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  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Analysts, policy makers and experts are now accepting that the conflicts in Chad and Sudan have mutually reinforcing dynamics. Chad's internal political instability is having devastating consequences on the peace processes in Sudan and the Central African Republic (CAR). The U.N. Security Council Sanctions Committee Panel of Experts on Sudan stated that Chad supports Sudanese insurgent groups with arms, ammunition, vehicles, food, training and safe haven Violations of humanitarian law and international human rights continue unabated in the region and violators in eastern Chad operate in an environment of almost total impunity. A new U.S. Government strategy must be created to stabilize Chad and bring to an end the continued degradation of conditions in the region. This strategy must work in parallel with the peace process for Sudan and with the efforts led by the “Contact Group” to normalize Chad-Sudan relations.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Health, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Humanitarian Aid, Peace Studies, United Nations, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The legal definition of GENOCIDE: The international legal definition of the crime of genocide is found in Articles II and III of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. Article II describes the two elements that constitute the crime of genocide: The mental element , meaning the " intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such", and The physical element , which includes five types of violence described in sections [a] though [e] as follows: [a] Killing members of the group; [b] Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; [c] Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; [d] Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [e] Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Topic: Genocide, Human Welfare, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 01-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: On Sunday, January 9, African leaders and world diplomats will gather in Nairobi, Kenya to witness the signing of an historic peace deal intended to end Africa's longest-running civil war. This conflict between the Sudanese government in the north and the Sudan People's Liberation Army /Movement (SPLA/M) in southern Sudan has raged for m o re than two decades. Sunday's signing ceremony marks the culmination of two years of form al peace talks and many years of periodic negotiations, sustained by regional and international diplomacy. The signing of this peace deal could mark an historic moment for Sudan, by bringing to an end decades of violence and devastation in Africa's largest country. It could similarly mark an important moment for the entire African continent. However, this peace agreement does not cover the ongoing conflict in Darfur, western Sudan, where the Sudanese government continues to wage a campaign of genocide against civilians from three ethnic groups. Over the past two years, up to 400,000 people have died, and 2 million more have been made homeless in Darfur as a consequence resulting in what the UN has called the world's worst humanitarian crisis.
  • Topic: Human Welfare, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Africa, United States, Sudan, Nairobi
  • Author: Salih Booker, Ann-Louise Colgan
  • Publication Date: 05-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The Bush administration's foreign policy priorities over the past year have left Africa worse off in a variety of ways. America's pre- occupation with the “war on terrorism” and its military misadventure in Iraq have distracted attention and resources, injuring Africa politically and economically. The White House has turned the continent into geostrategic real estate, defining its value in terms of access to oil and military bases, and viewing U S -Africa relations again through a cold - war -like lens. More broadly, to the extent that American actions have undermined the very notion of multilateralism, they remain directly at odds with Africa's interests. Africa's priorities—in particular, the fight against HIV / AIDS and poverty—are being ignored, and U S unilateralism threatens to undercut international cooperation.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Iraq, America
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: As the U.S. enters an important election season with a greater focus than usual on foreign policy issues, Africa remains largely absent from the national debate. Despite historical ties and important current interests, Africa is still considered to fall outside the scope of U.S. policymakers' concerns.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Welfare, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Publication Date: 04-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: This week when the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) hold their annual spring meetings in Washington, DC, Africa's debt crisis will hardly appear on their agenda.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Iraq, Washington, Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Salih Booker, Ann-Louise Colgan
  • Publication Date: 01-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: The U.S.' Africa policy will continue to be characterized by a duplicity that has emerged as the principal hallmark of the Bush Administration approach to the continent. On the one hand, Africa's priorities are being marginalized and undermined by a U.S. foreign policy preoccupied with other parts of the world. On the other hand, the Bush White House is callously manipulating Africa, claiming to champion the continent's needs with its compassionate conservative agenda.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Economics, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty, War
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States
  • Author: Salih Booker, Phill Wilson
  • Publication Date: 12-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: In his January State of the Union Address, President George Bush announced an "Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief" that promised $3 billion a year in funding focused primarily on Africa and the Caribbean. Within weeks he broke that promise by seeking no new funding for 2003 and by requesting less than half a billion for the new effort in his 2004 budget. On the domestic front, this administration has proposed flat funding of the AIDS portfolio-which amounts to a decrease in funding- and diverted resources from HIV/AIDS research.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Caribbean
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: MYTH: President Bush has significantly increased funding to fight AIDS in Africa. FACT: Bush is providing NO new money to fight AIDS in Africa this year. President Bush announced a $15 billion "emergency plan" to fight AIDS in Africa - but this was an empty promise. The President resident has requested NO new money for 2003, and very little for 2004. This is far less than the U.S. can, and should, provide. As a first step, Bush must show global leadership by providing the full $15 billion he promised. While he continues to stall, 7,000 Africans are dying everyday.
  • Topic: Human Rights, Human Welfare, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Africa Policy Information Center
  • Abstract: Since his State of the Union address in January 2003, President Bush has reaped great public relations benefits by parading himself as a compassionate conservative, committed to helping the people of Africa defeat AIDS. But the reality is very different. When he traveled to the continent in July 2003, Bush repeatedly emphasized how much his Administration was doing to fight the AIDS crisis. And on the domestic front, the President has said that his Administration remains committed to confronting AIDS in the U.S. But President Bush's track record on AIDS policy reveals a litany of broken promises and betrayals. The President has misrepresented the actions of his Administration. He has misled the American public, and he has failed the people of Africa. Bush's broken promises are costing thousands of African lives every day. The following talking points include quotes from the President, promising leadership in the war on AIDS. These are followed by facts about the reality of his Administration's policies.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Human Welfare
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States