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  • Author: Briggs Bomba
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Great Zimbabwe, the monument, is an imposing structure of stone blocks daringly constructed without mortar. The ruined ancient city, still majestic in its presence, is said to be the biggest ancient stone structure in Africa outside the Egyptian pyramids. This impressive fortress stood for hundreds of years defying time and weather to become not only a national symbol of strength, audacious vision, and power but also a firm footprint and testimony to ancient ingenuity on the African continent. Zimbabwe, the country, born in 1980 following independence from almost a century of British colonial rule, lies prostate today, ruined like the ancient city from which it got its name. For the past decade, the country has been coming apart block by block. Evidently, like the ruins, the country of Zimbabwe was constructed without mortar.
  • Topic: Democratization, Post Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt
  • Author: George Shepherd, Peter Van Arsdale, Negin Sobhani, Nicole Tanner, Frederick AgyemanDuah
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Africa Today Associates, Inc. (ATA) is a 501 (C) (3) non-profit organization registered in the United States of America. The organization was created in 1967 to publish the journal Africa Today and to address significant human rights issues involving the African continent. The journal had been launched in 1954 by Professor George Shepherd, the first Director of the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), to educate the public on Africa's struggle against colonialism. When ACOA could no longer publish the journal, ATA was moved to the University of Denver's Graduate School of International Studies (recently renamed the Josef Korbel School of International Studies). Since 2000, the journal has been owned and published by the University of Indiana Press.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, Washington, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Over the past decade, Africa's status in U.S. national security policy has risen dramatically, for three main reasons: America's growing dependence on Africa's oil exports, Africa's importance as a major battlefield in America's “Global War on Terrorism,” and Africa's central position in the global competition between America and China for economic and political power.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Oil, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, America, Ghana
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since 2003, the United Nations have passed nineteen Resolutions on Darfur, including Security Council Resolution 1706, the only instance in history of a UN peacekeeping mission that was authorized and failed to deploy. On July 31, 2007, Security Council Resolution 1769 again authorized a multinational UN-led peacekeeping force for Darfur – the “hybrid” African Union/United Nations operation termed UNAMID. UNAMID officially assumed control of peacekeeping operations in Darfur on December 31, 2007, however, its deployment is well behind the timetable laid out by the Security Council. Force Commander General Martin Agwai and UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guéhenno have continued to warn that unless 2008 sees a substantial change in international action, UNAMID risks succumbing to Khartoum's obstructionism and facing a similar aborted fate as its predecessor mission authorized by Resolution 1706.
  • Topic: United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Due to the perceived importance of Africa in the U.S. “war on terror” and the increasing U.S. dependence on African oil, President Bush announced on February 6, 2007 the establishment of a Unified Command for U.S. military forces in Africa, known as AFRICOM. According to Bush, “The Africa command will enhance our efforts to bring peace and security to the people of Africa and promote our common goals of development, health, education, democracy, and economic growth in Africa.
  • Topic: Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This February, the Sudanese government launched a series of direct assaults on towns and villages in West Darfur that harkened back to the worst periods of violence since the current conflict in Sudan's western region began in 2003. Military aircraft, including Antonov transport planes used as bombers and helicopter gunships accompanied Sudanese Armed Forces and government-supported proxy militia in attacking the towns of Sirbu, Silea and Abu Siruj, among others. While these towns were located in a region controlled by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel group, no evidence provided by the government of Sudan, international journalists or human rights groups indicates that rebel elements were present in these communities at the time of assault.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Terrorism, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, Sudan, Asia
  • Author: Matt Levy
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Sudan is known to most Americans today for the ongoing genocide in its western region of Darfur, yet the problems facing this country are more complex than many activists are aware. As the largest country in Africa and the size of the United States East of the Mississippi River1, Sudan faces many challenges, governance chief among them. Shaped by its history, modern Sudan experienced two phases of civil war between the North and South (1955-1972 and 1983- 2005) killing more than two million while displacing many millions more. In 2005, this conflict ceased with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). However, it is in danger of erupting once again if CPA implementation continues to be delayed due to Khartoum's intransigence on many issues and the capacity challenges faced by the Government of Southern Sudan.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, America, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: “Fear and anxiety concern the post-election process. The most frequent comment from the residents and well as others: 'will the old man rig the election; will the count be fair...?' The fear of a stolen election and the possible outbreak of spontaneous violence creates a palpable anxiety throughout the country.”
  • Topic: Political Violence, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: “The fear and anxiety concerns the post-election process. The most frequent comment from Zimbabweans and from those watching the process: “Will the old man rig the election? Will the count be fair...?” The fear of a stolen election and the possible outbreak of spontaneous violence have created a palpable anxiety throughout the country”
  • Topic: Political Violence, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Sameer Dossani
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In 2005, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation announced a plan to “help millions of small-scale farmers lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.” In the years since, those foundations have been joined in their efforts by a number of other organizations and have founded the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Humanitarian Aid, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Analysts, policy makers and experts are now accepting that the conflicts in Chad and Sudan have mutually reinforcing dynamics. Chad's internal political instability is having devastating consequences on the peace processes in Sudan and the Central African Republic (CAR). The U.N. Security Council Sanctions Committee Panel of Experts on Sudan stated that Chad supports Sudanese insurgent groups with arms, ammunition, vehicles, food, training and safe haven Violations of humanitarian law and international human rights continue unabated in the region and violators in eastern Chad operate in an environment of almost total impunity. A new U.S. Government strategy must be created to stabilize Chad and bring to an end the continued degradation of conditions in the region. This strategy must work in parallel with the peace process for Sudan and with the efforts led by the “Contact Group” to normalize Chad-Sudan relations.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Health, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Peace Studies, United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Author: Briggs Bomba
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The world's attention has been riveted in 2008, by election crises in Africa, first Kenya, and now Zimbabwe. In both cases, challenges remain in converting electoral victory to political power. Can a victorious opposition come to power in the face of an obstinate incumbent? This question is particularly relevant when the incumbent regime controls the coercive apparatus of the state and the opposition only has the ballot in its corner. In the battle of the ballot vs. the bullet, can there ever be a fair match?
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, Political Economy, Post Colonialism
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Author: Victoria Okoye
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: HIV/AIDS continues to claim the lives of more African men, women and children than any other disease or conflict. As populations across the continent experience the destructive effects of this pandemic, the most marginalized communities feel the brunt. Africa Action calls for a new and intense international focus on the situation of African women, as the only effective means to combat this pandemic.
  • Topic: Economics, Health, International Organization
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Stephanie Parker
  • Publication Date: 08-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Almost 40 million people around the world are currently living with HIV/AIDS. The number of people affected by the AIDS pandemic has steadily climbed over the last decade, devastating entire populations and destroying communities, especially in Africa. While the international community has yet to find a solution to this grave threat to global health, innovations in drug development have allowed countless people to significantly prolong their lives through HIV/AIDS medication, specifically antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). This valuable medicine, however, is available only to a small portion of people living with HIV. Millions of people, the majority of which live in the Global South, are unable to receive drug treatment because they cannot afford the high costs of the medicine.
  • Topic: Health
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Until recently, Sudan could be described as a country at war and at peace. Since gaining independence from Britain in 1956, Sudan has suffered near continual civil war and has been ruled by a series of military dictatorships. While there are many different fronts to Sudan's current conflicts, the two crises that receive the most attention from international media are the genocide in Darfur and the North-South conflict. This Africa Action report outlines current circumstances and explains the linkages and distinctions among conflict areas across Sudan and addresses a series of misperceptions and myths that have impeded an effective international response to the crisis in Darfur.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Britain, Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The HIV/AIDS pandemic is the greatest global threat in the world today. Africa is ground zero of the crisis – home to over two-thirds of those living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis is the direct result of centuries of global injustice. Now, African efforts to defeat HIV/AIDS are hindered by insufficient resources and by U.S. and international policies that restrict access to essential treatment and comprehensive health care. The rapidly approaching November 2008 elections represent a tremendous opportunity to change this frustrating reality. The next U.S. President must make the fight against HIV/AIDS a priority in his or her administration.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Six months ago, at the end of August 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed a critical resolution, authorizing a robust UN peacekeeping force for Darfur, western Sudan. This act was the result of years of advocacy and international political wrangling, against the backdrop of escalating violence in Darfur. The resolution expressed the will and intent of the international community to send a 22,000-strong UN force to Darfur, to supplement the African Union (AU) mission and to provide protection to civilians and humanitarian operations on the ground.
  • Topic: Development, Peace Studies, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The international community is running out of options on Darfur. The death toll in western Sudan continues to mount as the latest wave of government -sponsored violence intensifies. Tens of thousands of people have been newly displaced in recent week s. Reports from the United Nations (UN) and the media indicate that the crisis is now at its worst point ever: the Sudanese government is arming its proxy militias to a greater extent than ever before, violence is reaching more deeply into Chad, and insecurity is constraining the humanitarian response throughout Darfur and leaving millions of lives in increasing jeopardy.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: On August 31, 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed Resolution 1706, authorizing the deployment of a robust UN peacekeeping force to provide protection for the people of Darfur. This proposed force would transition from the current African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which has had neither the resources nor the numbers to ensure security in the region. Africa Action welcomed the passage of this Security Council Resolution as an important step forward. It recognized the need for an international intervention in Darfur and the responsibility of the international community to take new action on this crisis.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In 1994, an estimated 800,000 people died in Rwanda, as the U.S. and the international community failed to mount an intervention to stop genocide. Senior U.S. officials later expressed regret, and acknowledged that this crime against humanity should have invoked a more urgent and active response. It is reported that President Bush reviewed a memo on the Rwandan genocide early in his presidency and wrote “Not on my Watch” in the margin of that document.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Rwanda
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The people of Darfur have faced more than three years of government - sponsored genocide. As the death toll continues to rise and violence continues to be tragically commonplace, the U.S. and the international community are still failing to mount a real response to this genocide. The following chronology shows that, despite another year's worth of official statements and promises, the crisis in Darfur continues and still demands urgent international action.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: Marie Clark Brill
  • Publication Date: 01-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The African Social Forum was born out of the larger World Social Forum, which provides an annual open meeting place where groups and movements of civil society come together to dialogue and network towards collaborative action. The Third African Social Forum (ASF) took place in Lusaka, Zambia in mid-December 2004. This report includes notes and analysis of the African Social Forum and provides reflection s on emerging social movements in Africa.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Lusaka, Zambia
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The legal definition of GENOCIDE: The international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in Articles II and III of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. Article II describes the two elements that constitute the crime of genocide: The mental element , meaning the " intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such", and The physical element , which includes five types of violence described in sections [a] though [e] as follows: [a] Killing members of the group; [b] Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; [c] Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; [d] Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [e] Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Topic: Genocide, Human Welfare, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 01-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: On Sunday, January 9, African leaders and world diplomats will gather in Nairobi, Kenya to witness the signing of an historic peace deal intended to end Africa's longest-running civil war. This conflict between the Sudanese government in the north and the Sudan People's Liberation Army /Movement (SPLA/M) in southern Sudan has raged for m o re than two decades. Sunday's signing ceremony marks the culmination of two years of form al peace talks and many years of periodic negotiations, sustained by regional and international diplomacy. The signing of this peace deal could mark an historic moment for Sudan, by bringing to an end decades of violence and devastation in Africa's largest country. It could similarly mark an important moment for the entire African continent. However, this peace agreement does not cover the ongoing conflict in Darfur, western Sudan, where the Sudanese government continues to wage a campaign of genocide against civilians from three ethnic groups. Over the past two years, up to 400,000 people have died, and 2 million more have been made homeless in Darfur as a consequence resulting in what the UN has called the world's worst humanitarian crisis.
  • Topic: Human Welfare, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa, United States, Sudan, Nairobi
  • Author: Salih Booker, Ann-Louise Colgan
  • Publication Date: 05-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The Bush administration's foreign policy priorities over the past year have left Africa worse off in a variety of ways. America's pre- occupation with the “war on terrorism” and its military misadventure in Iraq have distracted attention and resources, injuring Africa politically and economically. The White House has turned the continent into geostrategic real estate, defining its value in terms of access to oil and military bases, and viewing U S -Africa relations again through a cold - war -like lens. More broadly, to the extent that American actions have undermined the very notion of multilateralism, they remain directly at odds with Africa's interests. Africa's priorities—in particular, the fight against HIV / AIDS and poverty—are being ignored, and U S unilateralism threatens to undercut international cooperation.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Iraq, America
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: As the U.S. enters an important election season with a greater focus than usual on foreign policy issues, Africa remains largely absent from the national debate. Despite historical ties and important current interests, Africa is still considered to fall outside the scope of U.S. policymakers' concerns.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Welfare, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This week when the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) hold their annual spring meetings in Washington, DC, Africa's debt crisis will hardly appear on their agenda.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Iraq, Washington, Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Salih Booker, Ann-Louise Colgan
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The U.S.' Africa policy will continue to be characterized by a duplicity that has emerged as the principal hallmark of the Bush Administration approach to the continent. On the one hand, Africa's priorities are being marginalized and undermined by a U.S. foreign policy preoccupied with other parts of the world. On the other hand, the Bush White House is callously manipulating Africa, claiming to champion the continent's needs with its compassionate conservative agenda.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: Salih Booker, Phill Wilson
  • Publication Date: 12-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In his January State of the Union Address, President George Bush announced an "Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief" that promised $3 billion a year in funding focused primarily on Africa and the Caribbean. Within weeks he broke that promise by seeking no new funding for 2003 and by requesting less than half a billion for the new effort in his 2004 budget. On the domestic front, this administration has proposed flat funding of the AIDS portfolio-which amounts to a decrease in funding- and diverted resources from HIV/AIDS research.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Caribbean
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: MYTH: President Bush has significantly increased funding to fight AIDS in Africa. FACT: Bush is providing NO new money to fight AIDS in Africa this year. President Bush announced a $15 billion "emergency plan" to fight AIDS in Africa - but this was an empty promise. The President resident has requested NO new money for 2003, and very little for 2004. This is far less than the U.S. can, and should, provide. As a first step, Bush must show global leadership by providing the full $15 billion he promised. While he continues to stall, 7,000 Africans are dying everyday.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since his State of the Union address in January 2003, President Bush has reaped great public relations benefits by parading himself as a compassionate conservative, committed to helping the people of Africa defeat AIDS. But the reality is very different. When he traveled to the continent in July 2003, Bush repeatedly emphasized how much his Administration was doing to fight the AIDS crisis. And on the domestic front, the President has said that his Administration remains committed to confronting AIDS in the U.S. But President Bush's track record on AIDS policy reveals a litany of broken promises and betrayals. The President has misrepresented the actions of his Administration. He has misled the American public, and he has failed the people of Africa. Bush's broken promises are costing thousands of African lives every day. The following talking points include quotes from the President, promising leadership in the war on AIDS. These are followed by facts about the reality of his Administration's policies.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: Salih Booker, Ann-Louise Colgan, William Minter
  • Publication Date: 05-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In a dangerous replay of the cold war, the United States is likely to ignore Africa's priorities, placing military basing rights above human rights. The war against AIDS, by far the most important global effort and an especially urgent priority for Africa, will continue to suffer from a lack of resources. The American war on Iraq will also have a major negative impact on the global economy, with dire consequences for African development. In addition, this year will likely see United States unilateralism directly at odds with African interests in building multilateral approaches to the continent's greatest challenges, which range from HIV / AIDS to international trade rules and peacekeeping.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, America
  • Publication Date: 05-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Africa is the world's poorest region, and most of its people live on less than $1 a day... but African countries owe $300 billion in foreign debt. This is a huge financial burden on the people of Africa. While African countries struggle to cope with the HIV/AIDS crisis and with extreme poverty, they must spend millions more on debt repayments than on their own urgent priorities.
  • Topic: Debt, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Gender inequalities are a major driving force behind the global AIDS crisis. Around the world, AIDS takes its most devastating toll on women and girls. Globally, nearly 5,000 women become infected with HIV every day. Hardest hit of all are Black women and girls in Africa and in the U.S., who are most vulnerable as a result of poverty and discrimination.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: HIV/AIDS is a deadly global threat, and no one is immune. But some people are more vulnerable than others. At home and abroad, AIDS takes its most devastating toll in poor communities, where people lack access to adequate health care.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Africa is “Ground Zero” of the global HIV/AIDS crisis. Home to just over 10% of the world's population, sub-Saharan Africa has more than 75% of the world's HIV/AIDS cases. Africa has been hardest hit by HIV/AIDS because poverty has left its people most vulnerable. Inadequate access to health care services in Africa has fueled the spread of the disease. Meanwhile, racism has prevented an urgent international response and continues to cost millions of African lives.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 01-2001
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: By the end of the year 2000, a peace treaty between Ethiopia and Eritrea, peaceful transfers of power after elections in Senegal and Ghana, and continued growth of public debate about the future in almost every African country were among signs of advance in a year that was more than usually short of good news. Economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa was estimated to climb to 2.7 percent for the year, up from 2.1 percent in 1999. Per capita income in the region south of the Sahara rose by an estimated two tenths of one percent. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced debt reduction packages of $34 billion for 22 countries, including 18 in Africa.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Debt, Development, Diplomacy, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, Ethiopia, Senegal, Eritrea, Ghana
  • Author: Salih Booker
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: "There's got to be priorities," George W. Bush responded when asked about Africa in the second presidential campaign debate. Africa did not make his short list: the Middle East, Europe, the Far East, and the Americas. A Bush presidency portends a return to the blatantly anti-African policies of the Reagan-Bush years, characterized by a general disregard for black people and a perception of Africa as a social welfare case. Vice President Dick Cheney is widely expected to steer the younger Bush on most policy matters especially foreign affairs. Cheney's perspective on Africa in the 1980s was epitomized by his 1986 vote in favor of keeping Nelson Mandela in prison and his consistent opposition to sanctions against apartheid South Africa.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Development, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, South Africa
  • Author: Joe Collins, Bill Rau
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: HIV/AIDS continues to cut into the fabric of African households and societies. It is not uncommon to hear that a quarter to a third of the adult population in several african countries are HIV infected. Against this reality of a rapidly spreading epidemic, some two decades of prevention interventions have met with but limited success. Whatever successes there might be are not to be lightly dismissed. The reasons for those successes, however, are not well understood and thus not readily applicable elsewhere. To date, most prevention efforts have focused on increasing individual awareness about risks of transmission and promoting individual risk reduction through a variety of means.
  • Topic: Development, Human Welfare, Third World
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: William Minter, Chris Lowe, Tunde Brimah, Pearl-Alice Marsh, Monde Muyangwa
  • Publication Date: 11-1997
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: For most people in Western countries, Africa immediately calls up the word "tribe." The idea of tribe is ingrained, powerful, and expected. Few readers question a news story describing an African individual as a tribesman or tribeswoman, or the depiction of an African's motives as tribal. Many Africans themselves use the word "tribe" when speaking or writing in English about community, ethnicity or identity in African states.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, Nationalism
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 04-1997
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The momentum for a comprehensive global ban on anti-personnel landmines is growing rapidly, and 1997 is a particularly decisive year. Africa is the most heavily mined continent, and African governments and non-governmental landmine campaigns are taking an increasingly prominent role in the global effort. The South African and Mozambican governments both announced comprehensive bans in February 1997, just as the 4th International NGO Conference on Landmines was convening in Maputo, Mozambique. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is being urged to quickly declare Southern Africa a mine-free zone, and non-governmental campaigns are gathering steam in many other African countries.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: William Minter
  • Publication Date: 03-1997
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This paper was prepared by APIC Senior Research Fellow William Minter for the Constituency Builders' Dialogue organized by the Africa Policy Information Center, held at Airlie House, Warrenton, Virginia, over the weekend of January 10-12, 1997. The Dialogue was designed as an opportunity for a diverse group of activists from different sectors of Africa advocacy work in the United States to step back, reflect and engage in dialogue on the strategic directions for grassroots Africa constituency-building in the current period. The Dialogue was made possible by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and by ongoing support from the Ford Foundation.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, New York
  • Publication Date: 11-1996
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, was a pioneer in the movement for African independence. In past centuries, its territory was home to a series of powerful and technically-advanced societies, renowned for their artistic, commercial, and political achievements.
  • Topic: Democratization, Economics, Ethnic Conflict, Government, Nationalism, Politics
  • Political Geography: Africa, Nigeria
  • Publication Date: 07-1996
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Electronic networks—and particularly the new tools of e-mail and the World Wide Web (see below for an overview of basic concepts and a glossary with short definitions)—have great potential for enhancing global democratic access to policy-making processes. But de facto access to effective use of these technologies is biased in all the predictable directions: by race, gender, economic status, and location. Africa, to date the least connected continent, is particularly disadvantaged. By cutting the costs of long-distance communication, however, the information revolution is also opening up new possibilities. How well Africa and Africa's friends take advantage of these opportunities will depend at least as much on our collective capacity to learn as on the material resources available to us.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Third World
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Salih Booker
  • Publication Date: 03-1996
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Recent Congressional action to significantly cut aid to Africa is only one sign among many of a trend to reduce U.S. involvement on the continent. How much further Africa is marginalized in the U.S. will ultimately depend on the ability of Africa's multiple constituencies to reverse this trend. Nevertheless, events on the continent are likely to compel a greater commitment of resources than U.S. policymakers currently contemplate. And engagement at any level needs to be based on clear identification of U.S. interests in Africa and well-defined criteria for establishing priorities.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Democratization, Development
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States