Search

You searched for: Political Geography Global Focus Remove constraint Political Geography: Global Focus
Number of results to display per page

Search Results

  • Author: Tuba İnal
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Th is article seeks to explain two related theoretical questions by looking at the treatment of two related practices of war, pillage and rape, by international law: How does change, particularly legalized regime change, happen in international relations and what is the role of “gender” as a category in this process of change? The argument here is that three conditions are necessary for the emergence of a legalized prohibition regime: Firstly, states must believe that they can comply with the prohibition because non-compliance is costly. Secondly, a normative context conducive to the idea that the particular practice is abnormal/undesirable is necessary. Thirdly, actors actively propagating these ideas to promote the creation of a particular regime should exist. The 100-year temporal difference between the emergence of the regimes against pillage and rape reveals the role of gender in this process.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Law, War Crimes
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Burak Ülman, Evren Balta-Paker, Muhammed A. Ağcan
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article examines the main assumptions of neo-realism and neo-liberalism from the perspective of a critical realist philosophy of science. Although neo-realist and neo-liberal theories of inter- national relations (IR) disagree on some issues, they do have a common ontological understanding of “the international” based heavily on the principle of anarchy. The centrality of and emphasis on anarchy, in turn, creates a monolithic, unhistorical and asocial idea of the international. This article argues that a critical realist philosophy of science, as proposed by Roy Bhaskar, provides a good framework to pursue the ontological interrogation required to deconstruct the anarchy centered idea of the international assumed by rationalist/positivist theories. Critical realism allows us to identify the crucial error that the rationalist/positivist tradition commits: which is to fall into the trap of ‘epistemic fallacy’, where ontological questions concerning the nature of being are posed and answered in epistemological terms. Critical realism not only provides a tool to investigate the ontological assumptions of mainstream IR theories but also to propose a differentiated and stratified ontology that can open the door to the mutual recognition of alternative perspectives.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Sinem Akgül-Açikmese
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article compares the perceptive approach of neoclassical realist security understanding with the discursive constructivist methodology of the Copenhagen School in analyzing the emergence of security threats. It departs from the assumption that these theories divergent in their perspectives on the content of security threats as well as security actors are comparable since they reveal methodological commonalities. The main emphasis of this article is that while partly adopting the perceptive subjectivity of neoclassical realism, the Copenhagen School has further developed an alternative model of discursive intersubjectivity in analyzing security threats. In this context, it will first cover the discussions on the content of security threats in Security Studies literature. It will then compare the assumptions of various realist understandings of security on the content and emergence of security threats, with a particular focus on the perceptive perspective of neoclassical realism. Finally, it will study the threat approach of the Copenhagen School through its securitization theory with insights from the speech-act theory, political theory and discourse analysis, in comparison with neoclassical realism.
  • Topic: Security, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Umut Aydin
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In the last few decades, globalization has led to the emergence of complex international problems and new methods of cooperation to deal with them such as Transnational Regulatory Networks (TRNs). In this article I argue that dominant rationalist theories of International Relations such as neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism have difficulty accounting for the emergence of TRNS and their effects on state behavior. Thus, there is an increasing need to rethink our concepts and theories of international cooperation with the spread of TRNs. 6 e article explores this argument by focusing on cooperation on competition policy in the International Competition Network.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Cooperation, Regulation
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Yasemin Kaya, Sezgin Kaya
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The effectiveness of international environmental regimes is a subject that is becoming more and more important within the International Relations discipline. While one of the reasons of that is the increasing interest of the international community in environmental issues, the other reason is that the environmental issues have turned into a problem that has a direct impact on the relations among the states. However, there is no consensus on approaches about the assessment of the effectiveness of the environmental regimes. This study aims to consider the different approaches and views that are important in terms of the assessment of the effectiveness of environmental regimes. In this framework, the approaches related to regime effectiveness are assessed, and the outlines of theoretical and methodological framework that can be used in the analysis of regime effectiveness are tried to be defined.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Şûle Anlar Güneş
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: “Procedures and Mechanisma on Compliance Under the Kyoto Protocol” was adopted by the Kyoto Protocol First Meeting of Parties at Montreal in 2005. The Compliance Committee which constitutes of Facilitative Branch and Enforcement Branch, started to operate in 2006. While the Enforcement Branch deserves a special attention due to its innovative quasi-judicial characteristics, the mandate of the Facilitative Branch have many similarities with the Non-Compliance Procedures which is already applicable for various Multilateral Environmental Agreements, predominantly the Montreal Protocol. The outcomes of the ongoing climate change negotiations for post-2012 will possibly shape and guide the necessary changes to the Kyoto Protocol compliance regime as well. Thereupon, the purpose of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of the compliance mechanism; the mandates used by the Facilitative and Enforcement Branches; the legal nature of the decisions taken by the Compliance Committee.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Çiğdem Aydin Koyuncu
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Laura Sjoberg editörlüğünde hazırlanan dört ana bölüm altında on üç makaleden oluşan bu derleme kitap, toplumsal cinsiyet (gender) perspektifiyle uluslararası güvenlik kuramlarının analizini/eleştirisini ve uluslararası güvenlikle toplumsal cinsiyet arasındaki ilişkinin değerlendirilmesini amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmada, özellikle toplumsal cinsiyet konusunun uluslararası güvenlik alanında önemli bir yere sahip olmakla birlikte gerek kuramda gerekse uygulamada ihmal edildiği tartışılmaktadır. 2000 yılında BM Güvenlik Konseyi\'nin toplumsal cinsiyetin barışın korunması, mültecilerin idaresi, çatışma sonrası silahsızlanma, savaş sırasında savaş dışı olanların korunması gibi konulara bütünleşmesini içeren 1325 sayılı kararı kabul etmesi, küresel güvenliğin tüm alanlarında aktörleri toplumsal cinsiyet konularına yönelik daha duyarlı olmaya yöneltmiştir. Bu kitap giriş kısmında da belirtildiği gibi, geleneksel güvenlik çalışmaları ile feminist güvenlik çalışmaları arasındaki iletişimi nicelik ve nitelik açısından arttırmayı, toplumsal cinsiyet analizlerinin uluslararası güvenlik çalışmalarındaki önemini ortaya koymayı ve feminist yaklaşımların güvenlik çalışmalarındaki yerini genişletmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Kitap sadece toplumsal cinsiyete yönelik varsayılan ilgisizliği sorgulamak ve toplumsal cinsiyetin güvenlik çalışmalarının bir alt başlığı olduğunu iddia etmek amacında değildir. Çalışmaya katkıda bulunanlar, toplumsal cinsiyetin kavramsal, ampirik ve normatif olarak uluslararası güvenlik çalışmalarında gerekli olduğunu ortaya koymaya çalışmaktadır. Ayrıca uluslararası güvenlik kuramları ve güvenliğin temel konuları eleştirel bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmakta, güvenlik alanında kadınların birer aktör olarak giderek artan rolleri analiz edilmekte ve günümüz güvenlik sorunları toplumsal cinsiyetçi bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirilmektedir.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Nicolas Guilhot
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Columbia University Press
  • Abstract: The 1954 conference on theory, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, featured a who’s who of scholars and practitioners debating the foundations of international relations theory. Assembling his own team of experts, all of whom have struggled with this legacy, Nicolas Guilhot revisits a seminal event and its odd rejection of scientific rationalism. Far from being a spontaneous development, these essays argue, the emergence of a “realist” approach to international politics, later codified at the conference, was deliberately triggered by the Rockefeller Foundation. The organization was an early advocate of scholars who opposed the idea of a “science” of politics, pursuing, for the sake of disciplinary autonomy, a vision of politics as a prerational and existential dimension that could not be “solved” by scientific means. As a result, this nascent theory was more a rejection of behavioral social science than the birth of one of its specialized branches. The archived conversations reproduced here, along with unpublished papers by Hans Morgenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Paul Nitze, speak to this defensive stance. International relations theory is critically linked to the context of postwar liberalism, and the contributors explore how these origins have played out in political thought and American foreign policy.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, History
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Identifier: 9780231526449
  • Publication Identifier Type: ISBN
  • Author: Thomas Risse
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Columbia University Press
  • Abstract: Governance discourse centers on an “ideal type” of modern statehood that exhibits full internal and external sovereignty and a legitimate monopoly on the use of force. Yet modern statehood is an anomaly, both historically and within the contemporary international system, while the condition of “limited statehood,” wherein countries lack the capacity to implement central decisions and monopolize force, is the norm. Limited statehood, argue the authors in this provocative collection, is in fact a fundamental form of governance, immune to the forces of economic and political modernization. Challenging common assumptions about sovereign states and the evolution of modern statehood, particularly the dominant paradigms supported by international relations theorists, development agencies, and international organizations, this volume explores strategies for effective and legitimate governance within a framework of weak and ineffective state institutions. Approaching the problem from the perspectives of political science, history, and law, contributors explore the factors that contribute to successful governance under conditions of limited statehood. These include the involvement of nonstate actors and nonhierarchical modes of political influence. Empirical chapters analyze security governance by nonstate actors, the contribution of publicprivate partnerships to promote the United Nations Millennium Goals, the role of business in environmental governance, and the problems of Western state-building efforts, among other issues. Recognizing these forms of governance as legitimate, the contributors clarify the complexities of a system the developed world must negotiate in the coming century.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, History
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Identifier: 9780231521871
  • Publication Identifier Type: ISBN
  • Author: Richard K. Betts
  • Publication Date: 12-2011
  • Content Type: Book
  • Institution: Columbia University Press
  • Abstract: While American national security policy has grown more interventionist since the Cold War, Washington has also hoped to shape the world on the cheap. Misled by the stunning success against Iraq in 1991, administrations of both parties have pursued ambitious aims with limited force, committing the country's military frequently yet often hesitantly, with inconsistent justification. These ventures have produced strategic confusion, unplanned entanglements, and indecisive results. This collection of essays by Richard K. Betts, a leading international politics scholar, investigates the use of American force since the end of the Cold War, suggesting guidelines for making it more selective and successful. Betts brings his extensive knowledge of twentieth century American diplomatic and military history to bear on the full range of theory and practice in national security, surveying the Cold War roots of recent initiatives and arguing that U.S. policy has always been more unilateral than liberal theorists claim. He exposes mistakes made by humanitarian interventions and peace operations; reviews the issues raised by terrorism and the use of modern nuclear, biological, and cyber weapons; evaluates the case for preventive war, which almost always proves wrong; weighs the lessons learned from campaigns in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Vietnam; assesses the rise of China and the resurgence of Russia; quells concerns about civil-military relations; exposes anomalies within recent defense budgets; and confronts the practical barriers to effective strategy. Betts ultimately argues for greater caution and restraint, while encouraging more decisive action when force is required, and he recommends a more dispassionate assessment of national security interests, even in the face of global instability and unfamiliar threats.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: United States, Global Focus
  • Publication Identifier: 9780231521888
  • Publication Identifier Type: ISBN