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  • Author: Jeffrey Hart, Joan Edelman Spero
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Centre for International Peace and Security Studies
  • Abstract: An examination of international economic relations in the six decades since World War II reveals many ways in which political factors have shaped economic outcomes. The postwar security system significantly affected the postwar economic system. The creation of a bipolar security system following the outbreak of the Cold War led to the separation of the Eastern and Western economic systems and provided a basis for the dominant role of the United States in the Western system and of the Soviet Union in the Eastern system. The end of the Cold War led in turn to the end of the East-West economic divide and to the integration of the formerly Communist countries and China into the global capitalist economy.
  • Topic: Cold War, Globalization, Government, International Cooperation, International Political Economy, International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: United States, China
  • Author: John V Mitchell, Paul Stevens
  • Publication Date: 07-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: Since 2003, countries whose economies depend on the export of oil and gas have enjoyed a surge of revenue driven by rising oil prices and, in some countries, rising export volumes. The press has captured petroleum-fuelled prosperity in images of futuristic construction plans and the rocketing assets of sovereign wealth funds. However, this obscures important differences among oil and gas exporters in terms of reserves size and social development challenges. Based on a major study of twelve hydrocarbon-exporting countries, this report shows that the boom does not guarantee economic sustainability for these countries, most of which face hard policy choices over domestic consumption, development spending and rates of economic growth. The report estimates the timeframes these countries have in which to make the necessary changes and examine their prospects for success given the existing human, institutional and technical capacity, competitive advantages, infrastructure and access to capital.
  • Topic: Development, Energy Policy, Oil, International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Paul Stevens
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: This report argues that unless there is a collapse in oil demand within the next five to ten years, there will be serious oil 'supply crunch'–not because of below-ground resource constraints but because of inadequate investment by international oil companies (IOCs) and national oil companies (NOCs). An oil supply crunch is where excess crude producing capacity falls to low levels and is followed by a crude 'outage' leading to a price spike. If this happens then the resulting price spike will carry serious policy implications with long-lasting effects on the global energy picture.
  • Topic: Security, Economics, Energy Policy, Markets, International Security
  • Author: Richard Dalton(ed.)
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: The dispute over Iran's nuclear programme is deadlocked. Five years of negotiations, proposals, UN resolutions and sanctions have failed to achieve a breakthrough. As diplomacy struggles and Iran continues to advance its nuclear capabilities, the issue becomes ever more grave and pressing.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Oil, Weapons of Mass Destruction, International Security
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Iran, Middle East
  • Author: Monty G. Marshall
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Council on Foreign Relations
  • Abstract: A public debate over the threat posed by weak, fragile, failing, and failed states and what can or should be done about them has become increasing visible and vocal since the attacks of September 11, 2001. As President George W. Bush declared in his 2002 National Security Strategy report: “America is now threatened less by conquering states than ... by failing ones.” This debate has grown particularly acute as the United States' prolonged military response to the war on global terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq has revealed the difficulties of controlling militancy and extremism by direct military intervention and enforced democratic change. The challenges associated with weak or failing states have garnered increase d attention by the policy community, but major differences about how to assess the level of risk in any given case remain.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Foreign Policy, Political Violence, Development, Diplomacy, Government, International Security
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, United States, America
  • Author: Daniel Hamilton, Gerhard Mangott
  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Center for Transatlantic Relations
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, International Security
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Deepti Choubey
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: Policy makers have returned to the debate over whether and how total nuclear disarmament should take place. The notion that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons is much harder without also reducing their number seems to be motivating much of this interest. Consequently, officials in both the United States and other nuclear-weapon states hope that in direct exchange for renewed action on disarmament, non–nuclear-weapon states will support nonproliferation efforts.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Nuclear Weapons, International Security, Bilateral Relations, Nuclear Power
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Dennis J.D. Sandole, Predrag Jureković, Ernst M. Felberbauer, Franz-Lothar Altmann, Jolyon Naegele, Amadeo Watkins, Sandro Knezović, Plamen Pantev, Dušan Janjić, Matthew Rhodes, Sonja Biserko, Nina Dobrković, John F. Erath, Dragana Klincov, Lulzim Peci, Denisa Saraljić-Maglić, Heinz Vetschera, Frederic Labarre
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Austrian National Defence Academy
  • Abstract: In this article, I examine the prospects and challenges for co-operative security in the Balkans in the wake of recommendations for Kosovo's final status offered recently to the UN Security Council by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari. On the assumption that Ahtisaari's proposals represent a zero-sum gain for the Kosovar Albanians and corresponding loss for the Serbs, I recommend a reframing of his plan that may be more likely to lead to sustainable peace, security, and stability in the Balkans, with implications for similar conflicts elsewhere.
  • Topic: NATO, Democratization, Development, Regional Cooperation, International Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eastern Europe, United Nations, Balkans
  • Author: Tibor Szvircsev Tresch, Cees M. Coops
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: NATO Defense College
  • Abstract: On 15 and 16 March 2007 a conference was held at the NATO Defense College on the topic of “Cultural Challenges in Military Operations”. It offered a preliminary overview of the operational and multicultural challenges of cooperation among different forces with NGOs, IOs and the local population in theatres.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, NATO, International Cooperation, International Security
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Yugoslavia
  • Author: Michele Comelli
  • Publication Date: 05-2007
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: “Building security in our neighbourhood” is one of the three objectives of the European Security Strategy (ESS) .This document, which was approved by the European Council in December 2003, defines the major threats and security objectives of the European Union. The three objectives identified addressed the key threats (terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, regional conflicts, state failure, and organised crime), building security in the neighbourhood, and building an international order based on effective multilateralism. Among the three, two of them are linked to the EU's neighbourhood. The objective of addressing the key threats only indirectly relates to the areas surrounding the EU. Not all of these security challenges coming from the EU's neighbourhood area are specific to the region; however, the impact of these challenges on EU security, either real or perceived, can still be greater because of geographical proximity. On the other hand, the objective of building security in the neighborhood is directly related to the areas surrounding the EU.
  • Topic: International Organization, International Security
  • Political Geography: Europe