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  • Author: Brooke Smith-Windsor
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Reminiscent of the late Cold War period, in recent years debate in official circles surrounding the purpose of Allied naval forces in transatlantic security policy has increasingly come to the fore. While in the mid-1980s preparations for the land campaign on the European Central Front dominated NATO military planning, the Soviet Union's emergent interest in becoming a powerful ocean-going nation with global reach cast new attention on the importance of securing the Alliance's maritime flanks in the event of conflict - notable the North Atlantic and Mediterranean.
  • Topic: NATO, International Security, Military Strategy, Maritime Commerce
  • Political Geography: North Atlantic, Soviet Union
  • Author: Patrick Keller
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Over the last few years, Afghanistan has become less stable and less secure. There were more than 2,000 civilian casualties in 2008 - more than in any other year since the Taliban regime was overthrown in 2001, and an increase by 40% in comparison to 2007. Coalition forces suffered 294 casualties in 2008, also the highest number so far. This is the direct consequence of a rise in Taliban and insurgent activity, mostly in eastern and southern Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Insurgency
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia, Taliban
  • Author: Christopher M. Schnaubelt
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Operations in Afghanistan pose a strategic challenge for NATO, not only because it is the largest and longest duration combat operation in the history of the Alliance, but also because of the fissures that the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) has exposed among NATO members. These difference include questions on how to characterize and approach the violence in Afghanistan and the relative military contributions by member states to the first and thus far only operation conducted by NATO under Article V. Allegations that some members have not been carrying their fair share of the burden have raised the specter of a "two-tier" alliance.
  • Topic: NATO, International Security, Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia
  • Author: Keith Hartley, Binyam Solomon
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: These is some consensus among economic forecasters and international economic organizations that the world economy is stabilizing after the worst global contraction since the end of the Second World War. While it is difficult to ascertain empirically whether the massive fiscal policy support played a role or not, the improving credit conditions and the return of demand in the housing market in North America and the UK point to some evidence that the stimulus is providing the necessary short-term boost. Nonetheless, there remain significant challenges that may constrain a quick recovery including the decline in household wealth (debt-laden consumers rebuilding their savings), persistent unemployment and deleveraging (decreasing the amount of debt a firm holds by paying it off) in the financial system together with future long-term prospects of inflation.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, North America
  • Author: Laurence Ammour
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: The Sahel, a vast belt of land covering nine million square kilometers and encompassing ten countries, has always been a transit area for constant flows of people, trade, finance and religious groups. For the past twenty years, organized crime has had ample opportunity to develop here, either by using traditional networks or by taking over areas where there is no state control. It is also a region afflicted by perennial crises and weakened states, notwithstanding its undeniable strategic importance arising from its natural resources: oil, gold, phosphates, diamonds, copper, iron, coal, nickel, zinc, bauxite, uranium, plutonium, manganese, cobalt, silver, chrome and precious timbers.
  • Topic: Crime, Economics, Natural Resources, Fragile/Failed State
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: Maintaining the ability of military installations and ranges to carry out their missions is vital to the preservation of national security. However, the nation's military forces face serious training and readiness challenges that have the potential to reduce mission readiness and adversely impact national security. Encroachment-including incompatible civilian development near military facilities and the expansion of military operations into civilian areas-is increasingly reducing the military's ability to train its fighting forces and execute its missions.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Reform
  • Author: Terry F. Buss, Lois Fu
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: We are in the midst of a global economic crisis. The federal government has responded on an unprecedented scale and scope, with injections of trillions into financial markets, infusions of cash to troubled industries, state and local governments, and people in need. Government is employing tools in ways never befo re considered and inventing new tools, in the hope of stabilizing the economy and spurring economic recovery.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis, Governance, Reform
  • Author: Stefanie Walter, Linda Maduz
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University
  • Abstract: How does globalization affect individuals and their perceptions and policy preferences? This paper uses new developments in international trade theory to propose a new way of conceptualizing and measuring the extent to which an individual can be characterized as globalization winner or loser. We argue that the distributional effect of exposure to international competition is conditional on individuals’ ability. Low-ability workers exposed to the international economy face lower wages and higher risk of unemployment, and can therefore be characterized as globalization losers. In contrast, high-ability workers receive higher wages when they are exposed to international competition are therefore identified as globalization winners. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach for political scientists, the paper revisits the debate about the determinants of social policy preferences. Using cross-national survey data from 16 countries we show that globalization has significant and heterogenous individual-level effects. Exposure to globalization increases risk perceptions and demands for more income redistribution among individuals with low levels of education (as a proxy for ability), but decreases these perceptions and demands among highly educated respondents.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Aaditya Mattoo
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Peterson Institute for International Economics
  • Abstract: We tend to think of sophisticated goods and foreign direct investments (FDI) as flowing from high-income countries to lower-income countries, but flows in the opposite direction are increasing in frequency and significance. In this working paper, CGD senior fellow Arvind Subramanian and co-author Aaditya Mattoo document this trend and explore its consequences on source countries. Considering not only the composition of exports but their destination as well, they find a positive relationship between the uphill flows of sophisticated goods and FDI and economic growth, suggesting perhaps that development benefits might derive not from deifying comparative advantage but from defying it.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Alexei Monsarrat, Kiron K. Skinner
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: On the eve of the Pittsburgh G20 Summit, the Atlantic Council and Carnegie Mellon University examine the next steps for economic growth after the global financial crisis in Renewing Globalization and Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis World: The Future of the G20 Agenda. The report is a product of an all-day expert conference in Pittsburgh.
  • Topic: Globalization