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  • Author: Gerald LeMelle
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Welcome to International Affairs Forum's fourth special publication. We are once again delighted to be able to offer our readers a diverse collection of views, and I hope everyone will find something of interest. I think this publication stands out not only because of the quality of contributors, who have been generous enough to give up their valuable time over such a busy period, but also the range of subjects and geographical reach—we have contributors based on four continents and from nine countries covering everything from defense policy through Brand America and U.S.-India relations. I don't wish to add anything to the enormous amount of ink spilled over the historic nature of the recent election, except to say that whatever one's views of the past eight years—and this publication contains a full range of them—living in Tokyo has demonstrated to me time and again that although this is the Asian century, the world's eyes have been, and still are, very much on the United States of America and what Barack Obama will do in office.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, Government
  • Political Geography: United States, America, India, Asia, Tokyo
  • Author: Briggs Bomba
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Great Zimbabwe, the monument, is an imposing structure of stone blocks daringly constructed without mortar. The ruined ancient city, still majestic in its presence, is said to be the biggest ancient stone structure in Africa outside the Egyptian pyramids. This impressive fortress stood for hundreds of years defying time and weather to become not only a national symbol of strength, audacious vision, and power but also a firm footprint and testimony to ancient ingenuity on the African continent. Zimbabwe, the country, born in 1980 following independence from almost a century of British colonial rule, lies prostate today, ruined like the ancient city from which it got its name. For the past decade, the country has been coming apart block by block. Evidently, like the ruins, the country of Zimbabwe was constructed without mortar.
  • Topic: Democratization, Post Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt
  • Author: George Shepherd, Peter Van Arsdale, Negin Sobhani, Nicole Tanner, Frederick AgyemanDuah
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Africa Today Associates, Inc. (ATA) is a 501 (C) (3) non-profit organization registered in the United States of America. The organization was created in 1967 to publish the journal Africa Today and to address significant human rights issues involving the African continent. The journal had been launched in 1954 by Professor George Shepherd, the first Director of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), to educate the public on Africa's struggle against colonialism. When ACOA could no longer publish the journal, ATA was moved to the University of Denver's Graduate School of International Studies (recently renamed the Josef Korbel School of International Studies). Since 2000, the journal has been owned and published by the University of Indiana Press.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, Washington, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Over the past decade, Africa's status in U.S. national security policy has risen dramatically, for three main reasons: America's growing dependence on Africa's oil exports, Africa's importance as a major battlefield in America's “Global War on Terrorism,” and Africa's central position in the global competition between America and China for economic and political power.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Oil, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, America, Ghana
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Major accomplishments in global health over the last decade demonstrate that adequately resourced programs, focused on achieving specific results, can improve health outcomes for millions and support economic progress. They also show that distinct public health challenges are closely interconnected and that a comprehensive and integrated strategy is needed to ensure that ambitious health goals are met.
  • Topic: Globalization, Health, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since 2003, the United Nations have passed nineteen Resolutions on Darfur, including Security Council Resolution 1706, the only instance in history of a UN peacekeeping mission that was authorized and failed to deploy. On July 31, 2007, Security Council Resolution 1769 again authorized a multinational UN-led peacekeeping force for Darfur – the “hybrid” African Union/United Nations operation termed UNAMID. UNAMID officially assumed control of peacekeeping operations in Darfur on December 31, 2007, however, its deployment is well behind the timetable laid out by the Security Council. Force Commander General Martin Agwai and UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guéhenno have continued to warn that unless 2008 sees a substantial change in international action, UNAMID risks succumbing to Khartoum's obstructionism and facing a similar aborted fate as its predecessor mission authorized by Resolution 1706.
  • Topic: United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Due to the perceived importance of Africa in the U.S. “war on terror” and the increasing U.S. dependence on African oil, President Bush announced on February 6, 2007 the establishment of a Unified Command for U.S. military forces in Africa, known as AFRICOM. According to Bush, “The Africa command will enhance our efforts to bring peace and security to the people of Africa and promote our common goals of development, health, education, democracy, and economic growth in Africa.
  • Topic: Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This February, the Sudanese government launched a series of direct assaults on towns and villages in West Darfur that harkened back to the worst periods of violence since the current conflict in Sudan's western region began in 2003. Military aircraft, including Antonov transport planes used as bombers and helicopter gunships accompanied Sudanese Armed Forces and government-supported proxy militia in attacking the towns of Sirbu, Silea and Abu Siruj, among others. While these towns were located in a region controlled by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel group, no evidence provided by the government of Sudan, international journalists or human rights groups indicates that rebel elements were present in these communities at the time of assault.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Terrorism, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, Sudan, Asia
  • Author: Matt Levy
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Sudan is known to most Americans today for the ongoing genocide in its western region of Darfur, yet the problems facing this country are more complex than many activists are aware. As the largest country in Africa and the size of the United States East of the Mississippi River1, Sudan faces many challenges, governance chief among them. Shaped by its history, modern Sudan experienced two phases of civil war between the North and South (1955-1972 and 1983- 2005) killing more than two million while displacing many millions more. In 2005, this conflict ceased with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). However, it is in danger of erupting once again if CPA implementation continues to be delayed due to Khartoum's intransigence on many issues and the capacity challenges faced by the Government of Southern Sudan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, America, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: “Fear and anxiety concern the post-election process. The most frequent comment from the residents and well as others: 'will the old man rig the election; will the count be fair...?' The fear of a stolen election and the possible outbreak of spontaneous violence creates a palpable anxiety throughout the country.”
  • Topic: Political Violence, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe