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  • Author: Francisco Zapata
  • Publication Date: 01-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Kellogg Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: Economic adjustment policies, trade liberalization, privatization of State enterprise and transformation of labor markets and labor market institutions relate to a process of transition between a model of import substitution industrialization and a "new economic model" characterized by the transnationalization of Latin American internal markets. All these elements contribute to change the premises of the organization of unions and to weaken their role in the negotiation of salaries and working conditions, their intervention in the regulation of employment and their participation in the administration of social security and health benefits. On the basis of the cases of Brazil, Chile and Mexico, the presentation will provide a context in which to pose the question of the crisis of Latin American labor and examine some of the alternatives that are available for trade unions in the new economic conditions.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Brazil, South America, Central America, North America, Mexico, Chile
  • Author: Lawrence Brunner, Stephen M. Colarelli
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Independent Institute
  • Abstract: The unemployment compensation system in the United States is out of date and in trouble. The system has four fundamental problems: (1) during recessions, it often cannot meet its financial obligations without federal aid or deficit spending; (2) it is out of step with the structural and cultural realities of the modern workforce; (3) it encourages layoffs and unemployment; and (4) it operates in isolation from other programs related to employment and financial security. We propose an alternative unemployment policy based on the individual unemployment account (IUA). The IUA would be a mandatory and portable individual trust to which the employer and employee contributed. It shifts control and responsibility from the employer and the state government to the employer and the employee, and it is compatible with the realities of a twenty-first-century economy. We begin by providing an overview of how the current unemployment insurance system works and discussing its problems. We then describe an alternative unemployment policy based on IUAs and discuss the benefits of such a policy.
  • Topic: Economics, Government, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The evolution of a European space policy is encouraged by the recent EU decision to develop the Galileo project. This decision confirms the willingness to pursue a policy in the space technologies that goes beyond the national level, even if national visions are still predominant. A new security concept is emerging. The evolution of the foreign, security and defense policy (CFSP, ESDP) and the protection of population requires integrated approach.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Middle East
  • Author: Roberto Aliboni
  • Publication Date: 10-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of the Iraqi crisis on Mediterranean dynamics. Four such dynamics are taken into consideration, assuming their particular significance: (a) the Israeli- Palestinian conflict and, more broadly, the opposition between Israel and the Arab-Muslim countries; (b) the stability of regional regimes and their transition to democracy; (c) the development of the EU Mediterranean policies and their relevance in the region; (d) Turkey's national and regional interests.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Turkey, Middle East, Arabia
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: This document is intended to: highlight the main achievements of the Constitutional Treaty drafted by the European Convention which should be fully endorsed by the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC); emphasise some critical points of the Draft Constitutional Treaty that need to be revised to ensure an effective functioning of the European Union, avoid the risk of a decision-making paralysis and make possible future constitutional adaptations; suggest further modifications to the Draft Constitutional Treaty which appear necessary for a truly, effective constitutional reform of the Union.
  • Topic: Security, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy
  • Author: Robert Muggah
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Social Science Research Council
  • Abstract: There is considerable disagreement in academic and policy circles about what precisely constitutes internal displacement and resettlement – when it begins and ends, what kinds of rights to protection and assistance such people are entitled to, how it can be measured and understood, and who should be responsible for managing it.
  • Topic: Development, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Author: Heiko Wimmen
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Social Science Research Council
  • Abstract: HW: Professor Peled, during the two years of Ariel Sharon's tenure as prime minister, Israel has seen a steep economic decline, and a rapidly deteriorating security situation. Yet Mr. Sharon enjoys more support than any Israeli head of government for a long time. What do you make of this paradox?
  • Topic: Government, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Burhan Ghalioun
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Social Science Research Council
  • Abstract: The failure to discover any traceable evidence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq doubtlessly creates a serious embarrassment for the American administration. But the US never made much of an effort to conceal that the purported existence of WMDs in Iraq was only a pretext employed to obtain the consent of some of its bigger allies to its global strategic outlook, and the acquiescence of smaller nations to its regional plans. The real objective behind the US strike against Iraq was not the destruction of WMDs – Iraq in its pre-war state was ill equipped to produce WMDs anyway – but to topple the regime of President Saddam Hussein. The Bush administration also clearly considered regime change to be more than a strategic aim in itself, but rather a prelude to a general makeover of the region, in the course of which many local regimes would have to change or be changed according to its strategic vision. Secretary of State Colin Powell made this abundantly clear when, in December 2002, he promised the peoples of the region a concerted effort on behalf of the US to achieve democratic change, fight unemployment and work for the improvement of women's position in society.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, America, Middle East
  • Author: Robert Muggah
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Social Science Research Council
  • Abstract: The availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons is like a disease – a symptom and an outcome of human insecurity. Investments in improving security – a precondition of development – are strongly correlated with reductions in violence and poverty. But the development community has yet to fully wake-up to the wide-ranging effects of small arms. The issue is often treated as somebody else's problem, as too big and complex and therefore not amenable to a developmental response. But the effects are preventable. A concerted effort on the part of the development community to prevent and treat this veritable epidemic could yield substantial developmental dividends.
  • Topic: Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Development
  • Author: Haider K. Nizamani
  • Publication Date: 01-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Social Science Research Council
  • Abstract: The Pakistani society is rid with fissures on almost every issue and aspect concerning the nature of political system, nation-building, the meaning of the national identity and the means to ensure it. When it comes to the nuclear issue mid this cacophony and chaos, General Pervez Musharraf asserts that there is complete national consensus on Pakistan's nuclear program. Leaders of Jamaat-E-Islami, the most vocal political party in espousing the cause of nuclear Pakistan, argue that barring few individuals who are against nuclear weapons, the overwhelming majority of Pakistanis consider nuclear weapons essential for the country's security. Is there really a consensus in Pakistan regarding the nuclear option? Have people thought about their country's nuclear weapons program and policy? Have they thought about the likely costs of their country's nuclear program? Do they know who is in the control of the country's nuclear infrastructure? Such questions address the perceptual, doctrinal, command and control, and future dimensions of Pakistani nuclear weapons and policy.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Brazil