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  • Author: Marisa Cochrane
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: The Rusafa security district provides an interesting look at a complex Baghdad neighborhood with strategic significance and changing demographics; it is an area in which U.S. and Iraqi forces have sought to revive and stabilize the political and economic life, while combating extreme violence caused by Jaysh al-Madhi (JAM) militias and al-Qaeda insurgents. Rusafa is a mix of large markets, government ministries, bus stations, educational institutions such as Mustansiriya University, hotels, hospitals, and the Rule of Law Green Zone. Yet, the district has also been plagued by sectarian violence and deadly car bombs, which often target Rusafa's markets and bus stations.
  • Topic: Security, Armed Struggle, Sectarian violence
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq
  • Author: Patrick Gaughen
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: The neighborhoods of Washash and Iskan are located in the northeast corner of the Mansour Security District in Baghdad. These historically mixed areas lay on the fault line between Shia-dominated neighborhoods to the north in Hurriya and Kadhimiyah and Sunni-dominated neighborhoods to the west and south, including the Sunni strongholds of 'Adl, Jamia, Khadra, and al-Mutannabi. As such, they have witnessed vicious sectarian cleansing by Shia militias anreprisal operations likely conducted by Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) or other Sunni insurgent groups.
  • Topic: Islam, Sectarianism, Sectarian violence
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Patrick Gaughen
  • Publication Date: 11-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: Gen. Ray Odierno, the commander of Multi-National Corps - Iraq, has argued that even as security improves in Baghdad, neighborhoods on the fault lines between the Shia and Sunni communities will be among the "last to settle." The neighborhood of Saydiyah, located in southwestern Baghdad, is such a place. Over the last year, it has become one of the principal battlegrounds for the territorial war between Shia militias and Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) in Baghdad. Located in the western end of the Rashid Security District, Saydiyah was formerly a mixed neighborhood, with a Sunni majority. Prior to the invasion in 2003, many officials in Saddam's government lived in the area, and following the outbreak of the war, it became a stronghold for the Sunni insurgency. Although Al-Qaeda and other Sunni insurgent factions initially cooperated in Saydiyah, it appears that Al-Qaeda slowly pushed out the other Sunni groups, while simultaneously intensifying violence against the Shia residents of the neighborhood. The reaction from Shia militias and Shia-dominated government security forces led to extraordinary violence during the summer of 2007. US forces have sponsored an Awakening group in the Sunni community to protect them from Shia predation and remove the need for Al-Qaeda's protection services. They have also worked to sponsor sectarian reconciliation through local notables and tribal elements, but it appears that these efforts have not yielded the kinds of success witnessed further to the south in Mahmudiyah, or the Abu Disheer - Hawr Rajab area.
  • Topic: Security, Terrorism, Armed Struggle, Sectarianism, Sectarian violence
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq
  • Publication Date: 02-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: The nation's vast water resources are critical to its economic strength and to the well-being of all Americans. Our rivers and their surrounding ecosystems hold tremendous value as sources of recreation, wildlife, channels of commerce, hydropower, flood control and aesthetic pleasure. But, human activity has the potential to both enhance and diminish this value. The nation must use effective adaptive management strategies to protect these national treasures and at the same time use them to help meet the challenges of the 21st Century. These challenges include globalization, fierce competitive pressures, a compromised environment and a continually growing and shifting population.
  • Topic: Economics, Environment, Natural Disasters, Natural Resources, Water
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Publication Date: 02-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: The impact of shifting U.S. business operations to foreign countries on the nation's workforce and economy is not a new or unstudied issue. For decades, it has been central to the debate about the benefits and costs of economic growth and trade expansion. However, this debate has not produced consensus on the magnitude and significance of off-shoring, which occurs when companies contract out activities abroad, either to their own affiliates or to other firms.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Labor Issues
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs was established with a simple aim: to promote public understanding of and interest in international issues. Not surprisingly, this is a province for the young as much as the old: it is the younger members of our society who must live with the impact of the foreign policy decisions made by leaders today.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia