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  • Author: Chantal Mouffe
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for the Study of Democracy, University of Westminster
  • Abstract: For some time I have been concerned with what I see as our growing inability to envisage in political terms the problems facing our societies: that is, to see them as problems the solutions to which entail not just technical but political decisions. These decisions would be made between real alternatives, the existence of which implied the presence of conflicting but legitimate projects of how to organize our common life. We appear to be witnessing not the end of history but the end of politics. Is this not the message of recent trends in political theory and sociology, as well as of the practices of mainstream political parties? They all claim that the adversarial model of politics has become obsolete and that we have entered a new phase of reflexive modernity, one in which an inclusive consensus can be built around a 'radical centre'. All those who disagree with this consensus are dismissed as archaic or condemned as evil. Morality has been promoted to the position of a master narrative; as such, it replaces discredited political and social discourses as a framework for collective action. Morality is rapidly becoming the only legitimate vocabulary: we are now urged to think not in terms of right and left, but of right and wrong.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Government, Politics, Religion
  • Author: Abdelwahab El-Affendi
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for the Study of Democracy, University of Westminster
  • Abstract: Sudan – Africa's largest country (area: 2.5 million square kilometres; population: 36 million) – has been described as a microcosm of the continent, as it embodies the continent's characteristic ethnic and religious diversity. The majority of its inhabitants (70 per cent) are Muslim. The rest adhere to traditional African beliefs (25 per cent) or various Christian denominations (5 per cent). The majority of Muslims are Arabic speaking (though not all are ethnically Arab), and Arabic is both the official language and the lingua franca. However, over 500 ethnic groups live in Sudan, and some 75 languages are spoken in the country. The bulk of the Arabic-speaking Muslims live in the north, while the south is inhabited by a predominantly non-Arab and non-Muslim population.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Democratization, Religion
  • Political Geography: Sudan, Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Tamara Makarenko
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, St. Andrews University, Scotland
  • Abstract: Over the last decade, opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has been rising incrementally, culminating in a bumper crop in 1999 that produced approximately 80 percent of the global supply of illicit opium. Despite this predicament, the dynamics of the illicit drugs trade in Afghanistan has received little attention. Most media reports and government statements over-simplify the situation, making it appear as though the Taliban controlled the planting, cultivation, production and trafficking of all opiates. For example, The Times, in an article published in January 2000, reported “The Taliban rulers of Afghanistan have become the world's biggest producers and smugglers of hard drugs, overtaking rings in Colombia and Burma. They are now responsible for 95 per cent of all the heroin entering Britain.” Following the September 11 attacks, this responsibility was shared with Usama bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda network. British Prime Minister Tony Blair thus stated that the “arms the Taliban are buying today are paid for with the lives of young British people buying their drugs on British streets”, and subsequently added that the Taliban and Usama bin Laden “jointly exploited the drugs trade.” This view has also been propagated in the United States by leading news agencies. CNN, for example, explicitly reported that the Taliban both taxed and trafficked in narcotics, which were directly used to finance their military operations.
  • Topic: Crime, Economics, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Britain, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Taliban, Colombia, Burma
  • Author: Tamara Makarenko
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, St. Andrews University, Scotland
  • Abstract: The end of the Cold War and subsequent demise of the Soviet Union ushered in a new international security environment that can no longer be explained by the dominant security paradigms utilised by most Western governments and analysts since World War II. Our understanding of security falling under the rubric of high politics, and focused on maintaining the territorial sovereignty of state actors has been questioned by several ongoing international dynamics. For example, inter-state conflicts have been replaced by rising occurrences of intra-state violence; the state as the central focus of international affairs has given way to a host of non-state actors; and, it has become increasingly evident that the greatest threat to security emanates from the rapidly evolving phenomena of terrorism and transnational organised crime (TOC). In actuality, national, regional and international experience with insecurity over the past decade has confirmed that terrorism and TOC deserve paramount attention precisely because they both span national boundaries, and thus are necessarily multi-dimensional and organised; and, because they directly threaten the stability of states by targeting economic, political and social systems.
  • Topic: Security, Crime, Economics, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Soviet Union
  • Author: Adam Jones
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: This paper, the first of a planned two-part analysis, examines the institutions of paramilitarism, death squads, and warlords in Latin America, with a focus on the case-studies of Mexico and Peru. It begins with an overview of the small comparative literature on paramilitary movements and death squads around the world, seeking to define and clarify the terminology. The literature on "warlordism" is then reviewed, and the similarities and distinctions between paramilitaries and warlords are considered. Lastly, I examine two case -studies that have not, as yet, received extended attention in the comparative literature: Mexico and Colombia. The paper concludes by summarizing the findings and charting a course for future investigations. (PDF, Spanish, 40 pages, 2.76 MB)   Â
  • Topic: Civil Society, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, North America, Mexico, Peru
  • Author: Jorge Schiavon
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: More than half of the countries in Latin America have bicameral legislatures, and the vast majority of the larger countries in the region have dual legislative bodies. This paper explores whether bicameralism is an important institutional variable in the functioning of Latin American systems. It develops a typology of the different types of bycameralism in the region based on several specific characteristics that differentiate between them, and discusses the relevance of the institutional configuration of the system and the party configuration of the chambers for bicameralism. Then, it constructs a veto gates and players model in order to analyze the causal mechanism through which bicameralism impacts Latin America systems. Finally, it presents two examples (one with variation in time, the other with variation in space) to support the argument that bicameralism matters depending on its type, the institutional configuration, and party composition of the system.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Latin America
  • Author: Jorge Schiavon
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: This article concentrates in providing an answer to two deeply related questions: is the study of International Relations (IR) and Comparative Politics (CP), in methodological and theoretical terms, intrinsically different, essentially identical, or complementary?, and thus, should we see IR as an autonomous and isolated field of study, as a sub-field of CP, or are both IR and CP valid and deeply related areas of study of Political Science (PS)? To answer these questions, the article is divided in three sections. The first section concentrates on the validity of IR as a field of study. The second section is devoted to discuss the methodological compatibility (or not) between IR and CP, using one central theoretical issue as a case of study: the sources of origins of state motivations as explanatory variable of state actions (specifically cooperation or conflict. Finally, the third and last section to the article presents some insights on how IR theories can be linked, and to certain degree improved, taking into account CP theories, using the example of state preferences developed in the second section. The article concludes that IR and CP theories are very similar in methodological and theoretical terms, and thus, they can complement and cross-fertilize each other, "cooperating" to construct better explanations of the actions of political actors in the domestic and international systems.
  • Topic: International Relations, Development, International Cooperation, Politics
  • Author: Jorge Chabat
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: The combat of drug trafficking in Mexico under the Salinas Administration showed some signs of improvement in terms of the indicators required by the U.S. government to grant certification every year: a) budgetary resources dedicated to fighting drug trafficking; b) seizures of shipments and eradication; c) police and military casualties in the drugs war; d) arrests; e) legal and institutional reforms; f) signing international agreements; and g) acceptance of U.S. collaboration, as well as the presence of DEA agents in Mexican territory. Even when the improvement in these indicators was very evident during the Salinas administration, the degree of final commitment of the Mexican government to fight drugs remains unclear. However, the interest of President Salinas in getting NAFTA approved provoked a reduction in the limits of tolerance to drug trafficking. All this suggests that international interests constituted an important factor to propel governments into a more confrontational approach with the drug trafficking.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Crime
  • Political Geography: North America, Mexico
  • Author: Jorge Chabat
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: Illegal drugs pose a threat to Mexico in many aspects: consumption, and violence and corruption provoked by the traffic of drugs in Mexican territory. However, even when consumption is a growing problem in Mexico, the main threat to Mexican stability comes from the corruption generated by the production and transportation of drugs in Mexico. Violence is also a problem, but it is difficult to assert that it constitutes right now a serious threat to Mexican governance. The Mexican government has been fighting this phenomenon for years in a context of institutional weakness and strong pressures from the United States. The fact that Mexico is a natural supplier of illegal drugs to the biggest market in the world, the United States, places the Mexican government in a very complex situation with no other alternative than to continue fighting drugs with very limited institutional and human resources. In this process, Mexico has no margin for maneuver to modify the parameters of the war on drugs.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Crime
  • Political Geography: United States, North America, Mexico
  • Author: Peter Trubowitz
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas
  • Abstract: How do states choose their foreign policies? Most foreign policy analysis relies on structuralist reasoning to answer this question. Realist theory emphasizes a nation's position in the international distribution of power. A second approach focuses on domestic factors and stresses a country's political institutions. Both traditions focus on constraints on state behavior. The future of foreign policy analysis lies in finding ways to incorporate politics and choice into structuralist reasoning. Three main solutions have been proposed: theories that focus on how international pressures affect competing domestic coalitions, rational choices theories that analyze "two level games," and constructivism. This paper proposes an alternative model that views politicians as political entrepreneurs who seek to consolidate domestic power in national arenas that are conditioned by international constraints. The approach is developed and illustrated in a discussion of foreign policy choice in the United States.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Development, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition, McMaster University
  • Abstract: This paper presents some very preliminary thoughts on reparations due to Sub-Saharan Africa, including acknowledgment, apology, and financial compensation. I am a political sociologist, a specialist in international human rights with a background in African studies. Focusing on the Afactual@ history of Africa, I consider the possibility of arguing a case for Western compensation for racial discrimination. I also consider the case for acknowledgment, apology and compensation drawn from the need to recognize the moral integrity of Africans.
  • Topic: Globalization, Imperialism
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Carl Cuneo
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition, McMaster University
  • Abstract: There has been a tendency, especially in North America and Europe, and among technology enthusiasts and some educators, to assume that the whole world is connected to the Internet, and surfs the World Wide Web. Why would we use the term, 'World Wide Web', if we were not talking about a global phenomenon? However, Internet statistics show that only about six to eight percent of the world's six billion population is connected to the Internet. Approximately ninety-two percent of the world is NOT connected to, nor uses, the Internet. 1 The erroneous assumption of universal connectivity is not simply a statistical mistake. Governments, corporations, community organizations, and individuals make many incorrect decisions, with sometimes dramatic and far-reaching consequences, on the basis of the assumption that most of the world is connected to the Internet. Not only is the vast majority of the world not connected to the Internet, most people do not even have the computers, skills, experience, interest, or awareness to become connected. The disconnected are not randomly distributed, but have specific demographic, social, economic, racial, ethnic, gender, gerontological, and political characteristics that amount to a systematic bias of exclusion, often referred to as the “digital have-nots”. Similarly, the connected are not randomly distributed, but possess particular demographic, social, economic and political characteristics making up what has become known as the ““Digital Haves””. The separation, chasm, abyss, canyon, gulf, or distance between the ““Digital Haves”” and “digital have-nots” has become known as the “Digital Divide.”
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Globalization, Poverty, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Europe, North America
  • Author: Michelle Vosburgh
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition, McMaster University
  • Abstract: There is increasing pressure in the developing world to implement reforms that will facilitate more efficient land use and capital investment through the use of Western-style surveys, ownership and title registration. Proponents of traditional land systems have opposed these Western reforms by arguing for land's cultural and social importance. This article is a historical exploration of this issue within the context of contemporary globalization. The changing attitudes towards land tenure practices are traced through an examination of the published materials of the United Nations, its agencies and member nations. Historic and contemporary examples illustrate the difficulties of preserving traditional land systems in the face of economic and political integration.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Economics, Globalization, Political Economy
  • Author: Sabine Milz
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition, McMaster University
  • Abstract: Through an examination of the Canadian book and magazine sectors and the major international trade agreements to which Canada is a signatory, the paper interrogates the shortcomings of Canadian cultural policy's attempt at reconciling the realities of global capitalism with the Romantic ideal of non-commodified, non-economic national culture. The discussion highlights the contradictions involved in current policy attempts to protect a uniquely “Canadian culture” in an era of globalisation in which national cultures seem to increasingly disintegrate and give way to mass cultural expression. Moreover, it probes the policy terms for an economised reformulation of Canadian culture, which means a discursive and material, localised and globalised way of conceptualising the dynamics of Canadian cultural expression.
  • Topic: Civil War, Globalization, International Trade and Finance, Nationalism, Arts
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: Jan Aart Scholte
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition, McMaster University
  • Abstract: Knowledge of globalization is substantially a function of how the concept is defined. After tracing the history of 'global' vocabulary, this paper suggests several principles that should inform the way globality (the condition) and globalization (the trend) are defined. On this basis four common conceptions of the term are rejected in favour of a fifth that identifies globalization as the spread of transplanetary – and in recent times more particularly supraterritorial – connections between people. Half a dozen qualifications are incorporated into this definition to distinguish it from globalist exaggerations.
  • Topic: Globalization, International Political Economy
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael E. Fix
  • Publication Date: 08-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Despite their strong attachment to the labor force, large numbers of immigrants and their families in New York and Los Angeles have low incomes, lack health insurance, and are food insecure. The most powerful predictor of poverty and hardship is their limited English skills. Legal immigrants arriving after welfare reform's enactment in 1996—who have the most restricted access to public benefits—are poorer than immigrants arriving before the law's enactment.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, New York
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael Fix, Jame Reardon-Anderson
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: Children of immigrants are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18 (Van Hook and Fix 2000). One in five children in the United States is the child of an immigrant, evidence of the demographic impact of recent rapid immigration. In addition, one in four low income children is an immigrant's child (Fix, Zimmermann, and Passel 2001). But despite their demographic and policy significance, children of immigrants and their well-being are rarely studied on a national scale. In this brief, we present a number of key indicators—both positive and negative—of child well-being. The measures fall within three areas: (1) family environment, (2) physical and emotional health, and (3) access to needed services.
  • Topic: Human Welfare, Migration, Poverty
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Randy Capps, Michael Fix, Jeffrey Passel
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The U.S. immigrant population grew rapidly during the 1990s, with growth rates especially high across a wide band of states in the Southeast, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions. In many of these states, the foreign-born population more than doubled between 1990 and 2000.
  • Topic: Demographics, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Rachel Mosher-Williams
  • Publication Date: 09-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The Community Capacity Fund (CCF), a program of Washington Grantmakers, is acknowledged as a new model of national funding for local, collaborative grantmaking. In the face of serious community needs and concerns post–September 11, 2001, as well as many potential ways to address those needs, the Fund developed a framework for strengthening the ability of nonprofits to respond to the terrorist attacks. An investment by the Ford Foundation (and, ultimately, several other funders) in the Washington, D.C., region's recovery enabled a large group of experienced local grant makers and nonprofit leaders to jointly translate that framework into action. Within less than a year, CCF awarded $1,400,055 in grants to organizations advocating for and reemploying workers dislocated by September 11, as well as to organizations developing cross-jurisdictional efforts to respond to future disasters.
  • Topic: Economics, Human Welfare, Non-Governmental Organization
  • Political Geography: United States, Washington
  • Author: Wayne Vroman
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: This is a paper about measurement. It originated within a project that is examining the performance of unemployment compensation (UC) programs from a cross-national perspective. At the current time the larger project has assembled data on the UC programs of more than 20 countries along with supporting labor market data. Within the set of OECD countries, the project has singled out for particular attention six English speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. An analysis of the unemployment protection systems in these six countries was recently completed by Brusentsev (2002).
  • Topic: Economics, Government, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand
  • Author: Michael Fix, Jorge Ruiz-de-Velasco
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: In 1994 Congress required all states to implement comprehensive accountability systems for schools receiving federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). This new federal requirement responded to civil rights advocates' concerns that schools serving large numbers of poor, minority, and limited English proficient (LEP) students set lower standards for their education and thus ratified lower expectations for their performance. These changes in the ESEA made a dramatic break with past practice by requiring states to replace minimum standards for poor and academically disadvantaged children with challenging standards for all students. New accountability systems were to be based on state-established content standards for reading and math, include assessments aligned with those standards, and would require that states hold all students to the same performance standards.
  • Topic: Education, Government, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Raymond Struyk, Douglas E. Whiteley
  • Publication Date: 03-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of mortgage default insurance as developed in the United States into the context of Russian mortgage lending. The first part of the paper discusses the broad principles and operations of mortgage default insurance offered by private companies as it works in the United States. The pricing of this product and the preconditions for offering such insurance are highlighted. The second section outlines the operation of the U.S. government-supported default insurance offered by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). The final part applies the foregoing information to the situation in Russia today and concludes that the conditions necessary for launching mortgage default insurance do not currently exist in the country. Nevertheless, there are a number of essential actions that can and should be taken over the next several months to put Russia on the road to establishing such insurance in a few years. The paper finishes with a possible action plan for the next two years.
  • Topic: Development, Government, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Michael Fix, Jeffrey Passel
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Urban Institute
  • Abstract: For immigrants, welfare reform went well beyond conditioning access to cash benefits on work. Rather, the law set out a comprehensive scheme for determining immigrant eligibility for a wide range of social benefits that are provided by governments at all levels. Reform represented a major departure from prior policy by making citizenship more central to the receipt of benefits, by granting the states rather than the federal government the power to determine immigrant eligibility for benefits, and by drawing a sharp distinction between immigrants arriving before and after PRWORA's enactment on August 22, 1996.
  • Topic: Government, Human Welfare, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Michaela C. Hertkorn
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: What might be the impact of a worsened German-US relationship on NATO transformation, which foremost concerns NATO enlargement and the streamlining of NATO capabilities? This piece discusses the problems in current US-German relations, and how they may play out within the European theatre itself. The argument shall be made, that the isolation of Germany in NATO and EU has been evolving for months. The paper will highlight the particular challenges Germany faces as key regional player to help transform NATO, given further enlargement, which will – in all likelihood - enhance the number of US friendly member countries.
  • Topic: NATO, International Organization
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Michaela C. Hertkorn
  • Publication Date: 09-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: “There is the perception that, while France is a complicated country, but not posing a problem, Germany is not a complicated case, but can pose a problem.” ”America and Germany will never drift apart. We have never been closer. Any tensions are simply due to 'Reibungsverluste durch Nähe'. It is a relationship of grown up kids with their parents.
  • Topic: NATO, International Organization
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Michaela C. Hertkorn
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: “There is the perception that, while France is a complicated country, but not posing a problem, Germany is not a complicated case, but can pose a problem.” ”America and Germany will never drift apart. We have never been closer. Any tensions are simply due to 'Reibungsverluste durch Nähe'. It is a relationship of grown up kids with their parents.
  • Topic: NATO, International Organization
  • Political Geography: America, Europe, Middle East
  • Author: Michaela Hertkorn
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Columbia International Affairs Online
  • Abstract: "There is the perception that, while France is a complicated country, but not posing a problem, Germany is not a complicated case, but can pose a problem." "America and Germany will never drift apart. We have never been closer. Any tensions are simply due to 'Reibungsverluste durch Nähe'. It is a relationship of grown up kids with their parents.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Maria Haug, Martin Langvandslien, Lora Lumpe, Nic Marsh
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Small Arms Survey
  • Abstract: The proliferation of small arms and light weapons directly enables a horrifying number of deaths and injuries around the world each year, and it poses a grave threat to the stability and development of many countries, as well as to the success of UN-mandated peace operations. One of the most meaningful and straightforward initiatives concerned governments could undertake is to provide full unilateral transparency around the small arms shipments they are authorizing for import or export.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Arms Control and Proliferation, War
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Rachel Stohl, Edward Laurence
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Small Arms Survey
  • Abstract: In the Programme of Action, agreed at the July 2001 UN Small Arms Conference, national governments adopted a wide-ranging set of commitments which, if implemented, would aid greatly in preventing and reducing the negative impacts of these weapons. In an extensive review, this paper reveals that states, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have taken up this challenge in a broad series of meetings, programmes, and policies. Individual states are enacting new laws, building needed capacity, and funding projects in affected states. UN agencies are engaged in various activities in support of the Programme, while the UN Secretariat is carrying out the tasks assigned to it in this document. At the same time, regional IGOs are taking action loosely based on the Programme. And NGOs, both global and local, have embarked on specific programmes and awareness-raising initiatives, empowered by the mandate contained in the Programme.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Arms Control and Proliferation, War
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Spyros Demetriou
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Small Arms Survey
  • Abstract: Over ten years have elapsed since the Soviet Union collapsed in late 1991. Radical transitions from one political system to another are by definition conflict-prone, involving fierce competition between differing visions, fluid political affiliations, social activism, power vacuums, and severe economic crises—if not collapse. In such contexts of instability and uncertainty, the recourse to armed violence—as a form of expression and an instrument of power—is an attractive option. The collapse of the USSR engendered a radical transition culminating in the creation of 15 internationally recognized states. Although for the most part surprisingly peaceful, the transition to independence in four states—Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, and Georgia—was marked by widespread violence.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Arms Control and Proliferation, War
  • Political Geography: Moldova, Soviet Union, Georgia
  • Author: Camilla Waszink, Robert Muggah, William Godnick
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Small Arms Survey
  • Abstract: This paper provides a review of the impact of small arms and light weapons in Central America in the years following the end of the armed hostilities of the 1980s and early 1990s. In this instance, 'Central America' refers to the Spanish-speaking countries of the isthmus—Costa Rica, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Arms Control and Proliferation, War
  • Political Geography: Central America
  • Author: Lane Kenworthy
  • Publication Date: 03-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for European Studies at Cornell University
  • Abstract: A commonly-held view suggests that affluent nations face a tradeoff between incomes and jobs. According to this view, in the United States pay for workers at the bottom of the earnings distribution (relative to those in the middle) is very low and government unemployment-related benefits (the "replacement rate") are stingy, but this facilitates the creation of lots of new jobs and encourages such individuals to take those jobs. The result is a high rate of employment and low unemployment. In much of Western Europe relative pay levels are higher for those at the bottom and benefits are more generous, but this is said to discourage job creation and to reduce the willingness of the unemployed to accept low-wage jobs. The consequence is low employment and high unemployment. I undertake a comparative assessment of this tradeoff view, based on pooled cross-section time-series analyses of 14 OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s. The findings suggest that greater pay equality and a higher replacement rate do reduce employment growth in low-productivity private-sector service industries and in the economy as a whole. However, these effects are relatively weak. The results point to a variety of viable options for countries wishing to maintain or move toward a desirable combination of jobs and equality.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Alexander H.E. Morawa
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: In its views in the Diergaardt et al. v. Namibia case of 25 July 2000, the United Nations Human Rights Committee addressed a complex set of complaints relating to the rights of a small community of people residing in the Rehoboth Gebiet (area) in the vicinity of the Namibian capital Windhoeck. The case as such concerns a situation, shaped by unique historic events, that is not necessarily comparable to minority issues in Europe, and which was decided at the universal, as opposed to the regional, level of human rights protection. Nevertheless, it raises a number of issues that are of relevance beyond the given context.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Government, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Natalie Sabanadze
  • Publication Date: 02-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The South Caucasus represents one of the most diverse and conflict-ridden regions in the world. It includes the three former Soviet states Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, as well as numerous ethnic minorities and small nations within these states. The term South Caucasus is relatively new and has been used to replace the older term Transcaucasia. According to Valery Tishkov, there is a strong drive of national elites to separate the region from Russia and dismantle old ties to the point of changing names. "It is noteworthy," wrote Tishkov, "that the historical name of the region Transcaucasus has been questioned by the proponents of new political correctness who wish to create a mantle distance from Russia. Consequently, the region is being renamed the South Caucasus" (Tishkov 1999:4). It is, however, worthy of mention that the earlier name Transcaucasus (Za Kavkazye in Russian) reflected the Russian geographical position and literally meant 'beyond or behind the Caucasus', as the three republics were seen from the northern perspective of Russia. Recently, the term South Caucasus has came into use in order to more accurately describe the region and as Tishkov rightly points out, to de-link it from Russia.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, International Organization, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, Eastern Europe, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
  • Author: Ulrich Schneckener
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: Throughout the 1990s, the notion of conflict prevention had an impressive career. It reappeared on the international scene when UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali coined the term "preventive diplomacy" in this Agenda for Peace (1992). Since then, several international organizations or multilateral institutions, including the UN and its sub-organizations, the OSCE, the OAU, the OECD or the G-8, have published piles of papers and declarations committing themselves to the prevention of violent or armed conflicts, to change their policies accordingly (e.g. in the area of development or financial aid) and to develop new or to reform old tools, ranging from fact-finding or observer missions, special envoys, the use of sanctions, peace-building efforts, institution-building, reconciliation processes to humanitarian aid as well as long-term financial and economic assistance. Until now, however, many celebrated declarations hardly moved from rhetoric to substance, the "culture of prevention", as it has been called by UN Secretary-General Annan, is still to be developed.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Development
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, United Nations
  • Author: Vadim Martynuk
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: On 29-30 November 2002, the City of Kaliningrad hosted an international conference "The Role of the Interethnic Factor in the Development of the Kaliningrad Region" organized by the Regional Strategy Foundation and the regional office of Mediasojuz with the financial support of the Council of Europe, the Institute for Peace Research (Kiel, Germany) and the European Centre for Minority Issues, the principal organizer.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, Development, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Vadim Poleshchuk
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: Different foreign rulers have controlled Estonia and Latvia for 700 years. In 1920, both countries attained independence from Bolshevik Russia. However, the period of the countries' first independence was short: Estonia and Latvia were incorporated into the USSR in 1940.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, Eastern Europe, Estonia, Latvia
  • Author: Stefan Wolff
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: A training session organized by the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) on 29 and 30 November 2002 brought together approximately twenty local experts from Kosovo and three academics from the United Kingdom. The aim of the session was to increase awareness of different dimensions of integration in the EU, discuss the applicability of the EU model for the Western Balkans and explore the implications of current EU approaches to regional integration in this area, especially for Kosovo.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Graham Holliday
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: A joint study visit and training workshop was organized by the European Centre for Minority Issues (ECMI) in collaboration with the Directorate General of Political Affairs at the Council of Europe (CoE). This workshop took place at the CoE headquarters in Strasbourg between 18 and 21 November 2002, and brought together approximately forty local experts from Kosovo and sixteen officials of the CoE. The general aim of the study visit/training workshop was to increase awareness of different dimensions of the CoE's work on standard setting and technical assistance in Europe, within the framework of building democratic and inclusive institutions. Special attention was paid in the training sessions of the workshop to raising awareness of international standards on minority and human rights legislation and protection, but provision was also made to cover other aspects of democracy building that were of particular interest to the project participants, such as evolving standards and good practice in local governance, social cohesion and education. The workshop further provided a forum for the participants to discuss the applicability of these standards to the Western Balkans, and to the future development of Kosovo in particular.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Robert Curis
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The 14th meeting of the Standing Technical Working Group (STWG) organized by the European Centre for Minority Issues, Kosovo, on 17 July 2003 brought together approximately 25 local and international experts on issues of health and social welfare in an open Civic Forum. The aim of the forum was to generate critical dialogue between party representatives and Assembly members, members of civil society, and a team of experts on key issues of health policy development, debating needs for reform and highlighting areas of particular attention.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Robert Curis
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The International Community should concentrate its efforts on the process of returns rather than looking to the numbers of individual returnees. . The present authorities (Provisional Institutions of Self Government – PISG – and United Nations Mission In Kosovo) should be assisted in promoting the right of all Internally Displaced Persons to return to their homes or remain in their present domicile, through ensuring the necessary social, institutional and legal preconditions for minorities to remain in Kosovo. This will help in promoting confidence building and dialogue that work toward reconciliation and tolerance between communities. . Financial assistance should be given towards organizing a proper education system for young people – if the process of returns targets only older people the effectiveness of the process is at stake. Financial support for returns should continue to be provided. Financial and technical assistance should be provided to finish projects begun in the last few years (reconstruction of houses, etc.)
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Florian Bieber, Emilija Stefanov
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the success of the 4-day workshop under The ECMI Montenegro Negotiation and Capacity-Building Project organized by the European Centre for Minority Issues and funded by the Westminster Foundation for Democracy. The event took place in Kotor, Montenegro at the Sindikalno-Poslovno Obrazovni Centar from the 5th of December 2002 till 8th of December 2002.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Human Rights, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Valery Perry
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: Since the first implementation meeting in October, the Annex 8 project has moved forward through two complementary pillars of activity. One pillar is the development of a state-level cultural heritage association that can serve as a civil society link among government officials, cultural heritage experts, and BiH citizens interested in protecting and promoting BiH\'s culture. Participants initially proposed and have continually expressed their interest in the development of such an association since the constitutive meeting. Part III of this report reviews the progress made in this effort, and notes the goals for 2003.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Education
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Graham Holliday
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The Standing Technical Working Group (STWG) was established in March 2001 to address important issues of public policy in Kosovo/a at a technical level. It is composed of experts from Kosovo/a NGOs, the main political parties and other civil society representatives. Its membership is fully interethnic and it prides itself on being able to conduct debate in Kosovo/a in an interethnic way. The Group reviews technical aspects of current policy and formulates proposals and critical questions in relation to them. It then seeks to engage the relevant appointed local and international representatives on these issues. In response to the changed political environment in Kosovo/a following the Assembly elections in November 2001, the Group sought to enhance its role in public policy analysis and development through the establishment of four expert working groups.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Graham Holliday
  • Publication Date: 12-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The Standing Technical Working Group (STWG) was established in March 2001 to address important issues of public policy in Kosovo/a at a technical level. It is composed of experts from Kosovo/a NGOs, the political parties and other civil society representatives. Its membership is fully interethnic and it prides itself on being able to conduct debate in Kosovo/a in an interethnic way. The Group reviews technical aspects of current policy and formulates proposals and critical questions in relation to them. It then seeks to engage the relevant appointed local and international representatives on these issues. In response to the changed political environment in Kosovo/a following the Assembly elections in November 2001, the Group sought to enhance its role in public policy analysis and development through the establishment of four expert working groups. These Expert Committees (ECs) have devoted their activities in 2002 to monitoring policy developments in four areas considered most relevant to the needs of all communities in Kosovo/a. One of these is the Expert Committee on Economic Development and Labour.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Robert Curis
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The Standing Technical Working Group (STWG) was established in March 2001 to address important issues of public policy in Kosovo/a at a technical level. It is composed of experts from Kosovo/a NGOs, the political parties and other civil society representatives. Its membership is fully interethnic and it prides itself on being able to conduct debate in Kosovo/a in an interethnic way. The Group reviews technical aspects of current policy and formulates proposals and critical questions in relation to them. It then seeks to engage the relevant appointed local and international representatives on these issues. In response to the changed political environment in Kosovo/a following the Assembly elections in November 2001, the Group sought to enhance its role in public policy analysis and development through the establishment of four expert working groups. These Expert Committees (ECs) have devoted their activities in 2002 to monitoring policy developments in four areas considered most relevant to the needs of all communities in Kosovo/a. One of these is the Expert Committee on Justice, Human Rights, and Law Order.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Government, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Valery Perry
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: Educational reform efforts have been recommended, developed and implemented in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) by various small and large organizations for several years. One significant initiative was the Shared Modernization Strategy implemented by the European Commission in 2001 and 2002, which sought to integrate local actors and experts in the reform and modernization process. In the summer of 2002, a broader, widely supported, coordinated and dedicated reform effort was initiated by the OSCE, which raised the profile of the issue of education as a key element of peace building, economic growth and post-war reconstruction.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Education, Peace Studies, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Tobias K. Vogel
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The ECMI project “Negotiation and Capacity Building in Montenegro” was launched with the aim to establish a Track II informal negotiation process providing a forum for interethnic dialogue between Serbian and Montenegrin communities, which includes minority communities from the Sandžak border region. Through a series of workshops, the project aims to help promote dialogue, identify issues of common concern and assist in delivering concrete benefits as well as building confidence between the communities involved. By focusing the debate on the concrete needs of these communities, the project seeks to facilitate thinking about future interethnic relations in a less charged atmosphere, irrespective of the deeper political questions on the future constitutional arrangements of the two republics.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Education, Peace Studies, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Valery Perry
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The ECMI Civil Society Project in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) began its effort on the role of Annex 8 legislation and implementation in autumn 2001 in order to provide a forum for experts to discuss an issue that had been largely neglected since the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP, or the Dayton Peace Agreement) in 1995. Annex 8 of the GFAP established a Commission to Preserve National Monuments in the wake of the destruction that devastated the cultural heritage of BiH during the war 1992-1995. Through conversations with experts in BiH and from throughout the region, ECMI recognized the potential that this Annex could have on peace-building and reconciliation in BiH.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Peace Studies, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Tobias K. Vogel
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: European Centre for Minority Issues
  • Abstract: The ECMI project “Negotiation and Capacity Building in Montenegro” was launched with the aim to establish a Track II informal negotiation process providing a forum for interethnic dialogue between Serbian and Montenegrin communities, which includes minority communities from the Sandžak border region. Through a series of workshops, the project aims to help promote dialogue, identify issues of common concern and assist in delivering concrete benefits as well as building confidence between the communities involved. By focusing the debate on the concrete needs of these communities, the project seeks to facilitate thinking about future interethnic relations in a less charged atmosphere, irrespective of the deeper political questions on the future constitutional arrangements of the two republics.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Peace Studies, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe