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  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: This sixth and annual report required under the Senate Resolution of Advice and Consent of July 31, 1998, examines the progress that parties have made in implementing and enforcing the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Antribribery Convention).
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The Convention was signed by the United States on December 17, 1997 and ratified on November 10, 1998. The U.S. deposited its instrument of ratification with the OECD on December 8, 1998. Congress responded to the signature of the Convention by amending the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) on October 21, 1998. The new legislation, which entered into force on November 10, 1998, extends the FCPA to any person who engages in any act while in the territory of the U.S. and to any U.S. national and company engaged in an act outside the U.S. in furtherance of a proscribed purpose; adds “securing any improper advantage” to the list of improper purposes for payments to foreign officials; expands the term “a foreign official” to include any person acting for or on behalf of “public international organisation”; and allows the U.S. Attorney General to seek injunctive relief against foreign citizens or residents and entities other than “issuers” or “domestic concerns” that have engaged in or are about to engage in a violation of the FCPA.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: We present the narrative of this report and the recommendations that flow from it to the President of the United States, the United States Congress, and the American people for their consideration. Ten Commissioners—five Republicans and five Democrats chosen by elected leaders from our nation's capital at a time of great partisan division—have come together to present this report without dissent.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Government
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Antibribery Convention) of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is one of the most important instruments through which the U.S. government fights transnational corruption. The Convention obligates the Parties to criminalize bribery of foreign public officials in the conduct of international business. It is aimed at proscribing offers, promises or payments of bribes by companies based in the OECD signatory countries that engage in transactions in other countries.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 05-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is an independent federal government agency created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 (IRFA) to monitor religious freedom in other countries and advise the President, Secretary of State, and Congress on how best to promote it. The Commission is the only government commission in the world with a mandate to review and report violations of the internationally-guaranteed right to freedom of religion and belief worldwide. By providing reliable information, analysis, and careful and creative policy recommendations, the Commission gives the U.S. government and the American public the tools necessary to promote religious freedom throughout the world.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Government, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (the Commission or USCIRF) is the first government commission in the world with the sole mission of reviewing and making policy recommendations on the facts and circumstances of religious freedom violations abroad. The Commission's impact and its success in accomplishing its mission are dependent on bringing advice and accountability to U.S. foreign policy in its promotion of international religious freedom. By providing reliable information and analysis, and careful and creative policy recommendations, the Commission provides the U.S. government and the American public the tools necessary to promote this fundamental freedom throughout the world.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: Indonesia is a country in major transition. After 40 years of authoritarian rule, a fledgling democratic system has yet fully to take root. The country's first post - authoritarian president, Abdurrahman Wahid, was impeached after two years by the parliament on the grounds of incompetence and replaced by Megawati Sukarnoputri in July 2001. The economy, imbued with corruption during the decades of state control, collapsed in 1997 and has yet to recover. Accustomed to playing a central political and economic role, the Indonesian military remains reluctant to accept civilian control and accountability for its actions. The discontent of the people of several regions with incorporation into the Indonesian state was met for decades with harsh military repression, leaving the essential issues unsolved and, in some cases, aggravated.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States, Indonesia, Southeast Asia
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The conditions for religious freedom are very poor in Uzbekistan. In addition to a highly restrictive law on religion that severely limits the ability of minority religions to function, the Uzbek government in recent years has been harshly cracking down on Muslim individuals, groups, and mosques that do not conform to government-prescribed ideas on how the Islamic faith should be practiced and expressed. This crackdown has resulted in the arrests of thousands of persons and there are credible reports that many have been and continue to be tortured in detention, torture that in some cases has led to the death of those detained. While the government of Uzbekistan does face threats to its security from certain religious groups that have used violence against it, the government's mass arrests of religious believers and reports of torture nevertheless suggest that gravely troubling religious freedom violations are occurring in that country. The Commission recognizes that Uzbekistan only recently gained independence and has not yet developed the institutions and level of civil society necessary for the full protection of human rights, including religious freedom. Nevertheless, this neither excuses nor fully explains the scale and harshness of the government's current campaign against religious freedom.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States, Asia, Uzbekistan
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: In its first annual report issued May 2000, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (the Commission) found that the government of Sudan was the world's most violent abuser of the right to freedom of religion and belief. The Commission also found that religion was a major factor in the ongoing civil war, and that religion and religious–freedom violations were intertwined with other human rights and humanitarian abuses in Sudan. In the Commission's view, the Sudanese government was committing genocidal atrocities against civilian populations in the southern part of the country and in the Nuba Mountains. In light of these conditions, the Commission recommended, among other things, that the Clinton administration launch a comprehensive program of diplomatic and economic pressures to stop human rights abuses in Sudan. Moreover, the Commission was disturbed by the reported connection between oil development and the Sudanese government's abuses, as well as by an initial public offering in the U.S. by a subsidiary of one of the government's joint–venture partners in the development of Sudan's oil fields. Therefore, the Commission recommended that foreign companies engaged in the development of Sudan's oil and gas fields be prohibited from raising money in U.S. capital markets.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan, North Africa
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: U.S. Government
  • Abstract: The people of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea or DPRK) are perhaps the least free on earth, barely surviving under a totalitarian regime that denies basic human dignity and lets them starve while pursuing military might and weapons of mass destruction. By all accounts, there are no personal freedoms of any kind in North Korea, and no protection for human rights. Religious freedom does not exist, and what little religious activity that is permitted by the government is apparently staged for foreign visitors.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Human Rights, Religion
  • Political Geography: United States, Asia, North Korea, Korea