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  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since 2003, the United Nations have passed nineteen Resolutions on Darfur, including Security Council Resolution 1706, the only instance in history of a UN peacekeeping mission that was authorized and failed to deploy. On July 31, 2007, Security Council Resolution 1769 again authorized a multinational UN-led peacekeeping force for Darfur – the “hybrid” African Union/United Nations operation termed UNAMID. UNAMID officially assumed control of peacekeeping operations in Darfur on December 31, 2007, however, its deployment is well behind the timetable laid out by the Security Council. Force Commander General Martin Agwai and UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guéhenno have continued to warn that unless 2008 sees a substantial change in international action, UNAMID risks succumbing to Khartoum's obstructionism and facing a similar aborted fate as its predecessor mission authorized by Resolution 1706.
  • Topic: United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This February, the Sudanese government launched a series of direct assaults on towns and villages in West Darfur that harkened back to the worst periods of violence since the current conflict in Sudan's western region began in 2003. Military aircraft, including Antonov transport planes used as bombers and helicopter gunships accompanied Sudanese Armed Forces and government-supported proxy militia in attacking the towns of Sirbu, Silea and Abu Siruj, among others. While these towns were located in a region controlled by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel group, no evidence provided by the government of Sudan, international journalists or human rights groups indicates that rebel elements were present in these communities at the time of assault.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Terrorism, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, China, Sudan, Asia
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Analysts, policy makers and experts are now accepting that the conflicts in Chad and Sudan have mutually reinforcing dynamics. Chad's internal political instability is having devastating consequences on the peace processes in Sudan and the Central African Republic (CAR). The U.N. Security Council Sanctions Committee Panel of Experts on Sudan stated that Chad supports Sudanese insurgent groups with arms, ammunition, vehicles, food, training and safe haven Violations of humanitarian law and international human rights continue unabated in the region and violators in eastern Chad operate in an environment of almost total impunity. A new U.S. Government strategy must be created to stabilize Chad and bring to an end the continued degradation of conditions in the region. This strategy must work in parallel with the peace process for Sudan and with the efforts led by the “Contact Group” to normalize Chad-Sudan relations.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Health, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Peace Studies, United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Six months ago, at the end of August 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed a critical resolution, authorizing a robust UN peacekeeping force for Darfur, western Sudan. This act was the result of years of advocacy and international political wrangling, against the backdrop of escalating violence in Darfur. The resolution expressed the will and intent of the international community to send a 22,000-strong UN force to Darfur, to supplement the African Union (AU) mission and to provide protection to civilians and humanitarian operations on the ground.
  • Topic: Development, Peace Studies, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The international community is running out of options on Darfur. The death toll in western Sudan continues to mount as the latest wave of government -sponsored violence intensifies. Tens of thousands of people have been newly displaced in recent week s. Reports from the United Nations (UN) and the media indicate that the crisis is now at its worst point ever: the Sudanese government is arming its proxy militias to a greater extent than ever before, violence is reaching more deeply into Chad, and insecurity is constraining the humanitarian response throughout Darfur and leaving millions of lives in increasing jeopardy.
  • Topic: International Relations, Genocide, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: On August 31, 2006, the United Nations (UN) Security Council passed Resolution 1706, authorizing the deployment of a robust UN peacekeeping force to provide protection for the people of Darfur. This proposed force would transition from the current African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), which has had neither the resources nor the numbers to ensure security in the region. Africa Action welcomed the passage of this Security Council Resolution as an important step forward. It recognized the need for an international intervention in Darfur and the responsibility of the international community to take new action on this crisis.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The legal definition of GENOCIDE: The international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in Articles II and III of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. Article II describes the two elements that constitute the crime of genocide: The mental element , meaning the " intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such", and The physical element , which includes five types of violence described in sections [a] though [e] as follows: [a] Killing members of the group; [b] Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; [c] Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; [d] Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [e] Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Topic: Genocide, Human Welfare, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa