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  • Author: Charles E. Cook
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Washington Quarterly
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: It would seem to be impossible not to recognize the historical significance and symbolism that Barack Obama's election represents, regardless of whether someone supported Obama, John McCain, Hillary Clinton, or any of the other thirteen contenders for the presidency. Just 45 years after Dr. Martin Luther King's ''I Have a Dream'' speech and Birmingham Public Service Commissioner Bull Connor directed fire hoses to be aimed at civil rights demonstrators, an African-American was elected president of the United States. No matter how Obama fares as president, this is a remarkable milestone in U.S. history.
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, America
  • Author: Leandro Martínez Peñas
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: Nigeria is a country that develops a crucial role in African balance. This fact is due to its population, its oil and mining resources, and its importance for the regional sphere, especially on Sahel and the Gulf of Guinea. For this reason it must pay attention to the problems in which this State is involved, as secessionism and uprising, organized criminality, ecological damage, religious and ethnic tensions. Moreover it must be taken on account that democracy has been established in this region for a relatively short period of time. All these elements seriously threaten the stability of the most populated African nation.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, Nigeria
  • Author: Domingo Jiménez Martín
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: The purpose of the present quantitative study is to explain the international terrorism activities in Western Europe. The data set contains information on terrorismrelated events in West European countries (data has been collected for the period from 1968-2008) and includes information about tactical, political or geographical criteria. International terrorism has been an important part of the Contemporary European History, the trend is not going to disappear and we need foresight tools to know the threat.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Isidoro Blanco Cordero
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: The contribution analyzes whether the terrorist financing offence as defined in international conventions is punishable under the Spanish criminal legislation. The analysis concludes that not all elements of the international offence are included in the Spanish legislation, and that a reform of the Spanish penal code is necessary. However, a 2008 draft reform approved by the Spanish government introduces this offence and consists of a literal copy of the international instruments. It seems appropriate to take into account the peculiarities of Spanish criminal law when adopting international standards.
  • Topic: International Relations, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Fernando Celaya
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: The present article will explore how the terrorist threat is being materially and normatively shaped by national and global institutions of law and order with an emphasis on Spain. In this process security managers are gaining immense powers with limited national or supranational supervision thereby creating a symbiosis that enables them to perpetuate their relevance within national, transnational and international security affairs. This article concludes that this occurrence which is blurring the lines between internal and external aspects of security creates a complex dilemma for civil liberties.
  • Topic: Civil Society
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Fernando Celaya
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: In reflecting on the extensive literature and research on intelligence failures and particularly that which ensued in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US, Indonesia and those in Europe, this analysis concludes that intelligence, and particularly Western intelligence, cannot be completely at fault for the failure to identify appropriately and forewarn about the occurrence of historical discontinuity events. Western policymakers, economic advisers, as well as socio-economic elites' performance throughout the 1980s and 1990s reveals flaws in long-term policy planning and decision-making with serious repercussions for strategic intelligence analysis. The inability to forecast historical discontinuity events is a key element of intelligence and policy which needs further revision.
  • Topic: Islam, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Luis Aparicio Díaz
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: This paper analyzes the new amendment of the Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA on combating terrorism operated by the Council Framework Decision 2008/919/JHA of 28 November 2008. We study this change referred to the non amended Framework Decision, specially the public provocation to commit a terrorist offence, acts of recruitment for terrorism and acts of training for terrorism. We analyze too the new problems in the Spanish Criminal Law arisen from those changes. And finally we propose three new crimes to transpose this amendment into the Spanish Criminal Code.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Cesáreo Gutiérrez Espada
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: Daniel Pipes, un historiador estadounidense, nos cuenta1 que, unos meses después del 11-S (2001), la Universidad de Harvard eligió a un estudiante del último curso, Zayed Yasin, para impartir una conferencia, que tituló “Mi yihad americana”, en la ceremonia de graduación. En ella, este estudiante dio al término yihad un sentido puramente religioso y espiritual: para él, quienes traducían esa palabra árabe por “guerra santa”, la guerra que todo buen musulmán debe llevar a cabo contra los infieles, tergiversaban la verdad. Yihad, afirmó, solo es, en la tradición musulmana, el esfuerzo por hacer siempre lo correcto, la determinación de obrar bien, de hacer justicia incluso contra los propios intereses.
  • Author: Nasimi Aghayev
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Institution: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Abstract: I am very happy to present the Winter 2009 issue of the Caucasian Review of International Affairs (CRIA). Since our last issue in Autumn 2008, the war in Georgia has receded from the media's attention, but its implications are only beginning to be seriously addressed by the academic community. The CRIA aims to be at the forefront of this ongoing assessment, and in this context we have a number of papers which touch upon the war and its effects upon the region, as well as a theoretical assessment of the Russian intervention. We also present two contrasting Comments on Kosovo's declaration of independence and its implications for the South Caucasus. We are also proud to present additional papers on the Armenian diaspora, Georgia's national competitiveness in a globalised world, energy geo-politics in the Caspian basin, competing Islamic traditions in the Caucasus, external powers' influence upon the reform and political elites in Kyrgyzstan, as well as two topical book reviews and an interview with Dr. Martin Malek from the National Defence Academy of Austria. I would like to thank all of our authors for their time and their insightful work.
  • Political Geography: Russia, Caucasus, Kyrgyzstan, Kosovo, Georgia
  • Author: Thrassy Marketos
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Institution: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Abstract: For reasons both of world strategy and control over natural resources, the US administration is determined to secure for itself a dominant role in Eurasia. The Eastern Caspian shore of the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan is crucial to the oil and gas control flow, because which of the two major projects - the Trans-Caspian Corridor plus Nabucco pipeline, or the Prikaspiisky and South Stream pipelines - reaches the European market, will in effect determine which major power - U.S., Russia, or China - will gain geostrategic control over Eurasia. Even more seriously, it may determine a new eventual decision of Europe and the rise of a potential big continental power or a coalition of powers threatening the U.S. and the West as a whole, such as a Russian-Chinese alliance empowered enough to control Caspian Sea resources.
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, China, Europe, Eurasia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan