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  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Russia is at a crossroads. Current levels of national economic growth cannot be sustained without significantly restructuring the country's economic system. If economic growth is not sustained, financing for important social reforms will face serious strains, and expectations that have been built up among the Russian population over the past five years will go unrealized. As a result, the political system and the population's long - term well being will be put at risk. To counter this danger, Russia needs to change its national consciousness away from social paternalism and towards competitiveness. This needs to be implemented in a way that Russian citizens, politicians and business people can understand and support. Russia can only meet its expectations of long - term growth and a higher overall standard of living by increasing levels of competitiveness across sectors and delivering tangible and positive results to its citizens.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Population, Reform
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Stoyan Totev, Maria Boyadjieva
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with increasing intra-regional disparities. It appears also that the regional inequalities in South east Europe are relatively high creating in the same time significantly higher economic and social problems. That refers to Bulgaria, Macedonia and FR Yugoslavia whereas every reform face serious difficulties due to the lower readiness for accession to the EU structures as well as for their backwardness in the economic development. In countries like Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia there exist enough resources for facing the negative effects from one or another reform as well as the necessary readiness of the population the reform s to be carried out.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: On March 14-15, 2003, over a hundred participants, including Ministers, Deputy Ministers and high level government officials, Mayors and Prefects, representatives of Chambers of Commerce, development agencies and the NGO sector met in Thessaloniki, Greece, alongside representatives of international organizations, for a two day conference on ëFostering Stability and Sustainable Development via Institutional Transfrontier Cooperation in the Lake Prespa/Ohrid Region.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Europe, Macedonia
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The fourth regular round table discussion, organized by the George Russell Centre for Corporate Competitiveness (GRCCC) within the framework of the open discussion "The Future of Russia: Developing Global Competitiveness" took place on July 11, 2003 in the Moscow Centre of the EastWest Institute. The theme of the round table was: "VAT Administration: Is Reform Necessary?". Leading Russian experts, largely members of the George Russell Centre expert group, participated in the discussion.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia, Moscow
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: On June 26, 2003 the third regular round - table discussion within open discussion “Future of Russia: Global Competitiveness Development” took place in the Moscow Center of the EastWest Institute. The topic under discussion was: When is it time for competitiveness development strategy for companies?”
  • Topic: Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia, Moscow
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: On June 11, 2003 the second regular round - table discussion within open discussion “Future of Russia: Global Competitiveness Development” took place in the Moscow Center of the EastWest Institute. The topic under discussion was: ”Financial System of Russia: Threats and challenges of the 21st century”.
  • Topic: Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia, Moscow
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: At the strong initiative of the Mayors of the cities of Niš, Skopje and Sofia, and with the active support of the EastWest Institute's Programme for Transfrontier Cooperation, a long-term process was launched to intensify transfrontier cooperation between the border regions of the Republic of Bulgaria, the FYR Macedonia and the FR of Yugoslavia. The overall objective of this initiative is to employ intensified cross-border cooperation as a tool for regional economic development and integration within this Niš-Skoplje-Sofia Triangle, as well as to foster conditions of prosperity, security and peaceful co-existence between neighboring peoples and states.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Economics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Maryland
  • Author: A.M. Lavrov
  • Publication Date: 01-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Improvement of the financial relations between the Federation and the regions still remains quite an urgent problem. The Concept of Reforming Inter budgetary Relations in the Russian Federation in 1999 — 2000 is being implemented; Russia's Finance Ministry has developed the Concept of Reforming Budget Federalism in the Russian Federation to 2005, which will soon be approved by the Government; a special section on interbudgetary relations has been included in the Main Long- Term Trends of Socio-Economic Policy of the Russian Federation Government program, drafted by the Strategic Research Center.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Bosnia
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: At the strong initiative of the Mayors of the ci ties of Niš, Skopje and Sofia, and with the active support of the EastWest Institute's Programme for Transfrontier Cooperation, a long-term process was launched to intensify transfrontier cooperation between the border regions of the Republic of Bulgaria, the FY R Macedonia and the FR of Yugoslavia. The overall objective of this initiative is to employ intensified cross-border cooperation as a tool for regional economic development and integration within this Niš-Skoplje-Sofia Triangle, as well as to foster conditions of prosperity, security and peaceful co-existence between neighboring peoples and states.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia
  • Author: Eugene Spiro
  • Publication Date: 08-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The Banking and Finance Assistance Centre (BFAC) of the East West Institute is an independent, international centre whose mission is to provide assistance to financial sector leaders in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). BFAC was established in 1992 by the East West Institute in response to the need expressed by bank executives and finance officials in CEE for a centre to provide impartial, professional, technical advice and assistance in the course of designing and implementing reform initiatives. Supported, among others, by the EWI network and in particular the United States Agency for International Development, BFAC's projects also cover capital markets and pension reform and small- and medium-sized enterprise development.
  • Topic: Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Alexei Makushkin
  • Publication Date: 11-1999
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: In the period of the Soviet rule public finances formed the basis of the national economy and, consequently, were the key factor determining the relationship between the Central power and the regions. Beginning with the proclamation of the sovereignty of the Russian Federation in 1 99 1 the role of the Center and the regions changed. The State has reduced its influence on the national economy, largely due to the reduction of the share of the GDP reallocated through the Central budgetary system. In 1 999 the volume of the budgetary reallocated product made only 14- 1 5% of the total. The relationship between the federal budget and the system of the regional finances became very complicated and oblique. The state economic sector has decreased, power has become decentralized in Russia.
  • Topic: Security, Economics, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia, Soviet Union
  • Publication Date: 03-1999
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The perception that the disintegration of the Soviet Union constituted a major challenge to Russia's security is of a political and psychological, rather than an economic nature. The countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia—Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan—are neither an irreplaceable resource base for the Russian economy nor the only available market for its non-competitive products. Any efforts to see it otherwise will induce the region to strengthen its economic and military security with the help of outside powers as a buffer against Russia's ambitions for greater control.
  • Topic: Security, Economics
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Kazakhstan, Asia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Soviet Union, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Angola
  • Author: Dag Hartelius, Natasha Randall
  • Publication Date: 11-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Over the last year we have witnessed a deteriorating climate in Russian-Western relations - or at least this has been the perception. The Russian financial crisis has accelerated the trend in Russia to blame the West - in particular the US - for their troubles. In America and Europe a new debate has been spawned on what kind of Russia we are now dealing with. Old truths, or old perceptions, are being questioned and relations are being reassessed.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, America, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Rado Petkov, Rick Petree
  • Publication Date: 09-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The Communist dominated Duma sent a stern message to President Yelstin on September 7th by rejecting his nominee, Viktor Chernomyrdin, for the second time. The vote was 273 against and 138 for (with one abstention). While Chernomyrdin's showing improved substantially from the Duma's first ballot, he still fell far short of the 226 votes needed for Duma approval. Furthermore, his gains came largely from Zhirinovsky's nationalist faction, which has a crass history of trading votes to “the highest bidder.” Yelstin's opposition, on the other hand, benefited from the support of independent deputies comprising a group called “Regions of Russia”: their approval of Chernomyrdin dropped from 86% to 50% in the second round.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Allen Collinsworth, Robert Orttung, Rado Petkov, Rick Petree
  • Publication Date: 08-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: At approximately 12.30 p.m. EST today, the Duma rejected Chernomyrdin's nomination as Prime Minister by an open ballot vote of 251-94 (with 105 abstaining). 226 votes are needed to confirm him. Chernomyrdin's own Our Home Is Russia party provided most of his support (64 votes). Zhirinovsky's party, the Liberal Democrats, abstained (49 votes). Analysts underscored the weakness of support for Chernomyrdin by noting that, in the first round of voting on the nomination of Prime Minister Kiriyenko five months ago, Kiriyenko polled 143 votes in favor. This was in secret balloting, however, which to some extent invalidates the comparison.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Rado Petkov, Rick Petree
  • Publication Date: 08-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The latest private reports from Moscow indicate that the Duma is very likely to reject Viktor Chernomyrdin's candidacy for Prime minister next week. Tomorrow, Aug. 28 th , at 3:00 pm, the Duma and the Federation Council will meet to decide whether to recommend a vote on Chernomyrdin's candidacy. Whereas Chernomyrdin's chances are bleak, the fluid nature of current Russian political situation makes it impossible to firmly rule out his confirmation as prime minister, a post which he very much wants.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Rado Petkov, Rick Petree
  • Publication Date: 08-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Since our Aug. 20th report, the situation in Russia has developed dramatically. On Friday (Aug. 21st), the lower house of the Russian parliament (the Duma) overwhelmingly called for Yeltsin's resignation and changes in the government and the leadership of the central bank. The Duma also passed a non-binding resolution demanding nationalization of some banks and restriction of foreign participation in domestic capital markets. In response, the RTS index of leading Russian shares fell 5.56% to 81.76 on negligible trading volume of $4.2 million. Central bank head Dubinin announced plans to activate Russia's precious metals reserves (approximately $5 billion of $15.1 billion total foreign exchange reserves) to support the ruble. On Sunday, Aug. 23rd, in an action anticipated in our Aug. 17th report, Yeltsin dismissed Prime Minister Sergei Kiriyenko and installed in his place Viktor Chernomyrdin.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Rado Petkov, Rick Petree
  • Publication Date: 08-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Russian capital markets were already in what George Soros described as a “financial meltdown in . . . its terminal phase” on August 12th. Since then, capital markets have deteriorated significantly in reaction to measures announced by the Russian Government on Monday, Aug. 17th (summarized in Section II below). IEWS is actively evaluating the nature and extent of the crisis and trying to project its likely course.
  • Topic: Conflict Prevention, Economics, Government
  • Political Geography: Russia, Europe, Asia
  • Publication Date: 05-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Doubts were expressed as to the extent one could define the Caucasus and Central Asia as a single region, particularly for the purposes of exploring the potential for subregional cooperation to develop among its constituent states. External considerations (complex relationship between Russia and the states involved; presence of other outside actors; energy transit perspectives; influence of external conflict, i.e. Afghanistan) may point towards consideration of the Southern Tier as one region. However, internal perspectives, geographical, historical, political and cultural, suggest that treating subregionalism separately in the Caucasus and Central Asia might be a more realistic and potentially fruitful approach.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: New York, Europe, Eurasia, Eastern Europe, Maryland
  • Publication Date: 04-1998
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: The decision to enlarge the European Union to applicant countries in Central and Eastern Europe is by far the most important instrument to secure the process of democratic and market economic reform in the new, post-Cold War Europe. To implement and manage this decision is indeed a challenge to both the existing members of the Union and the applicants. In principle, the roadmap is clear. Together with the acquis communautaire , the 1993 Copenhagen criteria outline the main framework for the way to full membership. The Union has further developed its enlargement strategy in the Agenda 2000 presented in July 1997.
  • Topic: Economics, Regional Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Maryland