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  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: The Atlantic Council of the United States (the Council) and the U.S./China Energy and Environmental Technology Center (EETC) at Tsinghua and Tulane Universities cosponsored a Dialogue, “U.S.-China Cooperation on Low-Emissions Coal Technologies” in Beijing from June 24-26, 2009. This report synthesizes and summarizes the information presented during the Dialogue to allow for an ongoing exchange of information and ideas between the meeting participants and key stakeholders in the effort to lower emissions from the use of coal.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Economics, Energy Policy, Environment, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: United States, China, Atlantic Ocean
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: The broad issues surrounding the global need to achieve energy security in a world equally concerned over climate change and economic growth are well known and under intensive discussion in numerous forums and governmental official dialogues. The Atlantic Council of the United States, in partnership with the Clingendael International Energy Program at the Netherlands Institute for International Relations, initiated a series of workshops designed to broaden the discussion of energy issues to include the business community, governmental organizations and civil society organizations on both sides of the Atlantic.
  • Topic: Energy Policy, Environment, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: This report, based on the September 11, 2009 workshop on “U.S.-EU Cooperation toward Smart Grid Deployment” recommends that U.S. and EU leaders work in concert with the private sector to enhance the development and deployment of smart grid technologies across the Atlantic. The need for undertaking a holistic approach requires transatlantic cooperation in a number of complex areas, which warrant the establishment of specific public-private working groups focused on creating a common architecture with compatible standards, including those for cyber security, that can be applied in the transatlantic community and rolled out globally.
  • Topic: Economics, Foreign Exchange, International Trade and Finance, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: The world that created the transatlantic partnership is fading fast. The United States and Europe must urgently reposition and recast their relationship as a more effective and strategic partnership. It is a moment of opportunity -- to use or to lose. With the Cold War over and new powers rising, some say the transatlantic partnership has had its day. We disagree. Our achievements may not always match our aspirations, but the common body of accumulated principles, norms, rules and procedures we have built and accumulated together -- in essence, an acquis Atlantique -- affirms basic expectations we have for ourselves and for each other. In this new world of global connections, the transatlantic relationship is the thickest weave in the web. The deep integration of our democratic societies and economies is unparalleled and transcends neat “foreign” and “domestic” distinctions. We are literally in each other's business. North America's relationship with Europe enables each of us to achieve goals together that neither can alone -- for ourselves and for the world. When we agree, we are usually the core of any effective global coalition. When we disagree, no global coalition is likely to be very effective. The transatlantic partnership, while indispensable, is also insufficient. Only by banding together with others are we likely to advance our values, protect our interests, and extend our influence. Our partnership remains as vital as in the past. But now we must focus on a new agenda. Together, Europe and America must surmount immediate economic challenges while positioning their economies for the future; build transatlantic resilience -- protect our societies, not just our territory; continue work toward a Europe whole, free, and at peace; address conflicts more effectively; redouble efforts to halt proliferation of agents of mass destruction; reinvigorate efforts to preserve a habitable planet. Unfortunately, there is a growing mismatch between the nature of our challenges, the capacity of our institutions, and the tools at our disposal. Strong bilateral relations between the U.S. and European countries are still essential. NATO remains vital to our security. We offer views on NATO's future in a companion volume, Alliance Reborn. But we must also recast and reposition the U.S.-EU relationship. That is the subject of this report. The U.S.-EU relationship is important but not strategic. Such a partnership is possible, but it is not the partnership we have today. Given the challenges we face, such a partnership is urgent. It will require a new type of politics, not simply new kinds of process. Our central challenge is to mobilize political leadership behind a set of ambitious goals, tied to pragmatic steps forward.
  • Topic: Economics, International Cooperation, International Security
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Author: Sari Kouvo
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the ongoing stabilization and state-building process in Afghanistan with a focus on rule of law. It has two aims: first, to situate rule of law reform within the framework of the broader stabilization and state-building effort in Afghanistan. Second, to analyze if and how the internationally-supported and implemented strategies for rule of law reform are contributing to the promotion of rule of law in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Governance, Reform
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan
  • Author: Christopher M. Schnaubelt
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the so-called "Af-Pak" strategy and what it means for the NATO and its International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission. Because the role of NATO in the Pakistan portion of the strategy is extremely limited, this paper focuses on the elements directed toward efforts in Afghanistan. It is based completely upon open-source materials. The primary sources are three key documents: the White House press release on what's new in the strategy, President Obama's remarks announcing the strategy, and an interagency white paper that was released simultaneously. These are complemented by published interviews with and newspaper quotes from key individuals such as General David Petraeus, the commanding general of US Central Command and head of the American combatant command responsible for US military efforts in Afghanistan.
  • Topic: NATO, International Security, Military Strategy, Counterinsurgency
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, America
  • Author: Marisa Cochrane Sullivan
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: Multi-National Force-Iraq has identified various Shia extremist groups operating in Iraq, often using the label Special Groups or Secret Cells. MNF-I named Asaib Ahl al-Haq (AAH, or the Leage of the Righteous) as an active group on August 19, 2008 and released information that AAH is "affiliated" with Special Groups.This paper evaluates how the two groups, Asaib Ahl al-Haq and Special Groups are affiliated by testing four hypotheses about the relationship between the Special Groups network, led at one time by Qais Khazali, and Asaib Ahl al Haq (League of the Righteous).
  • Topic: Armed Struggle, Sectarianism, Sectarian violence
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Brooke Smith-Windsor
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Reminiscent of the late Cold War period, in recent years debate in official circles surrounding the purpose of Allied naval forces in transatlantic security policy has increasingly come to the fore. While in the mid-1980s preparations for the land campaign on the European Central Front dominated NATO military planning, the Soviet Union's emergent interest in becoming a powerful ocean-going nation with global reach cast new attention on the importance of securing the Alliance's maritime flanks in the event of conflict - notable the North Atlantic and Mediterranean.
  • Topic: NATO, International Security, Military Strategy, Maritime Commerce
  • Political Geography: North Atlantic, Soviet Union
  • Author: Patrick Keller
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Over the last few years, Afghanistan has become less stable and less secure. There were more than 2,000 civilian casualties in 2008 - more than in any other year since the Taliban regime was overthrown in 2001, and an increase by 40% in comparison to 2007. Coalition forces suffered 294 casualties in 2008, also the highest number so far. This is the direct consequence of a rise in Taliban and insurgent activity, mostly in eastern and southern Afghanistan.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Terrorism, Military Strategy, Insurgency
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia, Taliban
  • Author: Christopher M. Schnaubelt
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: Operations in Afghanistan pose a strategic challenge for NATO, not only because it is the largest and longest duration combat operation in the history of the Alliance, but also because of the fissures that the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) has exposed among NATO members. These difference include questions on how to characterize and approach the violence in Afghanistan and the relative military contributions by member states to the first and thus far only operation conducted by NATO under Article V. Allegations that some members have not been carrying their fair share of the burden have raised the specter of a "two-tier" alliance.
  • Topic: NATO, International Security, Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia
  • Author: Keith Hartley, Binyam Solomon
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: These is some consensus among economic forecasters and international economic organizations that the world economy is stabilizing after the worst global contraction since the end of the Second World War. While it is difficult to ascertain empirically whether the massive fiscal policy support played a role or not, the improving credit conditions and the return of demand in the housing market in North America and the UK point to some evidence that the stimulus is providing the necessary short-term boost. Nonetheless, there remain significant challenges that may constrain a quick recovery including the decline in household wealth (debt-laden consumers rebuilding their savings), persistent unemployment and deleveraging (decreasing the amount of debt a firm holds by paying it off) in the financial system together with future long-term prospects of inflation.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: United Kingdom, North America
  • Author: Laurence Ammour
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: The Sahel, a vast belt of land covering nine million square kilometers and encompassing ten countries, has always been a transit area for constant flows of people, trade, finance and religious groups. For the past twenty years, organized crime has had ample opportunity to develop here, either by using traditional networks or by taking over areas where there is no state control. It is also a region afflicted by perennial crises and weakened states, notwithstanding its undeniable strategic importance arising from its natural resources: oil, gold, phosphates, diamonds, copper, iron, coal, nickel, zinc, bauxite, uranium, plutonium, manganese, cobalt, silver, chrome and precious timbers.
  • Topic: Crime, Economics, Natural Resources, Fragile/Failed State
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: Maintaining the ability of military installations and ranges to carry out their missions is vital to the preservation of national security. However, the nation's military forces face serious training and readiness challenges that have the potential to reduce mission readiness and adversely impact national security. Encroachment-including incompatible civilian development near military facilities and the expansion of military operations into civilian areas-is increasingly reducing the military's ability to train its fighting forces and execute its missions.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Reform
  • Author: Terry F. Buss, Lois Fu
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The National Academy of Public Administration
  • Abstract: We are in the midst of a global economic crisis. The federal government has responded on an unprecedented scale and scope, with injections of trillions into financial markets, infusions of cash to troubled industries, state and local governments, and people in need. Government is employing tools in ways never befo re considered and inventing new tools, in the hope of stabilizing the economy and spurring economic recovery.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis, Governance, Reform
  • Author: Stefanie Walter, Linda Maduz
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University
  • Abstract: How does globalization affect individuals and their perceptions and policy preferences? This paper uses new developments in international trade theory to propose a new way of conceptualizing and measuring the extent to which an individual can be characterized as globalization winner or loser. We argue that the distributional effect of exposure to international competition is conditional on individuals’ ability. Low-ability workers exposed to the international economy face lower wages and higher risk of unemployment, and can therefore be characterized as globalization losers. In contrast, high-ability workers receive higher wages when they are exposed to international competition are therefore identified as globalization winners. To illustrate the usefulness of this approach for political scientists, the paper revisits the debate about the determinants of social policy preferences. Using cross-national survey data from 16 countries we show that globalization has significant and heterogenous individual-level effects. Exposure to globalization increases risk perceptions and demands for more income redistribution among individuals with low levels of education (as a proxy for ability), but decreases these perceptions and demands among highly educated respondents.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Aaditya Mattoo
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Peterson Institute for International Economics
  • Abstract: We tend to think of sophisticated goods and foreign direct investments (FDI) as flowing from high-income countries to lower-income countries, but flows in the opposite direction are increasing in frequency and significance. In this working paper, CGD senior fellow Arvind Subramanian and co-author Aaditya Mattoo document this trend and explore its consequences on source countries. Considering not only the composition of exports but their destination as well, they find a positive relationship between the uphill flows of sophisticated goods and FDI and economic growth, suggesting perhaps that development benefits might derive not from deifying comparative advantage but from defying it.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Alexei Monsarrat, Kiron K. Skinner
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: On the eve of the Pittsburgh G20 Summit, the Atlantic Council and Carnegie Mellon University examine the next steps for economic growth after the global financial crisis in Renewing Globalization and Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis World: The Future of the G20 Agenda. The report is a product of an all-day expert conference in Pittsburgh.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Author: Eswar Prasad, Kenneth Rogoff, M. Ayhan Kose, Shang-Jin Wei
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: We review the large literature on various economic policies that could help developing economies effectively manage the process of financial globalization. Our central findings indicate that policies promoting financial sector development, institutional quality and trade openness appear to help developing countries derive the benefits of globalization. Similarly, sound macroeconomic policies are an important prerequisite for ensuring that financial integration is beneficial. However, our analysis also suggests that the relationship between financial integration and economic policies is a complex one and that there are unavoidable tensions inherent in evaluating the risks and benefits associated with financial globalization. In light of these tensions, structural and macroeconomic policies often need to be tailored to take into account country specific circumstances to improve the risk-benefit tradeoffs of financial integration. Ultimately, it is essential to see financial integration not just as an isolated policy goal but as part of a broader package of reforms and supportive macroeconomic policies.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Globalization, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: James Kurth
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Foreign Policy Research Institute
  • Abstract: Fifteen years ago, Samuel P. Huntington published, first as an article (“The Real Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993) and then as a book (The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster, 1996), his famous argument about the clash of civilizations. The clash that he was referring to was the clash between the West—Western civilization—and the rest. Of the rest, he considered the greatest challenges to the West would come from the Islamic civilization and the Sinic, or Confucian, civilization. These challenges would be very different because these civilizations were very different. But together they could become a dynamic duo that might raise very serious challenges to the West.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Islam, Politics
  • Political Geography: Global Focus