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  • Author: Dan Connell
  • Publication Date: 11-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Some two million Sudanese—nearly 8% of the country's population—have lost their lives to war or famine-related causes since 1983, when fighting resumed in Africa's longest running civil war. Millions more have been displaced, many fleeing to neighboring states. Despite competing peace initiatives on the table today, there is no end in sight to the conflict. Instead, the prospects are for intensified combat as the war spreads to new areas of the country.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Author: George Ann Potter, Linda Farthing
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: In September 2000, Bolivia, South America's poorest country, was rocked by a series of civilian protests, including roadblocks throughout the country. Unionists, teachers, peasant coca farmers, and others have demanded that the Bolivian and U.S. governments stop trying to completely eradicate coca growing and cease construction of three new military bases in the Chapare region. Among the other demands, protesters also want the government to improve alternative development programs in the coca growing region. In mid-October, the two sides reached a 19-point “truce”, but protesters vowed to reinstate the roadblocks in 30 days if the government did not adhere to the the agreement.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Democratization, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, South America, Latin America, Bolivia
  • Author: Abigail Abrash
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Papua is a leading example of a failed decolonization process. Indonesian integration-cum-colonization of Papua—implemented with U.S. complicity—has amounted to an undeclared war against the indigenous population. Indonesia's military buildup and East Timor-style militia activities threaten to destabilize Papua and the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Environment, Ethnic Conflict, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, Southeast Asia, Papua
  • Author: Cynthia Enloe
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Feminist analysis reveals some of the chief causes and costs of militarizing U.S. foreign policies. Civilian policymakers' desire to appear “manly” is a chief reason for the Pentagon's remarkable influence over current U.S. foreign policy. U.S. military policies today marginalize women and entrench the masculinization of political life at home and abroad.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Gender Issues
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Miriam Young
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Sri Lanka's troubles are rooted in the practices of its former colonial power and in unaddressed political and economic grievances following independence. This is a war that takes few prisoners; both parties practice blatant disregard for international humanitarian law, causing ongoing civilian suffering and massive internal displacement. The war has eroded Sri Lanka's social achievements in health and education.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, South Asia, Sri Lanka
  • Author: Coletta A. Youngers
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Since taking office in 1990, President Fujimori has concentrated power in his own hands, greatly strengthened the role of the armed forces and SIN, and thwarted political opposition through bribery and intimidation. The recent Peruvian elections failed to meet even the most minimal international standards for a free and fair process, and Fujimori embarked upon an unconstitutional third term, which left the country deeply polarized. Fujimori's decision to call for new elections and dismantle SIN is an important step toward putting Peru back on the path to democratization; however, the situation remains very tense and the position of the military and intelligence services uncertain.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: United States, South America, Latin America, Peru
  • Author: Philip S. Robertson
  • Publication Date: 09-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: A world-class human rights abuser, Burma's military junta is condemned both by the UN Human Rights Commission—every year since 1989—and by the International Labor Organization for its systematic use of forced labor. The SPDC continues to refuse to recognize the results of the 1990 elections, won overwhelmingly by the National League for Democracy (NLD), and has imprisoned over 55 NLD parliamentarians. Economic sanctions by the U.S. and other nations continue to pressure the SPDC regime, despite a recent ruling by the Supreme Court overturning the Massachusetts Burma law.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, Burma, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Carlos Salinas
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Violence and warfare in Colombia are often blamed on the drug trade, but the roots run much deeper. The overwhelming majority of victims are noncombatant civilians. Since 1987, more than 35,000 noncombatant civilians have been murdered or have “disappeared.” Despite rich natural resources, Colombia's wealth is unevenly distributed, with some sectors of the population in deep misery.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, Colombia, South America, Latin America
  • Author: Erika Weinthal
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: U.S. foreign policy is geared toward oil development in Central Asia. The Aral Sea crisis has offered a safe issue-area in which to exert U.S. foreign policy in Central Asia. Effectively mitigating the Aral Sea crisis in Central Asia has proven more difficult than originally conceived by U.S. and Central Asian policymakers.
  • Topic: Security, Environment, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United States, Central Asia, Asia
  • Author: Stephen Zunes, Tom Barry, Martha Honey, As'ad Abukhalil
  • Publication Date: 02-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: U.S. involvement with Lebanon has extended over several decades. The Middle East was a key battleground during the cold war era, the legacy of which continues to this day. The U.S. sent combat troops into Lebanon in 1958 and again in 1982 to support unpopular right-wing presidents. The U.S. has largely supported Israeli attacks against Lebanon, furthering Lebanese resentment of the U.S. role in the region.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East, Lebanon