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  • Author: Selin M. Bolme, Mevlut Cavusoglu
  • Publication Date: 03-2020
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This paper aims to analyze Britain’s relations with the former colonies in the Gulf after the termination of the British protectorate in the Persian Gulf and discuss how the British colonial ties influenced the post-colonial relations with the Arab Gulf States. Archive documents, official papers and secondary sources were used in order to determine and compare the relations in pre/post withdrawal periods and the results were analyzed in frame of the Post-colonial theory. The main argument of this study is that the British colonial relations and ties, which had been constructed in political, military, economic and institutional spheres in the colonial era, were significant determinants in reshaping the new British foreign policy towards the Arab Gulf States. Britain, who successfully adopted the colonial relations in the new term, managed to preserve its interests after the withdrawal and even extended some of them in certain fields such as the oil sector.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, History, Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Britain, Europe, Persian Gulf
  • Author: Münevver cebeci
  • Publication Date: 12-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Arguing that the European Union’s (EU) imposition of its norms and values on Turkey is a continuation of the logic of “European standards of civilisation”, this article offers a second reading of European discourses about Turkey. It regards enlargement conditionality as an apparatus through which the EU constructs its own identity as “ideal” and its others as imperfect. Thus, it attempts to deconstruct the EU’s standards of civilisation through three major lines on which they are built: the authoritative application of standards, unequal treatment and a geopolitical approach – as set by Hartmut Behr in 2007.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Geopolitics, Civilization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, European Union
  • Author: Özgün Sarimehmet Duman
  • Publication Date: 09-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article offers an inquiry into the increasing importance of privatisation policies in the European Union (EU). It evaluates the emphasis on international competitiveness and market efficiency to offer a comparative analysis of commodification, marketisation, liberalisation and privatisation policies in the pre- and post-crisis EU. It states that the EU introduced new mechanisms to explicitly promote privatisation policies in its member states after the Eurozone crisis. The article concludes that the EU’s lead in privatisation has functioned as a disciplinary mechanism for the member states to introduce and implement extensive privatisation policies. The EU has tended to consolidate neoliberalism through privatisation after the Eurozone crisis.
  • Topic: Economics, Privatization, Financial Crisis, European Union, Neoliberalism
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Çiğdem Nas
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The article aims to analyze the European Union (EU)’s approach to the Syrian crisis and to evaluate the role it attributes to Turkey. The EU’s approach staggered between supporting transition in Syria to a post-Assad regime and the need to protect itself against spill-over effects of the conflict. Two issues emerged as urgent priorities that determined the EU’s approach to the conflict. One of them was to control the outpouring of refugees fleeing war and oppression in Syria and the other was to deal with the growing threat of terrorism, mainly the ISIL threat. The influx of Syrian refugees through the Aegean and Balkan route to the EU surged in the summer of 2015 leading to practical and political problems for EU countries. In the meantime, ISIL related terror attacks in the EU created a major security problem and led several Member States to bring back border controls in the Schengen area. The EU turned to Turkey and sought Turkey’s cooperation in controlling the refugee flow and also keeping away the ISIL threat. The article looks at cooperation between Turkey and the EU and also points of contention that created hurdles in this cooperation.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Bilateral Relations, European Union, Refugee Crisis, Syrian War, Borders
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: A. Aslı Bilgin, Pierluigi Simone
  • Publication Date: 08-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Within the scope of the Readmission Agreement signed in 2013 between the European Union (EU) and Turkey, the EU will grant visa–free travel for Turkish citizens in exchange for Turkey readmitting the illegally resident of third- country nationals transited through the territory of Turkey to Europe. However, in accordance with the EU–Turkey Association Law and the case–law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), visa-free travel could be valid for Turkish citizens who would conduct or plan to conduct economic activity in the EU since the entry into force of the Additional Protocol (AP) of 1970 and Association Council Decision (ACD) No.1/80. This paper examines whether visa–free travel for Turkish citizens is an already-acquired right stemming from the EU–Turkey Association Law or would be a favor given by the EU in exchange for signing the Readmission Agreement, via the interpretation of Article 41 (1) of the AP and Article 13 of ACD 1/80, in light of the case–law of the CJEU.
  • Topic: Bilateral Relations, Law, European Union, Citizenship
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Mediterranean
  • Author: Gül Oral
  • Publication Date: 01-2019
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Migration has been an important reason for externalization of the EU’s policies towards nonmember third countries. Throughout the 2000s, the European Union has advanced its efforts for externalization of its immigration policies with the aim of providing security, stability, and prosperity in the neighborhood due to emerging demographic, economic and security problems. The book aims to conceptualize the external dimension of the EU’s immigration policy and its implications for non-member third countries by carrying out a comparative case study for assessing to what extent the EU has achieved to externalize its immigration policy. Accordingly, the author examines why the EU has been forming an external dimension to its immigration policy and how it aspires to impress the immigration policies of non-member countries beyond its borders (p.2). While evaluating the external dimension of the EU’s policy and its implication for transit countries, Yıldız takes into consideration security and development aspects of migration and discusses which of those aspects have become more influential for forming the EU’s external actions and practices.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Migration, Immigration, European Union, Book Review
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Morocco
  • Author: Dimitris Keridis
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The migration and refugee crisis that erupted in 2015 landed recession riven Greece with a series of humanitarian, political, social, and financial as well as foreign policy and security challenges. Following a near disastrous open-borders policy steeped in leftist ideological parochialism, Athens aligned itself closely with Germany in support of the EU-Turkey deal that drastically reduced the human flows from Turkey into the EU and invited NATO naval forces to help monitor the implementation of the agreement. This paper is structured around two parts: the first part describes the immigration and refugee crisis itself, from a global, European and national-Greek perspective; the second part analyzes the risks to and policy responses of Greece and how they relate to the country’s overall geostrategic position, at a time when Europe is being redefined as it struggles to respond to a multitude of challenges.
  • Topic: NATO, Economics, Migration, Refugees
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece
  • Author: Marilena Koppa
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article explores the role of Greece in the Balkans since the end of Communism and the impact of the sovereign debt crisis that followed. Since the beginning of the 1990s, while Greece failed to accomplish its vocation at the political level, at the level of the economy the country acted as an important regional actor. The article examines the dynamics of the Greek crisis on the Balkan economies and analyses the major challenges for Greece in this new reality. At the same times, it tries to identify the triple crisis faced currently by Greece: at the level of credibility and status, at the level of mediation between the region and the EU and, finally, at the level of the gradual peripherisation of the country.
  • Topic: Debt, Economics, Migration, European Union, Crisis Management
  • Political Geography: Europe, Greece, Balkans
  • Author: Kostas A Lavdas
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This paper focuses on stalled Europeanization as a field of practices, institutions and discourse connected with a process of ambivalent reform. The absence of a consensual national strategy of adaptation to a particularly challenging environment, i.e., participation in the eurozone, produced dramatic consequences when confronted with the financial crisis after 2009. It is argued that the country’s sluggish Europeanization reached a critical turning point in 2009 when the urgency of the crisis brought to the fore a number of issues and vulnerabilities. Asymmetric policy adjustment – limited in some areas, extensive in others – has been the combined result of perceived necessity, insufficiently designed and implemented reform packages, party-political repositioning, and plain politicking. Europeanization in Greece became a stalled process in 2015; restarting the stalled process since 2016 leads to ongoing but sluggish Europeanizing interactions, involving shifts in the roles of domestic politics, institutional traditions and interest groups while reshaping the patterns of political contestation.
  • Topic: Politics, Sovereignty, Reform, Europeanization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Greece
  • Author: Constantine A. Papadopoulos
  • Publication Date: 10-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The central argument of this essay is that, in order to understand the reasons behind the Greek economy’s inability to recover sooner from its 8-year recession, analysis must focus on the institutional, political and cultural traits of the country rather than take a primarily “economistic” approach and simply blame “excessive austerity” and/or the euro. In fact, it will be argued that Greece’s positive performance under the euro (until government actions derailed the economy) is generally underappreciated, suggesting that if the country’s institutional weaknesses are addressed, the economy will grow. If they are not, the country’s long-term economic potential will almost certainly remain unfulfilled.
  • Topic: Debt, Economics, Financial Crisis, Reform, Global Financial Crisis, Austerity
  • Political Geography: Europe, Greece
  • Author: Nazif Mandaci
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: Although they are positioned in the periphery of the Western economic core, Romania and Bulgaria are different from the Third World countries that were exploited and colonized by the Western powers in the preceding centuries, where currently land grab processes are at work. However, it is observed that because of their geographical and political standings those countries are also influenced by the ongoing global land grab processes, albeit in different ways. The externalities of processes of enclosure, primitive accumulation or accumulation by dispossession as defined in general by the critical literature have continued to inflict particularly small landholders, as did in other societies in different parts of the world. However, upon their accession to the European Union, land grab processes in those countries entered into a new historical phase discerned by incoming new actors such as equity funds, and the unique dynamics such as the transformation of land into a speculative asset and an energy source.
  • Topic: International Relations, History, European Union, Land, Enclosure
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bulgaria, Romania
  • Author: Emilian Kavalski, Young Chul Cho
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This study contributes to the nascent worlding of the study of normative power by undertaking a parallel assessment of Normative Power Europe (NPE) and Normative Power China (NPC). There seems to have been a qualitative change in the EU’s and China’s international standing. While in the immediate post-Cold War period the EU was asserting its ability to set the range of legitimate international behavior and China appeared to be a reactive adopter of such norms, in recent years China is positioned as a normative entrepreneur and the EU’s ability has been challenged both in Europe and internationally. This study claims that such change in fortunes is not merely a result of recent developments, but pivots on the distinct repertoires of NPE and NPC – acquis communautaire for the EU and guanxi for China. The acquis communautaire suggests a “rule- based” framework for setting what passes for “normal” in global life, while guanxi offers a “relational” one. Such distinct points of departure have led to the evolution of distinct concepts and practices of normative power. The comparative study of NPE and NPC concludes by drawing attention to the nascent struggle for recognition of normative powers in global life.
  • Topic: International Relations, Cold War, Power Politics, Norms
  • Political Geography: China, Europe, Asia
  • Author: M. Volkan Atuk
  • Publication Date: 06-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The British-Russian Convention of 1907 was seen as a joint effort by Britain and Russia to reconcile their areas of influence in Asia but apart from this purpose, it represented the last ring of the emerging tripartite blog that included France against Germany and its allies. The agreement, which mainly came into agenda for partitioning Iran, was handled by the Ottoman Foreign Affairs as a text about Asian affairs. The Ottoman statesmen, who considered only the part of this agreement concerning Afghanistan, Tibet and Iran, couldn’t realize that this was an important part of the polarization politics that pushed world to a general war.
  • Topic: Politics, Treaties and Agreements, History , Ottoman Empire, Polarization
  • Political Geography: Britain, Afghanistan, Russia, Europe, Iran, Eurasia, Tibet
  • Author: Galip L. Yalman, Asuman Göksel
  • Publication Date: 01-2018
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: This article aims to provide an alternative critical reading of Turkey-European Union (EU) relations, by contending that Turkey’s EU accession process has been instrumental in changing the contours of the transformation of Turkish economy and its governance as part of its neoliberal restructuring. However, the “transformative power” attributed to the EU’s enlargement strategy by the EU Commission has been somewhat debatable since the 2008 global financial crisis as reflected in the slowdown of the accession process. With the rising authoritarian tendencies in its domestic governance, the protracted saga of Turkey’s quest for the EU membership is back to square one, as the proposal for the modernisation of the Customs Union underlines “respect for democracy and fundamental rights” as an indispensable basis for the future of the relations.
  • Topic: Government, History, Bilateral Relations, Authoritarianism, European Union, Neoliberalism, Global Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Mediterranean
  • Author: Beste Işleyen
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: International Relations Council of Turkey (UİK-IRCT)
  • Abstract: The central objective of this article is to contribute to studies on EU counter-terrorism discourse by bringing the “external dimension” in. To that end, it borrows concepts of the Discourse-Historical Approach and provides an in-depth linguistic examination of the international aspect of the EU’s counter-terrorism discourse. The article identifies good governance and the Arab “Spring” as two central themes of this discourse and illustrates the linguistic means in which the two topics are made “natural” and “normal” by reference to counter-terrorism. The analysis also discusses the political and normative effects of EU discursive construction of counter-terrorism.
  • Topic: History, Governance, European Union, Counter-terrorism, Arab Spring
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East
  • Author: Sitki Egeli
  • Publication Date: 01-2014
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: ABD ve NATO'nun son yillarda üzerine önem ve öncelikle egildigi füze savunma kalkaninin teme - linde, Iran'in nükleer silah edinme emellerinin dogrudan bir uzantisi olarak degerlendirilen Iran'in balistik füze envanterinden duyulan kaygilar ve tehdit algilamalari yatmaktadir. ABD'nin 2010 yilinda gündeme getirdigi ve NATO ülkeleri nezdinde kabul gören EPAA (European Phased Adaptive Approach) adli füze savunma yaklasimi, Türkiye'nin füze tehdidi karsisindaki geleneksel yak - lasimlariyla uyumlu oldugundan Ankara tarafindan da benimsenmis ve Türkiye EPAA için kritik önemde bir ülke konumuna yükselmistir. Diger taraftan, aslinda ABD'nin tahsis ettigi askeri ve tek - nolojik kaynaklar üzerine insa edilen EPAA yapilanmasinda, NATO'nun Avrupali müttefiklerinin katkilari ve olasi bir çatismanin seyri üzerindeki kontrolleri sinirli düzeyde kaldigi gibi, EPAA'ya yönelik olarak önemli bazi teknolojik, operasyonel, takvimsel ve siyasi/stratejik belirsizlikler mevcuttur. Diger taraftan, EPAA'nin ilerleyen safhalarinda Türkiye'nin yeni bazi talep ve oldu-bittilerle karsi karsiya kalabilecegi ihtimali göz ardi edilmemeli, bu olasiliklarin Rusya ile iliskiler ve Bati ile iliskilerde ABD-Avrupa dengesinin gözetilmesi gibi farkli açilardan hesaba katilmasi gerekmektedir.
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, India, East Asia
  • Author: Sinem Akgül Açikmese, Cihan Dizdaroglu
  • Publication Date: 01-2014
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: NATO's supremacy in the security and defence structures of the Euro-Atlantic region during the Cold War era has prevented the development of a self-sustained European security mechanism. With the end of the Cold War, specifically with the St. Malo Summit in 1998 which was a breakthrough in the advancement of the Common Security and Defence Policy, the NATO-EU relationship became pronounced. Since then, opportunities for and difficulties of collaboration have both defined this inter-institutional relationship between NATO and the EU. Despite a series of arrangements for strengthening the institutional framework of NATO-EU relations as well as the Berlin-plus agreements, the argument of an effective cooperation between two organizations would be misguided. Particularly, discrimination against the non-EU NATO allies as well as the existence of challenges such as decoupling and duplication are hampering progress in NATO-EU relations. This article aims at shedding a light on the limited cooperation between these two organizations by focusing on the current challenges.
  • Topic: NATO, Cold War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Berlin
  • Author: Berrin Koyuncu-Lorasdagi
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Since the mid-2000s, the complex relationship between migration and religion (Islam) at the axis of identity politics in Western Europe has received an increasing academic attention. This article, based on the first-hand data gathered through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 headscarf-wearing Dutch students of Turkish origins in Amsterdam, aims to explore the quest for the recognition of new Muslim woman identity with the headscarf in the Dutch context in the aftermath of 9/11 and the murder of the film director Theo van Gogh in 2004 by disassociating Islam and Turkish culture and themselves as “conscious and active believers” from traditional first-generation Turkish women. The contention is that in the process of ethnicization of Islam in the Netherlands, the headscarf is the main statement through which newly emerging identity politics of the heads carved Muslim Dutch students of Turkish origin in Amsterdam is expressed.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Netherlands
  • Author: Chong-Jin OH, Young-Gil CHAE
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study aims to understand the factors and actors of Hallyu (Korean Wave) in Turkey in the context of the characteristic cultural and technological conditions of network society. Two contextual factors -time and space- motivate this particular case study. While the consumption of Korean pop cultural products in European countries has noticeably increased, few studies were conducted on Hallyu in the European continent. Especially, network media technologies including blog, SNS, and various online communication platforms enable the international fans to consume Korean cultural products across the time and spatial barriers. In addition, this case study is also interesting because of the shared historical and cultural heritages maintaining and developing cultural linkages between South Korea and Turkey. Thus, this study contextualizes the Hallyu phenomenon in the context of historical, cultural, and technological relations between the two countries.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, India, South Korea
  • Author: Ziya Öniş, Mustafa Kutlay
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The Euro-zone project has been struggling for survival since it was hit hard by the global financial crisis in 2008. When the crisis first erupted, the member countries immediately plunged into a vicious cycle of 'blame-game' by trying to transfer the burden on the shoulders of other members. In this article, we argue that the structural problems pertaining to the very architecture of the Euro-zone rather than the individual policy choices of member states were at the heart of the deep crisis that the European Union is currently confronted with. Our central argument, therefore is that the 'economic integration/political fragmentation' paradox constitutes a central underlying element of the Euro-zone crisis. We claim that the future of the Euro-zone and thereby the European Union will mainly be shaped by the response of the European leaders to the economic integration/political fragmentation paradox. The mostlikely response of the EU to this paradox will be a La Carte Europe, which foresees different integration level among EU member countries. Finally, the type of European leaders' response to the paradox in question will closely affect the future of Turkey-EU relations. The emergence of a more flexible Europe may open up new avenues for Turkey-EU relations.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Nazif Mandaci
  • Publication Date: 04-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Avrupa'daki radikal sağ Balkanlı ortaklarına memnuniyetle kucak acmış gorunmektedir. Her ne kadar farklı coğrafyalarda, farklı etmenlerin etkisinde doğmuşlarsa da Avrupalı radikal sağ ailesi yeni uyelerin katılımıyla sesini daha gur cıkarmaya hazırlanmaktadır. Ote yandan hem Avrupa'da hem de bu bolgede radikal sağ hareketlerin yukselmesi Turkiye'nin Avrupa'ya dair dış politika hedefl eri acısından bazı sorunlar yaratacak gibidir. Bu calışma, bir bakıma tam uyelik muzakerelerini başarıyla sona erdirmesinin ardından, uyeliği artık AB uyesi ulkelerin referandumlarının sonuclarına ve Avrupa Parlamentosunun kararına kalmış bir Turkiye'ye Avrupa'daki radikal sağ hareketlerin ne tur engeller cıkarabileceğine dair bir fi kir vermeyi amaclamaktadır.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Senem Aydın Düzgit
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In line with the poststructuralist approach that theorises identity as relationally constructed through discourse, the purpose of this article is to shed light on the different visions of Europe that are constructed in debates on Turkey’s accession to the EU among German politicians. The article focuses on the political party debates on Turkish accession in Germany, a key member state in EU integration and the debate on Turkish membership to the EU, and subjects them to critical discourse analysis. In doing that, it also brings forward the importance of the concept of discourse from a poststructuralist perspective.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political Theory, European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Germany
  • Author: Iver B. Neumann
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is not a self-evident thing for a group of scholars to invite an outsider who has studied the home turf of that group to open one of their conferences. I am extremely pleased to be here, and I want to make the most of the opportunity by calling attention to an area of study that my previous work has been pointing me to, and that I believe we who study International Relations (IR) should make our own. I am talking about a relation between two places in time. The relation is the one between nomads and sedentaries. The places are the Eurasian steppe and the sedentary polities to its west. By the Eurasia steppe I mean that vast tract of land that stretched from the Mongolian-Turkic homelands around Karakorum, north of the agricultural lands of the Chinese, the Persians and the Byzantines, all the way to where the grasslands started to give way to forest, and where there lived Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes. The time is what Europeans call the middle ages.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: China, Europe, Eurasia
  • Author: H. Tolga Bölükbasi, Ebru Ertugal, Saime Özçürümez
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article argues that the evolution of the Europeanization research program and that of the literature on Turkey has come evolved incongruously. The article identifies the limits of this interaction, investigates the conceptual, theoretical and methodological origins of these limits, and concludes that such incongruence may be overcome by cross-utilization of the conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and research design tools offered by the Europeanization research program more effectively in studying Turkey. Doing so will allow studying the exclusive impact of the EU on the processes of transformation in Turkey by isolating its transformative role from the impact of other domestic dynamics and international factors.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Serhat Güvenç
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: 28 Haziran 1919'da Versailles Antlaşması'nın imzalanması yalnızca Birinci Dünya Savaşını resmen sona erdirmekle kalmıyor, aynı zamanda insanlık tarihinde eşi görülmemiş bir yıkıma neden olan bu savaşın başlangıcının tarihsel sorumluluğunu da Almanya'ya yüklüyordu. Saraybosna suikastı ertesinde Alman Şansölyesi Theobald Bethman Holweg tarafından Avusturya-Macaristan'ın Sırbistan'a karşı alacağı tavır ile ilgili olarak Almanya'nın, tarihe “açık çek” olarak geçen, her türlü desteği vereceği yolundaki cesaretlendirmesi Birinci Dünya Savaşı'nın başlangıcı konusunda Almanya'nın üzerine yüklenen sorumluluktu. Versailles sisteminin Almanya'ya yüklediği bu tarihsel sorumluluk, iki dünya savaşı arası dönemde Alman toplumunu ve özellikle de Alman tarihçilerini oldukça etkiledi. Diğer taraftan İkinci Dünya Savaşının sonunda yaşanan büyük mağlubiyet galipler tarafından yazılan tarihe bir kez daha Almanya'nın “dünya savaşının sorumlusu” olarak işlenmesine neden oldu.
  • Topic: History
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: BEKEN Saatçioğlu
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Credible EU conditionality is theorized as a central mechanism for bringing EU candidates to comply with the political membership criteria. The literature on conditionality's domestic impact does not sufficiently explore the possibility of democratic reforms in the absence of credible conditionality. This paper tests this alternative hypothesis by studying Turkey under the rule of the AKP (2002-2009). It is argued that notwithstanding the falling credibility of the conditional membership perspective for the ruling actors after 2004, Turkish compliance persisted because it promised political benefits to the government. This finding highlights that domestic governments' belief in conditionality is not a necessary condition of compliance with the EU.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Murat Necip Arman
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: With the enlargements of 2004 and 2007, the EU reached at borders with new neighbors stretching from Northern Africa, to Middle East and Southern Caucasus. Despite their structural instability, those three regions possess rich energy resources. The EU promulgated the blue prints of the Union's future relations with the new neighbors in March 2003 with the paper on "Wider Europe Neighborhood: a New Framework for Our Relationships with the Eastern and Southern Neighbors." The framework redefined the basic parameters of the so-called neighborhood policy. The major difference that differs the neighborhood policy from the rest of the Union policies with non-member countries is its unique approach to the concept of human security. Human security is a distinct security approach distancing "the state" from being the major subject of security and instead individuals have been placed gradually in the center of relations between the EU and Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. This study which tries to lure attention to the symbiotic bonds between human security and security community approaches, unfolds the problematic aspects of the neighborhood policy which is based on human security and offers some solutions to those problems.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East, North Africa
  • Author: Didem Artunç
  • Publication Date: 09-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Fabrizio Tassinari, Why Europe Fear its Neighbours? (Avrupa Komşularından Neden Korkuyor?) başlıklı bu kitapta, AB'nin yakın çevresindeki ülkelerle ilişkilerine kapsamlı bir bakış açısı getirmektedir. AB ve politikaları, yazarın ana çalışma alanıdır. 2001–04 yılları arasında AB komisyonunda araştırmacı olarak görev yapan Tassinari, 2005–08 döneminde çalıştığı Kopenhag Üniversitesi Siyaset Bilimi Bölümü'nde Doçent olmuş ve aynı zamanda Avrupa Politika Çalışmaları Merkezi'nde çalışmıştır. Bugün ise Danish Institute for International Studies'de Dış Politika ve AB Çalışmaları Bölümü Başkanı ve araştırmacıdır. Tassinari'nin ilgi alanı ekonomi-politik bakış açısıyla Avrupa güvenliği ve bütünleşmesinin incelenmesidir. Bu bölgesel açıdan, Doğu Avrupa'da demokratikleşme ve devlet inşasını, Karadeniz, Baltık ve Akdeniz'de bölgesel güvenlik ve işbirliğini, AB ve NATO genişlemesi ile komşuluk politikasını, Transatlantik ilişkileri, Avrupa'nın küresel rolü ve AB dış ve güvenlik politikasını içermektedir. İnceleme konusu olan çalışma Tassinari'nin ilk kitabıdır.
  • Topic: European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Ahmet Arabaci
  • Publication Date: 01-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Balme ve Didier'in kitabı, Avrupa'daki yönetişim ve demokrasiyi hem teorik çerçevesi, hem de ampirik bulgularıyla incelemektedir. Yazarlar, Avrupa'daki gelişmeleri hem Avrupa Birliği (AB) entegrasyonunun getirdiği siyasal fırsat yapıları ve tehditleri bağlamında, hem de AB'yi ve Avrupa ülkelerini etkileyen küresel siyasal aktiviteler bağlamında analiz etmektedirler.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Dov Lynch
  • Publication Date: 08-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Mission to Georgia led OSCE early warning and conflict prevention activities. The Mission was established in December 1992 with the mandate to promote negotiations between the parties to the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in order to reach a political settlement. The article discusses the policies and activities of the OSCE in order to prevent conflict and ensure its peaceful settlement in the country.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Georgia
  • Author: Derya Büyüktanir
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This paper examines the European Union’s legal personality in terms of external relations. The developments from the onset of the European integration till the Lisbon Treaty and the structural characteristics of the Union are analyzed in this paper. The Union’s participation and representation in international organizations and the third countries and the problems encountered during the implementation process are examined. The legal personality of the former European Community was abolished with the Lisbon Treaty which took force in 2009. Treaty also contains a catalogue of competence that has brought about some structural changes. As a legal entity the European Union after the Lisbon Treaty will no longer be the object of some problems related with its legal personality. But the extent to which these changes can lead to orchestrated behavior in external politics and solve the problems of representation is highly doubtful.
  • Topic: International Relations, European Union
  • Political Geography: Europe, European Union
  • Author: Yüksel Metin
  • Publication Date: 10-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In this study, through the concept of positive obligation, the reproductions of positive obligations are clarified, and the positive obligations that the European Convention on Human Rights have imposed on the state parties within the framework of the protection of life and health are presented. At the same time, the approach of the European Court of Human Rights towards protection and use of the rights in the Convention in an effective manner is emphasized. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights is used in ascertaining the positive obligations of the Contracting Parties within the area of protection of life and health.
  • Topic: Health, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Funda Keskin
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: There is no doubt that gross human rights violations in Darfur exceed the limits of the responsibility to protect of the international community. During the discussions about the situation in Darfur in the Security Council, especially China and Russia put forward the principle of state sovereignty as an argument against intervention. Whatever the result about this contention, it is not possible to take a decision at the Security Council authorizing the member states to intervene in Darfur due to veto right of the permanent members. The African Union as the regional organization would not able to intervene due to its limited capacity and the lack of political will. According to some commentators and states, states like the US or the European Union members who endorse the concept of the responsibility to protect must be able to intervene. Nevertheless, although they never accepted the objection based on the state sovereignty, these states do not have the required political will to intervene by force. This brings us to the result that the major criticism directed against the humanitarian intervention which is its application on a selective basis, persists for the concept of the responsibility to protect as well.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, China, Europe
  • Author: J. Frederik M. Arends
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article examines the historical development of the concept of security in two phases. In the first phase, the word coined by the Romans as 'securitas' and accompanied from the beginning by ambivalence and religious connotations had conceded most of its territory to 'certitudo' at the end of the Middle Ages. In the second phase starting in the times of Thomas Hobbes, it became one of the paradigmatic 'great words' of the modern state. In this phase, 'security' became associated with the genesis of the authoritarian 'super state' committed to the prevention of civil war. This article starts by elaborating the connection between Thomas Hobbes and the ancient Greek historian Thucydides and proceeds by examining the usages of the concept by several contemporary authors.
  • Topic: Political Theory, History
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Bahar Rumelili
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: I argue that International Relations Theory has not been able to transcend its parochialism because it continues to negate the agency of the East. By analyzing the articles published in four leading journals of the discipline between 2002-2007, I find that the number of studies that focus on the East have indeed increased, but most of these studies continue to situate the cases derived from the East in the context of West-centric theories. Even critical approaches continue to position the West as the main subject of international relations and dismiss the mutual constitution and interaction between the East and the West, and the local and global. I contend that the generation of non-Western IR theories is not going to pose an adequate challenge to West-centrism; what is necessary is the formulation of specific propositions on East-West relations that directly counter the established assumptions of West-centric theories.
  • Topic: Political Theory
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Hacer Soykan Adaoğlu
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: On May 1st, 2004, the Republic of Cyprus became a full member of the European Union (EU) on behalf of the whole island. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which is not recognized as a member state, is within the European Union borders but it is outside the territory of the internal market. The EU has special legal arrangements for North Cyprus which makes it a special territory within the EU. However, there are other territories within the EU with special regimes. This paper examines the relationship between North Cyprus and the EU in comparison with the legal regimes established for other territories. The paper aims to determine the differences between North Cyprus and other territories in terms of status within the EU, legal arrangements and access to the internal market.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Kenneth Waltz
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: During the Cold War, the bipolar structure od international system and the nuclear weaponry avaliable to some states combined to perpetuate a troubled peace. As the bipolar era draws to a close, one has to question the likely structural changes in prospect. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, bipolarity endures, albeit in an altered state, because Russia stil takes care of itself and no great powers have emerged yet. With the waning of Russian power, the United States is no longer held in check by any other country. Balance of power theory leads one to assume that other powers, alone or in concert, will bring American power into balance. Considing the likely changes in the structure of international system, one can presuppose that three political units may rise to great-power rank: Germany or a West European state, Japan and China. Despite all the progress achieved by these countries, for some years to come, the United States will be the leading counrty economically as well as militarily.
  • Topic: Cold War, International Political Economy, Nuclear Weapons, Politics, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Japan, China, Europe, Germany
  • Author: Ahmet Arabaci
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The new institutionalist theory, unlike the (old) institutionalism, emphasizes the importance of informal structures and values of institutions, beside formal and legal structures. European Union (EU) institutions determine and direct the development of interest representation by using their competens and values. Therefore, the new institutionalist theory can be useful to understand development of interest representation in the EU. Development of interest representation (and lobbying) in the EU, largely, depends on two factors. First one is the changes of the competences of of the EU institutions in EU decision-making process in accordance with the EU treaties. The second one is the changes of the EU institutions' initiatives and attitudes towards the lobbbies. Consequently, the particular changes of the EU decision-making process and the attitudes of the institutions towards the lobbies in the framework in which institutions have competences, resulted followings. The number of lobies has increased, route of interest representations activities has shifted to the EU-leved and a different (pluralistic) model of interest representations has been adopted. The pivotal role of institutional values has become apparent as indicated in the theory of new institutionalism.
  • Topic: Development, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Ali Resul Usul
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is possible to argue that there exists a push-pull balance in the EU's democratic conditionality that the EU has been applying since the South European states applied for membership and/or association agreement. This article arguee that this push-pull balance in conditionality has created the Dynamics that could transform candidate states; and the best example that demonstrates the succesful impact of the EU conditionality is the relation between the EU's Eastern enlargement, the EU's democratic conditionality and the successful transformation of political regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe. However, this study puts forward that the push-pull balance of conditionality has started to deteriorate because in particular of the enlargement fatigue in the EU. This change might diminish the impact of the EU's political conditionality in the ongoing enlargement process (Turkey, Croatia and othet Western Balkan states).
  • Topic: Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Croatia
  • Author: Cemal Karakas
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: With the beginning of negotiations, Turkey has, froom the legal perspective according Article 49 EUV, the right to join the EU, but the EU does not have the obligation to take Turkey in. The European Council's Turkey resolution at its December 2004 Summit foresees a guarantee clause: If accesion of Turkey is not accomplished, yet both sides still have an interest in deeper cooperation and integration, then "it must be ensured that the candidate state concerned is fully anchored in the European structures through the strongest possible bond". The key question is which model would then work best for Turkey: supranational integration (accession) or intergovernmental cooperation (Privileged Partnership, Extenden Associated Membership, European Economic Area Plus). The model of Gradual Integration shows a new, a third way of integration this model proposes a new dynamic method of intergovernmental integration, including decisiom-making rights for Turkey, from which a new sui generis form of membership could result.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Bahar Rumelili
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study argues that the forms of identity relations that the European Union (EU) establishes with outsider states shapes the Union's ability to postively influence conflicts involving those states. The European identitiy promoted by the EU embodies both inclusive and explosive aspects. While the EU has invoked the inclusive aspects of its identity in relation to the states in Central and Eastern Europe, it has constructed Morocco to be inherently different, and fluctuated between inclusion and exclusion in the case of Turkey. These various identity relations have shaped the EU's impact on Polish-German, Spanish-Moroccan, and Greek-Turkish relations show how an inclusive EU can contribute to the resolution of conflicts on its borders, the cases of Spanish-Moroccan and pre-1999 Greek-Turkish relations demonstrate how an exclusionary EU can end up aggravating the conflicts.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Kemal Kirisci
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: In this paper, it is argued that Turkey's geographical location, accompanied by the extensive commercial, cultural and social relations that have developed since the end of the Cold War between Turkey and its immediate neighbourhood, provides an opportunity for the EU to consider formulating a more flexible Schengen visa policy that can also be in harmony with efforts to develop the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Such a policy can also ease the economic and political costs of Turkey's integration into the EU. This need not necessarily lead to compromising security and border control. The advocates of Turkish membership often stress the potential of Turkey in assisting a process of bridge building between Europe and the world beyond Europe. A modified and better calibrated Turkish visa regime and a Schengen visa system that is able to adjust itself to the lessons of the Turkish experience could become a pillar of that bridge building effort and hence of the ENP too.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Samuel Azubuike
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The aftermath of the invasion of Iraq has been characterised by continued instability and insecurity. In the midst of all this certain questions have been recurrently asked.Why has Tony Blair, given such unwavering support to the US invasion of Iraq, againts the wishes of the UN, Britain's key European partners, and a majority of public opinion? What, in short, is the overwhelming British interest that an invasion was supposed to protect? This essay argues that the key to understanding Britain's persistent support of the US lies mainly in the notion of the "special relationship".
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Britain, United States, Iraq, Europe
  • Author: Ramazan Gözen
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article analyses the rapprochement process between Turkey and the EU which has been developing since the 1999 Helsinki Summit and especially in the wake of the US invasion of Iraq. As a result of differing perceptions of Turkey and the EU in the post Cold War, the Turkey-EU membership process had faced a deep "structural" crisis. However, after some important changes in the years from 1999-2003, Turkey and the EU rediscovered, and approached eachother in such a way that it is incomperable with the past. The basic character of this rapprochement is the strategic transformation in perceptions.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: A. Füsun Arsava
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Although the founding treaties of the European Communities were not declared as the founding treaties of a legal community, they had the features of a constitution from the beginning onward. The constitutional features of the founding treaties were concrete facts especially regarding principles of state of law included in the treaties. But the order of law that stemmed from the current founding treaties was complex. That development came into being without the will of the European peoples. The ultimate goal of the EU Constitution today is to complete the process of constitutionalization with the contribution of European peoples. The more the constitution stresses upon the priority of law, democracy, fundamental rights, freedoms as constitutional principles and the more it shapes institutional structure on democratic foundations, the faster the constitutionalization process will be complete and the discussion about the legitimacy of the EU will come to an end. That will make the acceptance of the EU law beyond any doubt.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Erel Tellal
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the constant fundamental principles of Turkish foreign policy during the republican era has been its “Western orientation”. In spite of this fact Turkey faced an “Eurasian alternative” in the last decade. Turkey, after negligence for 70 years, has tried to develop (to have friendly relations) with Central Asian and southern Caucasian states after they had acquired independence. The attempt of the last ten years can be called as failure of the last ten years. Since the State and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs remained ineffective in the process of determining policy and implementing it, this vacuum was filled by extreme nationalists who are inclined to see themselves as “big brother” and also by religious fundamentalists. Moreover, reasons stemming from the region and international environment played a role in the failure of Turkish policies as well. In the second decade Turkey should determine the related factors and head toward to cooperate with regional countries and Russia in order to become successful in the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Central Asia, Eurasia, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Eddie J. Girdner
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The rejection of the European Draft Constitution by voters in France and Holland created a crisis in Europe. The dilemma, however is rooted in the deeper issues concerning democracy, neoliberalism, and the division of wealth among classes in European society. The draft constitution would have locked in the principles of neoliberalism and guaranteed rights for capital over those of citizens. Beyond the question of the lack of grass roots democracy European social welfare guarantees are threatened. Capitalist accumulation is rendered as a technical question to be determined by technocrats and business enterprises, rather than a political question at the heart of democracy. The vote against the constitution was not a vote against a united and social Europe, but against a Europe united on the basis of the American model of enshrining capitalist accumulation as the be all and end all of human endeavor. The crisis in Europe has revealed the limits to neoliberal integration in Europe.
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, France
  • Author: Mert Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: It is almost impossible for Turkey to find a room in Eurasia based on its political meaning. However the more Eurasia is assigned an economic meaning, the more Turkey can benefit from its advantages. The necessity to ameliorate the terms of the energy agreements signed with Eurasian energy exporters and to increase exportations to these countries through strong brands fortified by the concept of TURQUALITY® are the two preconditions of this. By this positioning Turkey will better respond to the forthcoming pressures from; 1- High costs of energy and raw materials imported from Eurasian countries. 2- Full EU membership of East European countries, 3- Eurasian Customs Union, 4- Global price competition especially in the textile sector. Eurasia, which should be considered within this structure, does not indicate an alternative against Europe, but rather offers opportunities along which Turkey has the potency to position itself as a "Eurasian Tiger" if it manages to overcome these pressures.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Turkey
  • Author: Sinem Akgül Açikmese
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article contends that most of the intellectual work on European integration reflect major dichotomies between the theories of International Relations. During the first few decades of the integration process, the core European integration debate involved idealism-oriented neo-functionalists and realism-oriented intergovernmentalist approaches; whereas the current scholarship on European integration mirrors the main division that has emerged within the discipline of International Relations since 1980's between rationalists regarding the integration process as the products conscious member states' behaviour and constructivists focusing on policy-formation based on norms and common values. The main purpose of this article is to analyse the evolution of European integration within the context of the traditional and contemporary debates of International Relations. Since the sui generis nature of the integration process in the shape of the European Union constitutes a barrier to theorizing efforts in general terms, this article argues that each theory can only explain some pieces of the integration puzzle.
  • Topic: Government, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Sanem Baykal
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the pivotal issues the European Union is trying to solve right now is the link between identity, legitimacy and political order in Europe. This study argues that the Union will have to strike a balance between democracy and efficiency while reshaping its institutional structure, as it can only secure the allegiances of European peoples if it is deemed to be useful and successful by its citizens, while accomplishments would only be regarded as satisfactory when the process is legitimate and democratic. This study illustrates that the Draft Constitution adopts the option of maintaining the essence of the status quo as regards the institutional structure. The democratic and political deficits of the Union need to be bridged by innovative approaches which are compatible with the unique qualities of the Community method. The European Union constitutes a novel type of polity which necessitates original approaches to issues such as democracy, legitimacy and politics.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: A. Füsun Arsava
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The discussion over the proposed derogations regarding the establishment of the United Cyprus Republic on the basis of Annan Plan and its EU membership has been the main motive in writing this paper. Since the acceptance of these derogations as secondary law stipulations could have resulted in a risk of annulment on the basis of their being in breach of primary EU law, some attention was paid to the possibility of accepting them as part of the accession agreement, thus rendering onto them primary law status. In connection with these discussions, this paper discusses the validity of derogations as primary law rules vis-à-vis founding treaties of the Union within the context of hierarchy of different norms in the EU legal system.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: Europe, Cyprus
  • Author: Ismail Hakki Iscan
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Geopolitics, which is the science of politics on geography, has throughout the history focused on geographical areas to be controlled or on geographical reasons for expansion of states. Those who aim to rule the world by controlling certain geographical areas have especially searched for ways of controlling Eurasia. In the core of geopolitical approaches that this paper deals with, is the aim of controlling the World through control of Eurasia first.
  • Topic: International Relations, Energy Policy, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Asia
  • Author: Ercüment Tezcan
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The modernization of the application of the competition law of the European Community (EC) was carried out by the Council Regulation 1/2003 of December 16, 2002. This Regulation has repealed the regulation 17/62 of 16 February 1962 in force for more than 40 years. The Regulation 1/2003 is characterized by the abrogation of the notification and the preliminary authorization and its decentralization attempt for the application of the competition law of the EC. The national authorities and jurisdictions will be qualified from now on in this field by legal exception. Besides various details, the most important aspect of the new regulation is its gradual decentralization of the EC competition law, which should be considered within a broader framework of the reforms on the EC competition law, undertaken in the second half of 1990's.
  • Topic: Government, Markets, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Mustafa Aydin, Damla Aras
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The political logic (i.e., political perceptions of the ruling elite in a given country and nature of the political relations with other countries) determines economic activity, not the other way around, among the proto-capitalist states of the Middle East. As the political ties has primacy in the region in determining the course of economic relations, even market oriented democratic (or quasi-democratic) countries have to accept the prominence of political-strategic relations when dealing with such states. This paper will examine the interrelated fluctuation of trade and political tensions between Turkey and its immediate Middle Eastern neighbours - Iran, Iraq, and Syria. It will highlight the political determinants of the relationship between these countries; will discuss the role of the US as the independent variable; and will assess the possible effects of the emergence of Justice and Development Party government in Turkey on country's political and economic relations with its Middle Eastern neighbours.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria