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  • Author: Cedric De Coning
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The mixed findings of a number of recent peacekeeping, humanitarian and peacebuilding evaluation reports and related research, and the poor sustainability of peacebuilding activities undertaken to date, have led to a renewed focus on efforts aimed at improving our ability to undertake meaningful, coherent, coordinated and sustainable peace interventions. For example, the Joint Utstein Study of peacebuilding, which analysed 336 peacebuilding projects implemented by Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Norway over the past decade, has identified a lack of coherence at the strategic level, what it terms a 'strategic deficit', as the most significant obstacle to sustainable peacebuilding (Smith, 2003:16). That study found that more than 55% of the programmes it evaluated did not show any link to a larger country strategy.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Peace Studies, United Nations
  • Author: Ronald R. Atkinson
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: This paper begins by providing the historical context for “Operation Lightning Thunder,” the Ugandan military's December 2008 incursion into neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo in pursuit of the northern Ugandan rebel group, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The paper first presents (1) a historical background to the northern Uganda war that produced the LRA; (2) an overview of that war, which began in 1986; and (3) an analysis of the Juba peace process initiated in 2005 and its unraveling over the course of 2008.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Arms Control and Proliferation, War, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: Uganda, Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Author: Christoph Mikulaschek
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Today more than ever before, armed conflicts are likely to end in mediated settlements. As mediation activity has surged since the end of the Cold War, its dynamics have undergone significant change as well.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Cold War, Diplomacy, Peace Studies, War
  • Author: Herbert Wulf (ed.)
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for Development and Peace
  • Abstract: The international community has progressively tasked regional and sub-regional organisations with conflict prevention and peacekeeping. This is largely due to an overburdened UN system. At the same time regional organisations have increasingly come to accept that violence, interstate and intra-state wars normally affect the region through destabilizing spill-over effects and that promoting peace is in their own best interest. Yet, it is argued in this report that regional organisations' peace and security functions still do not amount to an effective regional conflict management regime. Furthermore, not all regional and sub-regional organisations have begun to take on this responsibility.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Peace Studies, War
  • Author: Jean-Marie Guéhenno
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center on International Cooperation
  • Abstract: Robust peacekeeping and, in particular, protection of civilians garnered significant attention in 2009. In January, the Australian and Uruguayan governments hosted a conference on civilian protection designed to convince wary member states. In November, the Security Council's open debate on protection of civilians in armed conflict consid-ered the findings of an independent panel on implementing protection mandates. Looking ahead, the Council's mandate renewal for the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC), scheduled for December 2009, is expected to strengthen the mission's protection capacity. Furthermore, in April 2010, the International Forum for the Challenges of Peace Operations in Australia will also focus on protection issues. These discussions have taken place against the backdrop of a number of reform efforts, including the Department of Peacekeeping/Department of Field Support “New Horizon” project and the French/UKinitiative in the Security Council – itself motivated by the siege of Goma in 2008.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Security, Peace Studies, War
  • Author: Thomas R. Pickering, Barnett Rubin
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Asia Society
  • Abstract: The governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan are at risk from a combination of violent insurgency, loss of public confidence, and economic crisis. These trends threaten not only the loss of control by the Afghan and Pakistani governments, but also the spread of terrorist safe havens and, in the most extreme situation, the loss of control over some of Pakistan's nuclear weapons or materials.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Political Violence, Islam, Terrorism, War, Counterinsurgency
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan
  • Author: Catherine Lutz, Matthew C. Gutmann, Keith Brown
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Watson Institute for International Studies, Brown University
  • Abstract: Systematic patterns of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) have emerged around UN peacekeeping missions over the course of many years.1 Reports of abuse by peacekeepers in Cambodia and the Balkans in the 1990s were followed by news of similar problems in West African missions in 2001 and 2002. The Secretary General subsequently issued a 2003 Bulletin outlining a zero-tolerance policy, but the abuse continued. In 2004, peacekeeper misconduct became widely known through mainstream media reports that UN personnel in MONUC, the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, had been engaging in sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) of local women and children. The SEA included, most egregiously, peacekeepers' exchange of UN food supplies or money for sex with young girls and sometimes boys. SEA has been a particular problem in mission areas where extreme poverty and conflict or post-conflict trauma and social dislocation drive local people to sell their bodies, but it has occurred in more developed contexts as well, such as Cyprus and Kosovo. The UN response to these problems has been to establish, in 2005, a Conduct and Discipline Unit with offices in New York and mission areas, charged with addressing the problem in a variety of ways. SEA continues to occur since then, with serious incidents revealed in Sudan, Liberia, Haiti, Cote d'Ivoire, and again in the Congo.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Corruption, Crime, Gender Issues, Sex Trafficking, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: United States, New York, Sudan, Kosovo, Cambodia, Haiti, Liberia, West Africa, Cyprus