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  • Author: Rafaqat Islam
  • Publication Date: 02-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Global Regional Review (GRR)
  • Abstract: National security implications of the rising government debt in Pakistan increase concerns about military powers such as the USA and industrial giants such as Japan. This paper examines the unprecedented rise and abundant use of debt by governments since 2008. Apart from economic sustainability risks of the debt, the paper also traces history of Pakistan’s search for national security since 1947. Pakistan achieved nuclear capability in the face of opposition from the USA. There are fears that in the presence of huge external debts and low capacity to service them, Pakistan may not be able to take independent decisions regarding national security. The paper offers recommendations to overcome the threats.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Pakistan
  • Author: Ayaz Ahmad
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Global Regional Review (GRR)
  • Abstract: Orientalist approach to Central Asia especially Bukhara in our historical references present a romantic picture. This paper takes publications and printing as the indicator of intellectual maturity of the population and progressive zeitgeist in socio-political life. Analysis of historical events and facts reveal very little appetite of reading, almost universal ignorance and scarcity of written/printed books. The transformation of Central Asia took place after introduction of presses during the Tsarist control. With the arrival of printing, not only literacy increased but also the scope, number and range of topics expanded. As a result of printing/publication, the Jadidist ideology emerged and opposed the Qadimist status quo. Ultimately the Jadids prevailed. Therefore, the paper establishes that socio-political awakening and increase in printing/publication are linked. The paper recommends revisiting errors in the representation of Central Asia in our accounts of history.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Central Asia
  • Author: Masood Ur Rehman Khattak
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Global Regional Review (GRR)
  • Abstract: Pakistan is successfully fighting against militants in its tribal areas. The threat in tribal areas has complicated security situation. Many terrorist groups allegedly operate in FATA, e.g. Hafiz Gul Buhadur Group, Molvi Nazir Group, the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, and the Haqqani Network/ Afghan Taliban. The operation Zarb-I-Azb was a huge success. Pakistan’s armydestroyed many IED Factories, dismantled training Centers of the Suicide Bombers run by different terrorist groups and TTP Run Media Centers, exposed detention centers of militants and recovered foreign currency during Operation Zarb-i-Azb. For long term peace and stability in tribal areas, the government must carry out reconstruction and development programs on a large scale. There is a need to rebuild the capacity of the local population. Free education, rehabilitation and de-radicalization programs must be initiated to mainstream FATA youth.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Pakistan
  • Author: Piret Kuusik
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: International Centre for Defence and Security - ICSD
  • Abstract: The Brexit process is changing the balance of power and coalition politics in the European Union. This report analyzes the shared interests and aims of the six Nordic and Baltic member states (NB6, consisting of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden) in the EU, focusing on three broad areas: open society, open economy and shared security. The authors argue that, in a changing Union and an increasingly volatile global context, it is time for the Nordic-Baltic member states to cooperate more strategically in matters where common positions can be identified, such as protection of shared values, reform of the eurozone, free trade, digitalisation and regional security. Their cooperation needs to be flexible and open to like-minded countries beyond the NB6 group. One of the groupings that has received much limelight is the new ‘Hanseatic League’, consisting of the Nordic and Baltic member states, the Netherlands and Ireland. The authors highlight the limited nature and flexible format of this grouping. The report ends with a set of policy recommendations regarding future Nordic-Baltic cooperation in the EU.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Brexit
  • Political Geography: Baltic Sea
  • Author: Piret Pernik
  • Publication Date: 12-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: International Centre for Defence and Security - ICSD
  • Abstract: This is the first publicly available comparative study of the military cyber organisations in five European countries: Estonia, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway. The study examines strategic guidelines, political authorisation of international deployments, organisational set-up, the chain of command, and key functions of three categories of military cyberspace forces: cyber commands (Estonia, the Netherlands, Norway), military cyber services (Germany), and cyber defence divisions (Finland). The report discusses rationales for the establishment of each specific organisational set-up, and considers the advantages and disadvantages of these different models. It also presents policy recommendations in these areas (political authorisation, organisation, chain of command, functions)
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Tomas Jermalavicius
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: International Center on Nonviolent Conflict (ICNC)
  • Abstract: For quite some time, territorial defence seemed to be an obsolete need, a leftover from the Cold War era. However, Russia’s overt and covert uses of military force—against Georgia in 2008 and against Ukraine since 2014—have profoundly altered the security environment and threat perceptions in the region and, indeed, across the entire Alliance. Has this new situation also provided opportunities for the Baltic states and Poland to enhance their cooperation in their defence policies? What are the factors that enable and facilitate the advancement of cooperation in this format—and are there any obstacles to be removed? Ultimately, if these four countries on NATO’s northeast flank are functioning smoothly as a quartet, what are the political and military steps they could take to bring their cooperation to a new and enhanced level? Drawing upon a series of interviews with defence policymakers and military practitioners in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, this policy paper examines the drivers, pressures and opportunities for closer defence cooperation among the Baltic states and Poland with the aim of articulating some recommendations as to how NATO’s “northeast quartet” could work together more harmoniously
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Donald Kerwin
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Migration Studies of New York
  • Abstract: On October 10, 2018, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued its long-anticipated proposed rule on inadmissibility on public charge grounds.[1] The rule seeks to “better ensure” that applicants for admission to the United States as immigrants (permanent residents) and nonimmigrants (temporary residents),[2] as well as applicants for adjustment to lawful permanent resident (LPR) status within the United States, will be “self-sufficient” and “not depend on public resources to meet their needs, but rather rely on their own capabilities and the resources of their family, sponsor, and private organizations.”[3] Under the proposed rule, US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) officers would consider receipt of cash benefits and, in a break from the past, non-cash medical, housing, and food benefits in making public charge determinations. The proposed DHS rule details the factors — positive and negative — to be weighed in these decisions.
  • Topic: International Relations, Immigration
  • Political Geography: America
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Migration Studies of New York
  • Abstract: In late 2017, the Kino Border Initiative (KBI), the Center for Migration Studies of New York (CMS), and the Office of Justice and Ecology (OJE) of the Jesuit Conference of Canada and the United States initiated a study to examine the characteristics of deportees and the effects of deportation, and to place them in a broader policy context.[1]
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 11-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Migration Studies of New York
  • Abstract: The 2018 International Migration Policy Report: Perspectives on the Content and Implementation of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration features several articles focusing upon issues discussed and negotiated by United Nations (UN) member states in producing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration (“the Compact”). The final draft of the Global Compact was agreed to in New York by 191 member states on July 13, 2018, with final adoption of the document set for December 2018 at an intergovernmental conference in Marrakesh, Morocco
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Migration Studies of New York
  • Abstract: The US refugee resettlement program should be a source of immense national pride. The program has saved countless lives, put millions of impoverished persons on a path to work, self-sufficiency, and integration, and advanced US standing in the world. Its beneficiaries have included US leaders in science, medicine, business, the law, government, education, and the arts, as well as countless others who have strengthened the nation’s social fabric through their work, family, faith, and community commitments. Refugees embody the ideals of freedom, endurance, and self-sacrifice, and their presence closes the gap between US ideals and its practices. For these reasons, the US Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) has enjoyed strong, bipartisan support for nearly 40 years
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus