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  • Author: Keith Hartley, Binyam Solomon
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: These is some consensus among economic forecasters and international economic organizations that the world economy is stabilizing after the worst global contraction since the end of the Second World War. While it is difficult to ascertain empirically whether the massive fiscal policy support played a role or not, the improving credit conditions and the return of demand in the housing market in North America and the UK point to some evidence that the stimulus is providing the necessary short-term boost. Nonetheless, there remain significant challenges that may constrain a quick recovery including the decline in household wealth (debt-laden consumers rebuilding their savings), persistent unemployment and deleveraging (decreasing the amount of debt a firm holds by paying it off) in the financial system together with future long-term prospects of inflation.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, North America
  • Author: Laurence Ammour
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: The Sahel, a vast belt of land covering nine million square kilometers and encompassing ten countries, has always been a transit area for constant flows of people, trade, finance and religious groups. For the past twenty years, organized crime has had ample opportunity to develop here, either by using traditional networks or by taking over areas where there is no state control. It is also a region afflicted by perennial crises and weakened states, notwithstanding its undeniable strategic importance arising from its natural resources: oil, gold, phosphates, diamonds, copper, iron, coal, nickel, zinc, bauxite, uranium, plutonium, manganese, cobalt, silver, chrome and precious timbers.
  • Topic: Crime, Economics, Natural Resources, Fragile/Failed State
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: Maintaining the ability of military installations and ranges to carry out their missions is vital to the preservation of national security. However, the nation's military forces face serious training and readiness challenges that have the potential to reduce mission readiness and adversely impact national security. Encroachment-including incompatible civilian development near military facilities and the expansion of military operations into civilian areas-is increasingly reducing the military's ability to train its fighting forces and execute its missions.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Reform
  • Author: Terry F. Buss, Lois Fu
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: We are in the midst of a global economic crisis. The federal government has responded on an unprecedented scale and scope, with injections of trillions into financial markets, infusions of cash to troubled industries, state and local governments, and people in need. Government is employing tools in ways never befo re considered and inventing new tools, in the hope of stabilizing the economy and spurring economic recovery.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis, Governance, Reform
  • Author: Stefanie Walter, Linda Maduz
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University
  • Abstract: How does globalization affect individuals and their perceptions and policy preferences? This paper uses new developments in international trade theory to propose a new way of conceptualizing and measuring the extent to which an individual can be characterized as globalization winner or loser. We argue that the distributional effect of exposure to international competition is conditional on individuals’ ability. Low-ability workers exposed to the international economy face lower wages and higher risk of unemployment, and can therefore be characterized as globalization losers. In contrast, high-ability workers receive higher wages when they are exposed to international competition are therefore identified as globalization winners. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach for political scientists, the paper revisits the debate about the determinants of social policy preferences. Using cross-national survey data from 16 countries we show that globalization has significant and heterogenous individual-level effects. Exposure to globalization increases risk perceptions and demands for more income redistribution among individuals with low levels of education (as a proxy for ability), but decreases these perceptions and demands among highly educated respondents.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Aaditya Mattoo
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Peterson Institute for International Economics
  • Abstract: We tend to think of sophisticated goods and foreign direct investments (FDI) as flowing from high-income countries to lower-income countries, but flows in the opposite direction are increasing in frequency and significance. In this working paper, CGD senior fellow Arvind Subramanian and co-author Aaditya Mattoo document this trend and explore its consequences on source countries. Considering not only the composition of exports but their destination as well, they find a positive relationship between the uphill flows of sophisticated goods and FDI and economic growth, suggesting perhaps that development benefits might derive not from deifying comparative advantage but from defying it.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Alexei Monsarrat, Kiron K. Skinner
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: On the eve of the Pittsburgh G20 Summit, the Atlantic Council and Carnegie Mellon University examine the next steps for economic growth after the global financial crisis in Renewing Globalization and Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis World: The Future of the G20 Agenda. The report is a product of an all-day expert conference in Pittsburgh.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Eswar Prasad, Kenneth Rogoff, M. Ayhan Kose, Shang-Jin Wei
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: We review the large literature on various economic policies that could help developing economies effectively manage the process of financial globalization. Our central findings indicate that policies promoting financial sector development, institutional quality and trade openness appear to help developing countries derive the benefits of globalization. Similarly, sound macroeconomic policies are an important prerequisite for ensuring that financial integration is beneficial. However, our analysis also suggests that the relationship between financial integration and economic policies is a complex one and that there are unavoidable tensions inherent in evaluating the risks and benefits associated with financial globalization. In light of these tensions, structural and macroeconomic policies often need to be tailored to take into account country specific circumstances to improve the risk-benefit tradeoffs of financial integration. Ultimately, it is essential to see financial integration not just as an isolated policy goal but as part of a broader package of reforms and supportive macroeconomic policies.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Globalization, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: James Kurth
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Foreign Policy Research Institute
  • Abstract: Fifteen years ago, Samuel P. Huntington published, first as an article (“The Real Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993) and then as a book (The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster, 1996), his famous argument about the clash of civilizations. The clash that he was referring to was the clash between the West—Western civilization—and the rest. Of the rest, he considered the greatest challenges to the West would come from the Islamic civilization and the Sinic, or Confucian, civilization. These challenges would be very different because these civilizations were very different. But together they could become a dynamic duo that might raise very serious challenges to the West.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Islam, Politics
  • Political Geography: Global Focus