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  • Author: Dennis J.D. Sandole, Predrag Jureković, Ernst M. Felberbauer, Franz-Lothar Altmann, Jolyon Naegele, Amadeo Watkins, Sandro Knezović, Plamen Pantev, Dušan Janjić, Matthew Rhodes, Sonja Biserko, Nina Dobrković, John F. Erath, Dragana Klincov, Lulzim Peci, Denisa Saraljić-Maglić, Heinz Vetschera, Frederic Labarre
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: In this article, I examine the prospects and challenges for co-operative security in the Balkans in the wake of recommendations for Kosovo's final status offered recently to the UN Security Council by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari. On the assumption that Ahtisaari's proposals represent a zero-sum gain for the Kosovar Albanians and corresponding loss for the Serbs, I recommend a reframing of his plan that may be more likely to lead to sustainable peace, security, and stability in the Balkans, with implications for similar conflicts elsewhere.
  • Topic: NATO, Democratization, Development, Regional Cooperation, International Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, United Nations, Balkans
  • Author: Ayse Nilufer Narli, Akif Ayhan, Katerina Badikova, Nadya Dimitrova, Sueda Elif Tuba Dündar, Basak Kale, Ladan Rahmani
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: During the past decade, human trafficking and smuggling grew to a diverse multibillion dollar business across South East Europe and the entire globe. The concern about human smuggling and trafficking extends far beyond matters of security and law enforcement. The cost in human suffering and exploitation that often accompanies smuggling and trafficking cause human rights violations and deplete human capital in origin countries.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Hermine Vidovic
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: In contrast to the Central European transition countries, the economies of South East Europe (SEE) have been facing complex and interrelated political and economic problems. The dis solution of Yugoslavia combined with market losses, war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, sanctions finally culminating in the Kosovo conflict were the main causes of political and economic instability in the whole region. Taking into account these factors, output recovery has been much slower in SEE than in the Central European countries. Measured in purchasing power standards, Croatia is the best per former in the region, with its GDP at about 38% of the EU average. Next comes Bulgaria (32%), whereas the respective values f or Serbia and Montenegro and Albania range between 15-17%. Looking at the economic performance in the 1990-2002 period, Croatia and Romania reached almost 94% of their pre-transitional level in 2002, followed by Bulgaria and Macedonia (about 88% each). Serbia and Montenegro, the worst-affected, reached only about half of what it was in 1990. The cumulative output decline there was one of the largest among all the Central and East European countries.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Development, Sanctions
  • Political Geography: United States, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Croatia, Montenegro
  • Author: Plamen Pantev
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: The Pact of Stability for South East Europe was “born” after the end of the Kosovo crisis in 1999 as a concept of dealing radically with the Balkan instabilities, but also as a geopolitical compromise of the great power centres, involved in the treatment of the post-Yugoslav conflicts. The ripeness of launching this concept and policy had several dimensions: Most of the countries from South East Europe, especially those in transition to democracy and market economy, had a definite strategy of integrating in both the European Union and in NATO; A certain level of regional cooperation had already been reached in the years that preceded the Kosovo crisis in 1999; Influential external powers had already realised that the Balkans need to be treated in the long-term only in a benign way to overcome historical deficiencies and belated modernisation of the economy, society, politics, technology and infrastructure; The disgusting consequences of four post-Yugoslav wars – a development that did not happen to two other former federal structures in Central and Eastern Europe (the Czechoslovak and the Soviet) necessitated a comprehensive and encompassing approach to deal with the plethora of issues in the Balkans, and the EU gradually evolved to the understanding that an additional strategic instrument needs to be launched to cope with the risks and instabilities in the region of South East Europe on the way of its own expansion and of turning the Balkan Peninsula into an integral part of the Union.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Development, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Kosovo, Balkans
  • Author: Dennis J.D. Sandole
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: My general goal in this presentation, as it is for all of us at this workshop, is to examine the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe: the "pearl of the German presidency of the European Union" adopted in Köln on 10 June 1999, the day that NATO's 78-day bombing campaign of Serbia ceased.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, NATO, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Germany, Serbia
  • Author: Gjergj Murra
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: These past three years have been a useful learning process for the Stability Pact. Some achievements are visible, but there also has been much criticism with regards to its real outcome and performance. However, an independent assessment of the process is needed to analyse what is functioning well, and what could be improved, as judged by participants from the region. So far either no through assessment is done, or assessment have been at project level, (technical, in terms of project completion, disbursement, timing, task performed), not in terms of the political goal that projects were designed to achieve. One of the main lessons appears to be the need to refine the approach and priorities. Some topics have already found an answer, while for some other a clearer vision in needed.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, NATO, International Cooperation, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Bernd Papenkort
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: In the Balkans, the international community has made numerous costly efforts with the intention of laying the foundations for political stability and economic prosperity as well as giving the local population social perspectives. In view of recent developments in international politics (e.g. the fight against terrorism, the developments in Afghanistan) and political focal points such as the conflict between Israel and Palestine, we should, however, critically take stock of what has been achieved so far and consider measures of adjustment, where necessary. The following theses are food for thought, and I hope they will trigger a lively discussion.
  • Topic: Economics, International Cooperation, International Organization, Non-Governmental Organization, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Israel, Eastern Europe, Palestine, Balkans
  • Author: Sabri Ergen
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: Let me start my words by quoting from a Security Sector Reform inventory (a gaps analysis paper) that just became available. It encompasses the target states of the Stability Pact. We commissioned this analysis from York University in Canada at the end of last year. We hope to release the project before the end of this year. The inventory is a living document to be updated as required and it contains over 400 entries. It is the largest database that exists in terms of security sector reform-related activities in the region.
  • Topic: Security, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Canada, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Erhard Busek
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: I am not going to tell you what the Stability pact is, because I am sure you are able to look on its web site for more information. What I want to present is a general overview of which role the Stability pact is playing in the development of today's Europe. I think we are heading the wrong direction because we are only looking at details and not at the total picture.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Sonja Moser-Starrach
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: Ever since the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement in December of 1995, the Council of Europe has pursued a policy of promoting a stable, democratic state, with a view to its integration, at the appropriate time, as a full member of the Council. After almost six and a half years, that time has come.
  • Topic: Human Rights, International Cooperation, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Mladen Stanicic
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: The Stability Pact is a strategic concept whose aim is to warrant long- term peace and stability in South-Eastern Europe. It is becoming an indispensable element of the global security structure which is currently being constructed in relations between the big powers, the USA, Russia and China, with the active participation of the United Nations, the European Union, international financial institutions and individual countries. As one of the sponsors of the pact, the European Union is keenly interested in stability and peace among its next-door neighbours, some of whom are covered by the pending eastern enlargement. This enlargement is intended to transcend centuries of civilisational and religious divisions in Europe, the causes of many political and armed conflicts in the past. The vision of Europe in the 21st century, reaching all the way to the borders of the former Soviet Union, is that of a multicultural community encompassing states with diverse civilisational, religious, ethnic and cultural characteristics.
  • Topic: Security, Globalization, International Cooperation, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, China, Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Vladimir Bilandzic
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: I would have to start this presentation with a disclaimer. When I was kindly invited to give a perspective from Serbia on the issue we are discussing at this seminar, I told the organisers that my contribution could not be regarded as a representative one, since I work for an international organisation - the OSCE - in Belgrade. At the same time, I cannot claim that my views represent the views of the organisation I work for. So, what I am going to say are my personal views, based of course on my experience and research on Southeast European politics, especially in the countries of former Yugoslavia. Therefore, while apologising for not being in a position to give a more authoritative presentation, I will try to give a meaningful contribution on the subject, especially from a perspective of someone coming from Belgrade.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia
  • Author: Frederic Labarre
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: This paper attempts to argue that the current structure of relations in South East Europe (SEE) and in the Balkans in particular requires regional, or local, integration before any membership in greater bodies (like the European Union) can be considered.
  • Topic: Security, International Cooperation, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Enver Hasani
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: The Stability Pact was launched on the eve of the Kosova war and conflict Paradoxically, though, Kosova has so far benefited the lest from it. Only very recently Kosova managed to have its own representative in it. This is a sign that the same mistakes are being made vis-à-vis Kosova as in the past, seeing the region as a bogus or maverick part of the far South-East of Europe.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Balkans
  • Author: Drago Pilsel
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: The Role of the media in the Regional Co-operation in SEE is one of the crucial aspects of the Stability Pact for South East Europe, especially in the Democratisation and Human Rights Task Force. Without democratic institutions that work effectively and the democratic development of a state under the rule of law there can be no long-term economic development and prosperity. Equally, democratisation and non-discrimination are also fundamental preconditions for guaranteeing internal and external security. Democracy and Human Rights: Deep-rooted democratic habits and a vibrant civil society constitute the foundation upon which the achievement of the objectives of the Pact can be built.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Human Rights, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Sefko Alomerovic
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: Each conversation about Sand_ak as one of the paradigms of political crises in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is in Serbia and Montenegro, would have to be started with basic data about the area itself, about the causes and the nature of problems that exist concerning Sand_ak and within it, starting from the time when it was, under the title the "sand_ak question", for the first time the subject of interest of the international community, far away in 1858.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Ethnic Conflict, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia, Serbia, Montenegro
  • Author: Udo Janz
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: The UN Special Rapporteur for the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, F. Capotori, offered a formulation of a definition of minorities in 1979: a minority must be a "non-dominant" group; its members must possess "ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics differing from those of the rest of the population", and they must also show, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed towards preserving their culture, traditions, religion or language".
  • Topic: Security, Ethnic Conflict, International Cooperation, Population
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, United Nations
  • Author: Plamen Pantev
  • Publication Date: 02-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: Approaching and testing the capacity and effectiveness of the nation-states in the Balkans is a long-term research necessity for many reasons: First, despite the tendency of making the state boundaries less and less significant in the era of new information technology, global economy and new communications capabilities the nation-state will remain the key organisational unit of the international system and the features of national sovereignty will continue to dominate and influence the management toolbox of international relations and domestic politics. Hence, any form and nuance of the nation-state in the Balkans will have a decisive meaning for dealing with the political and security agenda of the region.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Ethnic Conflict, Globalization
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Balkans