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  • Author: Richard Chilvers, Noor Abu Kwaik, Annabel Morrissey
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Gaza has long been a place of desperate need, with huge challenges in all areas of civic life. Devastating escalations in violence not only destroy lives and infrastructure, but also hope and aspiration. In the midst of this, the most marginalized people are often ignored or forgotten. As part of the Within and Without the State programme, community researchers worked with women with disabilities to enable them to devise a plan for periods of crisis. This included strengthening emergency preparedness, coordinating assistance, ensuring shelters are disability-friendly and supporting long-term advocacy for women with disabilities.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Gender Issues, Women, Disability
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza
  • Author: Awfa Al Naami, Soman Moodley
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Conflict in Yemen has left thousands dead, millions homeless or hungry, and an economy in ruins. But hopes for peace talks are fading and a new approach is needed. Women and girls are particularly affected by the conflict and have a crucial role to play in building peace at the local level. Despite some efforts to assist them, women are not receiving enough practical support and diplomatic commitment. Such backing is necessary to bridge the gap between local, national and international peace talks. This is essential for a viable and inclusive peace process that yields lasting results.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Women, Conflict, Peace
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen
  • Author: Luke Gibson
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The gap between the richest and the rest in Indonesia has grown faster in the past two decades than in any other country in South-East Asia. The four richest men in Indonesia now have more wealth than the poorest 100 million people. Inequality is slowing down poverty reduction, dampening economic growth and threatening social cohesion. President Jokowi has made fighting inequality his administration's top priority for 2017. This report shows how he could achieve this by enforcing a living wage for all workers, increasing spending on public services, and making big corporations and rich individuals pay their fair share of tax.
  • Topic: Inequality, Economic Inequality, Social Cohesion, Elites
  • Political Geography: Indonesia, Asia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Vaqar Ahmed, Mustafa Talpur, Sadaf Liaqa
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Pakistan does not currently mobilize sufficient tax revenue to finance essential public services, including healthcare and education, on which the poor rely the most. Consequently, these services remain inadequate, hampering efforts to reduce poverty and address extreme inequalities. Furthermore, the current tax system in Pakistan is seen by many as unfair and inequitable. Two-thirds of tax revenue is mobilized through indirect taxes, which are regressive in nature and unfairly burden those least able to pay them. Against this backdrop, this paper explains the four basic elements necessary for a fair and just tax regime, which, if implemented, would strengthen the domestic revenue base, increase equity and improve overall development outcomes, as the public sector will have more resources at its disposal to spend on human and social well-being.
  • Topic: Education, Tax Systems, Fiscal Policy, Social Services
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Middle East
  • Author: Renata Rendon, Matta Samiou
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Since the beginning of 2015 more than one million migrants, including refugees, fleeing war, persecution, natural disasters and poverty, have travelled through Turkey to Greece in search of safety and a dignified life in Europe. Lacking safe and legal alternatives, they put their lives in the hands of smugglers and risk everything during perilous sea and land crossings. Oxfam and ActionAid have listened to hundreds of refugee and migrant women and men on Lesvos island, in Athens and in the Epirus region of northwest Greece to understand why they fled their countries, what their immediate needs are, and what they plan to do next. This paper presents the key messages that they want European people and their governments to hear.
  • Topic: Migration, Refugees, Refugee Crisis, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Greece
  • Author: Karol Czuba, Tyler O'Niell
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This protocol outlines plans for conducting an evidence synthesis on the impact of food aid on pastoralist livelihoods. The distinctiveness of pastoralists - including factors related to the erosion of their livelihood strategies and the difficulty posed by identification of frequently mobile households - and their particular vulnerability to humanitarian crises suggest that the effects of humanitarian interventions targeting them are likely to differ from other populations. The purpose of this review is to use evidence synthesis methods to: systematically identify all available evidence on the impact of food assistance to pastoralist livelihoods (during and after) a humanitarian crisis; compare and contrast the effects of assistance delivered (by population, assistance type etc.); qualitatively and (if possible) quantitatively synthesize identified data and concepts; assess the quality of evidence, as appropriate; and identify gaps in the current evidence-base and further comment on future research needs in this space. To the review team's knowledge, this will be the first evidence synthesis that specifically addresses the impacts of food assistance provided in the context of humanitarian interventions on pastoralists' livelihoods. This review is commissioned under the Humanitarian Evidence Programme, a UK Aid-funded partnership between Oxfam and Feinstein International Center that aims to improve humanitarian policy and practice.
  • Topic: Humanitarian Aid, Food, Food Security, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Guilia Capitani
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The flow of migrants into Italy continues to be dealt with as an 'emergency' situation. The EU's 'hotspot' approach, outlined in the European Agenda for Migration of May 2015 as a short-term measure, has been implemented in Italy and Greece and is an approach involving EU officers, in collaboration with national authorities, in the identification, fingerprinting and registration of migrants. This paper from Oxfam Italia examines the hotspot approach in Italy through the experiences of humanitarian agencies and civil society organizations on the ground, and through the voices of migrants themselves. It concludes that, due to the lack of a legal framework, the hotspot approach seriously violates the fundamental rights of people reaching Italian shores. Oxfam calls for the Italian government and the European Union to define hotspot procedures and activities in EU and national regulations and to take medium-term action to expand the capacity of the receiving and support systems in Italy.
  • Topic: Migration, Diaspora, Immigration, Refugees, Legal Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe, Greece, Italy, Mediterranean
  • Author: Tim Gore, Rebecca Pearl-Martinez
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Paris Agreement marked a major breakthrough in support for climate action from many parts of the business community, including from key actors in the food and beverage sector. But despite significant progress, much work remains both to cut greenhouse gas emissions and to support the millions of people already hit by climate change. As one of the sectors that is at highest risk of being affected by climate change, responsible for a giant emissions footprint and reliant on millions of small-scale farmers and agricultural workers in the regions most vulnerable to climate change, the food and beverage sector should lead the next generation of post-Paris corporate climate commitments. This paper presents new data commissioned from the research consultancy CE Delft on the greenhouse gas emissions footprints and water scarcity footprints of major food commodities. The data demonstrate the vital role the food and beverage industry can and must play in turning the Paris Agreement into a springboard for the stronger climate action needed.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Food, Food Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Richard Chilvers
  • Publication Date: 08-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Within and Without the State (WWS), a programme funded by the UK Department for International Development, has been working in South Sudan since 2012 to improve the relationship between citizen and state. This case study describes the efforts of Community Empowerment and Progress Organization, a WWS partner, to work with young people in cattle raiding camps and support local communities to find their own solutions for peace. In the midst of a renewed outbreak of violence just two days before the country‚Äôs fifth anniversary, supporting local level peace initiatives remains as vital as ever.
  • Topic: Peace, Cattle, Farming, Ranching, Raiding
  • Political Geography: Africa, South Sudan
  • Author: Wolfgang Gressmann
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Conflicts and humanitarian crises affect men, women, girls, and boys differently due to their different societal roles and the deep-rooted socio-cultural and economic inequalities which become exacerbated during crises. Men and boys form the vast majority of direct victims of armed conflict and associated impacts like forced recruitment or arbitrary detention. Women bear the burdens of running the households under extreme stress and are often exposed to different forms of gender-based violence. During emergencies, women and girls become more vulnerable as basic services collapse and livelihoods diminish. In order to better understand the impact of armed conflict on men, women, boys, and girls, and the changes that have resulted in gender roles and relationships at household and community levels since the onset of conflict in March 2015, Oxfam, CARE and GenCap in Yemen collaborated to collect and analyse available data to further inform immediate humanitarian response as well as longer-term programming in Yemen.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Gender Based Violence , Conflict, Humanitarian Crisis
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yemen, Persian Gulf