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  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: In early 2001, the Pentagon anticipated an approximate budget of $900 billion for the Navy and Marines for the period 2001 to 2009. Not counting $95 billion subsequently received for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Navy/Marine Corps "base" (nonwar) budget was increased by $174 billion to $1.074 trillion. The data used for these calculations are displayed in the table on this page.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation, War, Maritime Commerce
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Iraq
  • Author: Col. Daniel Smith
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: Set against non-stop cable news broadcasts recounting the ongoing daily carnage in Iraq and the resurgent violence in Afghanistan, the headline “wars decrease” was a jolt.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, International Political Economy, War
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, United States, Iraq
  • Author: Philip E. Coyle, Whitney Parker, Rachel Stohl, Winslow Wheeler, Victoria Samson, Jessica Ashooh, Mark Burgess, Rhea Myerscough
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: In the days before Sept. 11, riding the post-Cold War high, America was blissfully unaware of the threats it faced, and why. A few in the William J. Clinton administration tried to warn their successors about al-Qaida's danger, but overall, most Americans were blindsided by the Sept. 11 attacks. Five years later, America is still largely in the dark.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Terrorism, War
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, United States, Iraq, Middle East, Asia
  • Author: Chet Richards
  • Publication Date: 10-2005
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: There is a principle of engineering that says that when what you're doing isn't working, and trying harder makes the situation worse, you may be solving the wrong problem. With the attacks on London proving that occupying Iraq is not making the world safer, it is time for a radically new approach.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Government, Terrorism, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Middle East, London
  • Author: Steven C. Welsh
  • Publication Date: 01-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: In addition to abuse, or alleged abuse, by U.S. and allied forces against detainees in Iraq, allegations have surfaced of Iraqi-on-Iraqi abuse by Iraqi government agents, such as Iraqi police, against Iraqi prisoners. Such reports are especially troubling given that a primary rationale advanced for the U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq was humanitarian intervention: to overthrow a brutal dictatorship and attempt to replace it with a government founded upon principles of democracy, rule of law, and respect for human rights. Additionally troubling is the question of whether the U.S.-led alliance “bit off more than it could chew” by taking on such a daunting task, with detainee abuse by the alliance and the Iraqis perhaps exemplifying not only moral and legal challenges but also tests to the logistical limits of selecting, training, and holding accountable large numbers of personnel in such a monumental undertaking. The same poor planning and lack of capacity resulting in shortages of armor arguably could be said to be exemplified by the chaos at Abu Ghraib and apparent problems at staffing the Iraqi police forces fully with law-abiding professionals.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Human Rights, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Middle East, Arab Countries
  • Author: Michael Donovan
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: The insurgency in Iraq has grown in size and effectiveness in the months since a U.S.-led coalition invaded the country. By the summer of 2004, Pentagon officials were revising their initial estimates of the size of the insurgency by a factor of four. Baghdad and Mosul remained open cities to insurgents, and coalition casualty figures were rising steadily. Even as coalition authorities and the Iraqi interim government began to consider preparations for elections to be held in 2005, 20-30 towns in northeastern Iraq remained outside of coalition control. In an effort to pacify these predominantly Sunni areas, coalition officials devised a plan to retake key towns, and, it was hoped, strike at the heart of the insurgency. As a centerpiece to this plan, on Nov. 8, 2004, U.S. Marine and Army units, complemented by some Iraqi troops, embarked on Operation Phantom Fury, the retaking of the town of Fallujah.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Human Rights, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Middle East, Arab Countries
  • Author: Howard B. Bromberg
  • Publication Date: 05-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: Although we did not fully realize it at the time, our planning for Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and our role in the Global War on Terrorism actually started within minutes after the attack on the World Trade Center. On September 11, 2001, the command began assuming roles in three major operations which culminated over nineteen months later with the Coalition victory in removing the Regime of Saddam Hussein and freeing the Iraqi people and the region from his threats.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Michael Donovan
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: S of this writing, 39 U.S. soldiers have been killed in Iraq in the 10 weeks following the declared conclusion of the campaign to over throw Saddam Hussein on May 1. This fact stands in sharp contrast to the optimistic pre-war rhetoric of the George W. Bush administration regarding the “liberation” of Iraq and testifies to the arduous road that lies ahead.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq
  • Author: Col. Daniel Smith
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Center for Defense Information
  • Abstract: At the start of 2003, the United States remains focused on fighting global terrorism in general even as it zeroes in on Iraq as the nexus of evil. But a number of factors in play today make international support for such a venture less effusive than in 1990-91, when the last anti-Saddam “coalition of the willing” formed. Many economies, including those of three of the four big financial supporters of the 1990-91 war — Japan, Germany, and Saudi Arabia — are weaker. Any war would be relatively more expensive. Suspicions about U.S. motives, fueled by the Bush administration's initial unilateralism, remain alive despite Washington's patient work in obtaining a UN Security Council resolution on new inspections. Germany has declared it will provide no forces; use of Saudi Arabian airbases to launch combat missions against Iraq remains unclear; and troop contributions, as well as moral support, from other Arab states such as Egypt and Syria may not materialize.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Terrorism, War, Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, Iraq, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt