energy-deficit China and resourceful Russia/Central Asia have been engaged most intensely over the past decade in a complex relationship involving expanded oil and gas trade, cross investment, pipelines and geopolitical ambitions. Today, Central Asia represents for China both a potential market for its growing economy and a source of strategically important raw materials. It is also important for ensuring stability and security in China's restless Xinjiang- Uyghur Autonomous region on the other side of the border. The verdict is not out yet, but clearly China has made significant progress in achieving its goals vis-à-vis Central Asia, namely (i) support regional stability, (ii) obtain access to energy resources on a mutually beneficial basis, and (iii) further develop economic relations with region. The Russia factor is omnipresent and swings from confrontation to co-operation as national interests and regional politics dictate.
  • Topic: Oil
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, Central Asia