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  • Author: Briggs Bomba
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Great Zimbabwe, the monument, is an imposing structure of stone blocks daringly constructed without mortar. The ruined ancient city, still majestic in its presence, is said to be the biggest ancient stone structure in Africa outside the Egyptian pyramids. This impressive fortress stood for hundreds of years defying time and weather to become not only a national symbol of strength, audacious vision, and power but also a firm footprint and testimony to ancient ingenuity on the African continent. Zimbabwe, the country, born in 1980 following independence from almost a century of British colonial rule, lies prostate today, ruined like the ancient city from which it got its name. For the past decade, the country has been coming apart block by block. Evidently, like the ruins, the country of Zimbabwe was constructed without mortar.
  • Topic: Democratization, Post Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt
  • Author: George Shepherd, Peter Van Arsdale, Negin Sobhani, Nicole Tanner, Frederick AgyemanDuah
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Africa Today Associates, Inc. (ATA) is a 501 (C) (3) non-profit organization registered in the United States of America. The organization was created in 1967 to publish the journal Africa Today and to address significant human rights issues involving the African continent. The journal had been launched in 1954 by Professor George Shepherd, the first Director of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), to educate the public on Africa's struggle against colonialism. When ACOA could no longer publish the journal, ATA was moved to the University of Denver's Graduate School of International Studies (recently renamed the Josef Korbel School of International Studies). Since 2000, the journal has been owned and published by the University of Indiana Press.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, Washington, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Over the past decade, Africa's status in U.S. national security policy has risen dramatically, for three main reasons: America's growing dependence on Africa's oil exports, Africa's importance as a major battlefield in America's “Global War on Terrorism,” and Africa's central position in the global competition between America and China for economic and political power.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Oil, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, America, Ghana
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since 2003, the United Nations have passed nineteen Resolutions on Darfur, including Security Council Resolution 1706, the only instance in history of a UN peacekeeping mission that was authorized and failed to deploy. On July 31, 2007, Security Council Resolution 1769 again authorized a multinational UN-led peacekeeping force for Darfur – the “hybrid” African Union/United Nations operation termed UNAMID. UNAMID officially assumed control of peacekeeping operations in Darfur on December 31, 2007, however, its deployment is well behind the timetable laid out by the Security Council. Force Commander General Martin Agwai and UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guéhenno have continued to warn that unless 2008 sees a substantial change in international action, UNAMID risks succumbing to Khartoum's obstructionism and facing a similar aborted fate as its predecessor mission authorized by Resolution 1706.
  • Topic: United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Due to the perceived importance of Africa in the U.S. “war on terror” and the increasing U.S. dependence on African oil, President Bush announced on February 6, 2007 the establishment of a Unified Command for U.S. military forces in Africa, known as AFRICOM. According to Bush, “The Africa command will enhance our efforts to bring peace and security to the people of Africa and promote our common goals of development, health, education, democracy, and economic growth in Africa.
  • Topic: Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This February, the Sudanese government launched a series of direct assaults on towns and villages in West Darfur that harkened back to the worst periods of violence since the current conflict in Sudan's western region began in 2003. Military aircraft, including Antonov transport planes used as bombers and helicopter gunships accompanied Sudanese Armed Forces and government-supported proxy militia in attacking the towns of Sirbu, Silea and Abu Siruj, among others. While these towns were located in a region controlled by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel group, no evidence provided by the government of Sudan, international journalists or human rights groups indicates that rebel elements were present in these communities at the time of assault.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Terrorism, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, Sudan, Asia
  • Author: Matt Levy
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Sudan is known to most Americans today for the ongoing genocide in its western region of Darfur, yet the problems facing this country are more complex than many activists are aware. As the largest country in Africa and the size of the United States East of the Mississippi River1, Sudan faces many challenges, governance chief among them. Shaped by its history, modern Sudan experienced two phases of civil war between the North and South (1955-1972 and 1983- 2005) killing more than two million while displacing many millions more. In 2005, this conflict ceased with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). However, it is in danger of erupting once again if CPA implementation continues to be delayed due to Khartoum's intransigence on many issues and the capacity challenges faced by the Government of Southern Sudan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, America, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: “Fear and anxiety concern the post-election process. The most frequent comment from the residents and well as others: 'will the old man rig the election; will the count be fair...?' The fear of a stolen election and the possible outbreak of spontaneous violence creates a palpable anxiety throughout the country.”
  • Topic: Political Violence, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: “The fear and anxiety concerns the post-election process. The most frequent comment from Zimbabweans and from those watching the process: “Will the old man rig the election? Will the count be fair...?” The fear of a stolen election and the possible outbreak of spontaneous violence have created a palpable anxiety throughout the country”
  • Topic: Political Violence, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Sameer Dossani
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation announced a plan to “help millions of small-scale farmers lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.” In the years since, those foundations have been joined in their efforts by a number of other organizations and have founded the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Humanitarian Aid, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Analysts, policy makers and experts are now accepting that the conflicts in Chad and Sudan have mutually reinforcing dynamics. Chad's internal political instability is having devastating consequences on the peace processes in Sudan and the Central African Republic (CAR). The U.N. Security Council Sanctions Committee Panel of Experts on Sudan stated that Chad supports Sudanese insurgent groups with arms, ammunition, vehicles, food, training and safe haven Violations of humanitarian law and international human rights continue unabated in the region and violators in eastern Chad operate in an environment of almost total impunity. A new U.S. Government strategy must be created to stabilize Chad and bring to an end the continued degradation of conditions in the region. This strategy must work in parallel with the peace process for Sudan and with the efforts led by the “Contact Group” to normalize Chad-Sudan relations.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Health, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Peace Studies, United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Author: Briggs Bomba
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The world's attention has been riveted in 2008, by election crises in Africa, first Kenya, and now Zimbabwe. In both cases, challenges remain in converting electoral victory to political power. Can a victorious opposition come to power in the face of an obstinate incumbent? This question is particularly relevant when the incumbent regime controls the coercive apparatus of the state and the opposition only has the ballot in its corner. In the battle of the ballot vs. the bullet, can there ever be a fair match?
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, Political Economy, Post Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Victoria Okoye
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: HIV/AIDS continues to claim the lives of more African men, women and children than any other disease or conflict. As populations across the continent experience the destructive effects of this pandemic, the most marginalized communities feel the brunt. Africa Action calls for a new and intense international focus on the situation of African women, as the only effective means to combat this pandemic.
  • Topic: Economics, Health, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Stephanie Parker
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Almost 40 million people around the world are currently living with HIV/AIDS. The number of people affected by the AIDS pandemic has steadily climbed over the last decade, devastating entire populations and destroying communities, especially in Africa. While the international community has yet to find a solution to this grave threat to global health, innovations in drug development have allowed countless people to significantly prolong their lives through HIV/AIDS medication, specifically antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). This valuable medicine, however, is available only to a small portion of people living with HIV. Millions of people, the majority of which live in the Global South, are unable to receive drug treatment because they cannot afford the high costs of the medicine.
  • Topic: Health
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Until recently, Sudan could be described as a country at war and at peace. Since gaining independence from Britain in 1956, Sudan has suffered near continual civil war and has been ruled by a series of military dictatorships. While there are many different fronts to Sudan's current conflicts, the two crises that receive the most attention from international media are the genocide in Darfur and the North-South conflict. This Africa Action report outlines current circumstances and explains the linkages and distinctions among conflict areas across Sudan and addresses a series of misperceptions and myths that have impeded an effective international response to the crisis in Darfur.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Britain, Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The HIV/AIDS pandemic is the greatest global threat in the world today. Africa is ground zero of the crisis – home to over two-thirds of those living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis is the direct result of centuries of global injustice. Now, African efforts to defeat HIV/AIDS are hindered by insufficient resources and by U.S. and international policies that restrict access to essential treatment and comprehensive health care. The rapidly approaching November 2008 elections represent a tremendous opportunity to change this frustrating reality. The next U.S. President must make the fight against HIV/AIDS a priority in his or her administration.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Six months ago, at the end of August 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed a critical resolution, authorizing a robust UN peacekeeping force for Darfur, western Sudan. This act was the result of years of advocacy and international political wrangling, against the backdrop of escalating violence in Darfur. The resolution expressed the will and intent of the international community to send a 22,000-strong UN force to Darfur, to supplement the African Union (AU) mission and to provide protection to civilians and humanitarian operations on the ground.
  • Topic: Development, Peace Studies, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The international community is running out of options on Darfur. The death toll in western Sudan continues to mount as the latest wave of government -sponsored violence intensifies. Tens of thousands of people have been newly displaced in recent week s. Reports from the United Nations (UN) and the media indicate that the crisis is now at its worst point ever: the Sudanese government is arming its proxy militias to a greater extent than ever before, violence is reaching more deeply into Chad, and insecurity is constraining the humanitarian response throughout Darfur and leaving millions of lives in increasing jeopardy.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: On August 31, 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed Resolution 1706, authorizing the deployment of a robust UN peacekeeping force to provide protection for the people of Darfur. This proposed force would transition from the current African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which has had neither the resources nor the numbers to ensure security in the region. Africa Action welcomed the passage of this Security Council Resolution as an important step forward. It recognized the need for an international intervention in Darfur and the responsibility of the international community to take new action on this crisis.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In 1994, an estimated 800,000 people died in Rwanda, as the U.S. and the international community failed to mount an intervention to stop genocide. Senior U.S. officials later expressed regret, and acknowledged that this crime against humanity should have invoked a more urgent and active response. It is reported that President Bush reviewed a memo on the Rwandan genocide early in his presidency and wrote “Not on my Watch” in the margin of that document.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Rwanda