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You searched for: Content Type Working Paper Remove constraint Content Type: Working Paper Publishing Institution International Peace Institute Remove constraint Publishing Institution: International Peace Institute Publication Year within 25 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 25 Years Topic Human Rights Remove constraint Topic: Human Rights
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  • Author: Astrid Forberg Ryan
  • Publication Date: 04-2014
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: While it is the responsibility of member states to ensure that sanctions adopted by the United Nations Security Council are implemented, the council plays an equally important role in facilitating and promoting effective implementation. This paper discusses the role of the Security Council with a view to providing guidance for those involved in the council's work, making the case for greater transparency. It briefly reviews current council practices and procedures relating to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and Iran sanctions regimes, including the working methods of the 1718 and 1737 Committees, and it identifies possible options for the council aimed at enhancing sanctions implementation through transparency-related measures.
  • Topic: Human Rights, International Cooperation, Weapons of Mass Destruction, Sanctions
  • Political Geography: Iran, United Nations
  • Author: Anna Magnusson, Morten B. Pedersen
  • Publication Date: 11-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The UN Secretary-General's good offices on Myanmar, now in their twentieth year, have been one of the longest such diplomatic efforts in the history of the world organization. The mandate derives from the General Assembly, which since 1993 has been requesting “the assistance of the Secretary-General” in implementing its annual resolutions on the situation of human rights in Myanmar. Since a special rapporteur was already in place at that time, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali defined his role as one of “good offices” rather than fact-finding, a decision that has remained unchallenged.1 An informal 1994 framework agreement with the Myanmar government listed three broad categories of subjects for dialogue: (1) return to democracy, including the 1990 election, the National Convention, and the situation of Aung San Suu Kyi and other political leaders; (2) reintegration of the ethnic minorities into the political life of Myanmar; and (3) human rights and humanitarian issues.Yet, in practice, three successive secretaries-general and their special envoys have focused on the first of these, a return to democracy—and in particular, on mediating between the military government and Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the democratic opposition.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Human Rights, International Trade and Finance, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Israel, Southeast Asia, Myanmar
  • Author: Jérémie Labbé
  • Publication Date: 11-2012
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The modern international humanitarian system, defined as much by similarities and shared values as by differences and competition among its members, is being tested like never before. The cumulative effects of population growth, climate change, increased resource scarcity, rising inequalities, economic and geopolitical shifts, the changing nature of violence, and rapid technological developments are presenting the humanitarian system with four broad challenges: an increasing humanitarian caseload; the changing nature of crises; a renewed assertiveness of host states; and finite financial resources.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Foreign Aid
  • Author: Susan E. Rice, Gareth Evans, Alan Doss, Adonia Ayebare, Edward C. Luck, Patrick Cammaert, Thomas Mayr-Harting, Christoph Mikulasche, Mona Rishmawi, Rima Salah, Michael Spindelegger
  • Publication Date: 03-2011
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: We are proud to host the International Peace Institute Vienna Seminar on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping for many y ears now, organized by the International Peace Institute together with the National Defence Academy and the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, in cooperation with the Austrian Ministry for European and International Affairs and the Austrian Ministry for Denfence.
  • Topic: Genocide, Human Rights, Human Welfare, United Nations, War, Peacekeeping
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The multilateral system has struggled to respond to the changing nature of conflict and its increasingly brutal effects on civilians. Countless eloquent speeches have been made and ink spilled on the urgent need to prevent conflict and protect civilians. Yet the gulf between rhetoric and reality is still unacceptably wide.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Security, Human Rights, Human Welfare, War
  • Author: James Cockayne
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: On July 29, 2009, the International Peace Institute convened a meeting of civil society, academic, and industry representatives to meet with the United Nations Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the rights of peoples to selfdetermination (the “Working Group”). The United Nations Human Rights Council has requested that the Working Group consult with a wide range of actors on the content and scope of possible legal instruments for regulation of private military and security companies.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Human Rights, United Nations
  • Author: Jenna Slotin, Castro Wesamba, Teemt Bekele
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Within the United Nations, the concept of the responsibility to protect (RtoP) has regained considerable momentum after nearly two years of stasis following the 2005 World Summit. Outside the corridors of the world body, discussions about RtoP and its application to specific regional situations, as well as the mandate of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, one of the crimes specified in the Summit's Outcome Document, are still at a nascent stage. In order to contribute to rectifying this imbalance, the International Peace Institute, the UN Office of the Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, and the InterAfrica Group convened an expert roundtable on “The Responsibility to Protect and Genocide Prevention in Africa” in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on October 23 and 24, 2008.
  • Topic: Genocide, Human Rights, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Africa, United Nations, Ethiopia
  • Author: Laurence Boisson de Chazournes
  • Publication Date: 10-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The scope of the collective security system established under the United Nations (UN) Charter has expanded significantly since the end of the cold war. Aside from the increasingly broad understanding of the concept of "threat to international peace," there has also been a related widening of the range of measures that may be adopted by the Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter.
  • Topic: Security, Human Rights, International Law, United Nations
  • Author: Sara Lodge, Chetan Kumar, Karen Resnick
  • Publication Date: 03-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: This comparison of international efforts to encourage and sustain peace in Guatemala and Haiti derives from the heavy involvement of the international community in peacebuilding in both countries during the 1990s. Civil conflict in both countries has resulted from a combination of exclusionary politics and domination by predatory economic elites. The conclusions advanced below should assist in the assessment of international strategies for addressing political and economic turmoil in similarly distressed countries in the future.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Haiti, Guatemala
  • Author: Simon Chesterman
  • Publication Date: 02-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Canadian Foreign Minister William Graham and United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan were keynote speakers at a seminar in New York on 15 February to discuss the final report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). Entitled The Responsibility to Protect, the report was released at UN Headquarters last December. The seminar was organized by the International Peace Academy with the support of the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade to allow a frank discussion of the Commission's findings and recommendations. Although journalists were invited to the event, all statements except the keynote speeches were off the record.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: Chandra Lekha Sriram
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: In the fall of 2000, the International Peace Academy commissioned a series of nine case studies examining the practice of preventive action. This study builds on earlier work by IPA identifying important issues for further examination in preventive practice. The cases examined were representative of the broad and increasing scope of preventive action geographically and in terms of approaches deployed—from structural prevention to post conflict peacebuilding as prevention. These cases were Kenya, Fiji, Tanzania (Zanzibar), Tajikistan, Burundi, Georgia (Javakheti), East Timor, Liberia, and Colombia. The cases are being edited and compiled for publication in a subsequent book; this report seeks to draw out central policy lessons for preventive action by the United Nations (UN). Important lessons can be drawn out with implications for each specific situation; more cross-cutting lessons for the UN and other preventive actors can also be derived from the collected cases.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Ben Rawlence
  • Publication Date: 12-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: The International Peace Academy convened an international policy workshop in New York on 10 December 2001 in the conference room of Chadbourne and Parke LLP bringing together approximately fifty members of the UN system and civil society representatives from around the world. The purpose of the workshop was to follow up on the June 2001 report of the United Nations Secretary-General on the Prevention of Armed Conflict and address some of the opportunities and challenges involved in working to prevent the outbreak of armed conflict in tandem with relevant local actors.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: New York
  • Author: Jake Sherman
  • Publication Date: 09-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Greed and grievance, or “need, creed and greed,” are all important sources of conflict, though the relative weight of each factor varies across cases and across time. Poverty, social inequality, rapid economic decline, large numbers of young unemployed males, and polarized identity politics may all provide the necessary catalyst for conflict, particularly when accompanied by repressive, illegal or extralegal behavior on the part of governments. Yet, as World Bank economist Paul Collier cautions, what motivates conflict and what makes it feasible are separate issues. In general, the existence of some form of grievance, whether economic, political, or social in nature, appears to be the most persuasive motivation for conflict. Greed, or, more broadly, economic motivations — whether the pursuit of resources for war-financing or for elite self-enrichment—appear more significant in sustaining, prolonging, and transforming conflict.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Author: Simon Chesterman
  • Publication Date: 08-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Complex peace operations that involve state-building functions are difficult even when the political outcome is clear, as it is in East Timor. In situations such as Kosovo, where the final status of the territory under administration remains unclear, every aspect of state-building is more politically sensitive and more operationally complex. When this occurs in a highly militarized environment and in an unstable region, any departure from a supposedly “interim” solution becomes more difficult still. The Dayton Accords in Bosnia show the dangers of a difficult peace agreement evolving into a constitutional framework that is both unworkable and impossible to change. The conclusion of hostilities may provide the best incentive for belligerents to compromise, but it may subsequently become impossible to reopen such questions without the threat of renewed violence. Future peace agreements are therefore likely to contain state-building provisions that international institutions will assume the task of overseeing, in some situations without a clear political endpoint and exit strategy. In Kosovo, the elections slated for November 17, 2001, reflect a desire for measurable progress and an indication of when the mission will end. An April 2001 report by the UN Secretary-General on this topic was entitled “No exit without strategy”, warning that the UN has too often withdrawn or dramatically altered a peacekeeping operation, only to see the situation remain unstable or sink into renewed violence. Unfortunately, the attitude of lead actors within the Security Council is too often “no strategy without an exit”. State-building after a war will always take years, perhaps decades, and it is disingenuous to suggest otherwise to domestic publics. Elections and limited devolution notwithstanding, the international community will remain in Kosovo and Bosnia for the foreseeable future, certainly with a strong military presence and with at least a supervisory civilian authority. This is an undesirable outcome of what NATO styles as humanitarian interventions, but it is better than all the alternatives. The fact that UNMIK will remain in control of Kosovo for the foreseeable future raises the question of how it should govern. Within UNMIK, there is an increasing tension between those who regard respect for human rights and the rule of law as central to the institution-building aspect of UNMIK's mandate, and those who see this as secondary to the over-riding concerns of peace and security.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bosnia, Kosovo
  • Author: Sheila Coutts, Kelvin Ong
  • Publication Date: 06-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: While a functioning security sector provides the cornerstone for stable and democratic post-conflict societies, the record of the international community in establishing this critical function is mixed. Despite repeatedly having to manage the immediate post-conflict situation in various peace operations in Europe, Africa, Asia and Latin America, the international community still fails to take the state of the local security sector adequately into account when planning its own intervention.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe, Asia, Latin America
  • Author: Bruce D. Jones
  • Publication Date: 06-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: “Strategic coordination” is shorthand for efforts to respond to three common challenges facing thirdparty implementers of peace agreements: incoherence between the mediation and the implementation phases; conflicting approaches within a given phase; and fragmented, contradictory efforts to implement a given strategy. At worst, failure to deal with these challenges can undermine a peace process; at best, they add costs, reduce effectiveness, and slow success.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Author: Jake Sherman
  • Publication Date: 04-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: Increasing attention is being paid to the involvement and the relative influence of international private sector actors in the political economy of countries and regions experiencing violent conflict. This expert workshop was convened in order to assess the nature of business activity as it relates to violent conflict, to delineate areas where further research is needed, and to consider what policy responses may be needed to mitigate the potentially destabilizing effects of private sector activity in war-torn countries.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Publication Date: 02-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: International Peace Institute
  • Abstract: There is no single “developing world” perspective on UN peace operations — nor, indeed, a single perspective from each of the regions that took part in the consultation. Nevertheless, some broad themes emerged in the course of discussion, conditioned by particular regional experiences with such operations. Each of the meetings emphasized the importance of the Brahimi Report and took note of the timing and resource constraints that limited the scope of the Report essentially to peacekeeping. All meetings in the developing world, where people feel marginalized from UN decision-making, rued the lateness of the consultative process, noting that building a constituency for UN peace operations requires more extensive, deeper, and earlier consultation with a broad range of regional and local actors. At the New York meeting one permanent representative observed that, returning to the organization after a fifteen-year absence, he saw that the UN, too, was now being affected by the global demand for transparency and accountability.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, International Law, International Organization, Migration, United Nations
  • Political Geography: New York