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  • Author: Mindia Vashakmadze
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Periodic and genuine elections based on universal and equal suffrage are a fundamental component of democratic society. It is recognised by the international community that all human beings should have the right to vote and to stand for election. Moreover, everyone has the right of equal access to public service. The inequality or discrimination based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status should be prohibited.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Leonid Polyakov
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Since independence, the Ukraine has made progress in establishing a system of democratic civilian control over the Armed Forces. The regulatory-legal basis which governs the activity of security structures and which defines the different aspects of civil-military relations has basically been established. These regulatory-legal structures co-ordinate and oversee the activity of these security structures. Co-operation between different authorities in matter pertaining to the formation of the defence budget and the development of state programmes in the military sector is gradually improving. Ideological indoctrination has loosened its hold on Ukraine's security structures and democratic values are formally now the foundation of their activity.
  • Topic: Security, Democratization, Politics, Governance
  • Political Geography: Ukraine, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Dominique Wisler
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: While there is a wide consensus today on the basic principles of democratic policing there is no blueprint of international standards of policing or internationally accepted organisational scheme to which a police in transition looking for guidance could simply seek to conform. Beyond many differences originating from history and political regimes, what exists instead - and can serve as guidance - are best policing practices as well as trends in organising a police service. In fact, as I would like to argue, Western police are experiencing dramatic changes since two decades, changes that affect the organization and the practices profoundly. Police services are indeed reorganized using the conceptual framework of “processes and services” rather than the traditional silos of exclusive competencies between various police branches. Starting from services such as local security, rapid intervention, crowd control and the fight against serious, complex and organized criminality, the architecture of police forces is being remodelled by reformers. Judiciary competencies have ceased to be the basis of a rigid division between the judiciary police and the uniformed police, but, as we will see below, the uniformed police are tasked today with new competencies as a result of a process-oriented reorganisation. This led to a 180 degree shift in the policing architecture: once conceived vertically in hermetic silos of competencies, services are conceptualized more horizontally, process-oriented, cross-cutting competencies.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Bosnia, Herzegovina
  • Author: José A. Olmeda
  • Publication Date: 02-2005
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things. For the reformer has enemies in all those who profit by the old order, and only lukewarm defenders in all those who would profit by the new (Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, Chapter 6).
  • Topic: Security, Development, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Spain
  • Author: Ümit Cizre
  • Publication Date: 11-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper addresses three questions regarding Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Turkey: First, under what objectives of the SSR concept does the discussion of the Security Sector Reform in Turkey fall, or, put differently, what is the relevance of the post-Cold War SSR agenda-–coming as a response to Western reorientation of security priorities–for the reform of the guiding principles, structures, and operations of security institutions in Turkey? The second query concerns the nature of SSR in Turkey, problems contained therein, and its impact on the system, if not on the country's chances for accession to the EU, and on the civil-military equilibrium in the new millennium. The final question explores the lessons to be learned from the objectives and trajectories of Turkey's SSR agenda. These questions, and corresponding answers, will be organized in the following five sections.
  • Topic: Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Cold War, Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Philipp H. Fluri
  • Publication Date: 11-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The effort to universally promote and apply multilateral disarmament and arms control treaties requires public understanding of the contribution of such treaties to international security. All too often specialized knowledge of disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation treaties remains concentrated with the executive and a few specialized departments of the Ministries of Defense or Foreign Affairs: whilst parliamentarians and the public remain largely ignorant about them. However, without either comprehensively informed and committed parliamentary oversight and guidance, or scrutiny by an empowered civil society, arms control and disarmament treaties will neither be sufficiently understood nor successfully implemented.
  • Topic: Security, Arms Control and Proliferation, Civil Society, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Hanspeter Mattes
  • Publication Date: 08-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The U.S.-led Coalition's swift victory over the Taliban regime in October 2001 created a security vacuum across Afghanistan that the international community was unprepared to fill. Winning the peace in Afghanistan has proven to be a much more complex, costly, and protracted endeavour than winning the war, an imposing burden that has severely tested the resolve of the international donor community. With only 11,000-13,000 Coalition troops mandated to eradicate the last remnants of al-Qaeda an the Taliban in the south and a limited NATO presence of 6,000 troops deployed in the capital to insulate the fledgling political process, the onus for maintaining security in the country fell on the Afghan government and its fledgling security forces. After 23 years of civil war the country's security sector was in a state of disarray, its infrastructure destroyed, resources limited, and facing a shortage of human capacity. To bolster Afghanistan's beleaguered security institutions and ensure they conform to international standards, the major donors engaged in the country launched a security sector reform (SSR) process. Security sector transformation rather than reform seems more appropriate to describe the task of creating efficient, effective, and democratically accountable security forces in Afghanistan, for the bulk of the country's formal security apparatus ceased to function over a decade ago. In spite of the massive challenges that face program, it has been portrayed as the primary means to redress Afghanistan's immediate security woes. What by its very nature is a gradual, long-term process has been thrust into the position as short-term panacea.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Politics, Governance
  • Political Geography: Africa, Libya
  • Author: Nawaf Tell
  • Publication Date: 08-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The security sector has played a vital role in the establishment and the survival of the Jordanian State ever since its creation in the early 1920s. The function of Jordan's security sector has varied and evolved over time depending on both the domestic and the regional considerations. Indeed, from enforcing state authority within the state in the early stages of the Jordanian State, the security sector has now moved to protecting the sovereign integrity of Jordan and maintaining the country's stability in the shadow of regional upheavals.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Politics, Governance
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Antje Fritz
  • Publication Date: 04-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Free media and unhampered and impartial journalism are crucial elements of any democracy. Journalists provide the information which a society needs to debate current policies, public issues, societal threats, the potential failings of its institutions as well as necessary reforms. In so doing, journalism fulfils a major democratic function, which includes, as a crucial responsibility, the duty to make issues transparent and therefore to help citizens to gain information about and exert oversight of the state's executive bodies (Ward 2004). But even if those pre-conditions are satisfied, some societal areas, especially those which concern security related issues, tend to resist efforts to provide transparency and public oversight. This is especially the case when intelligence services and intelligence related issues are involved.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Germany
  • Author: Edward Rees
  • Publication Date: 04-2004
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Timor Leste is faced with a major challenge in consolidating its nascent democracy, this being the overdue establishment of a national security framework supported by legislation. In conjunction, civilian oversight and management structures for the security sector are weak to non-existent in Timor Leste. This is most pronounced in the case of Timor Leste's defence force and police services, and especially so in those areas where their responsibilities overlap. A major obstacle to overcoming this challenge are political divisions that exist between those who identify themselves as being “veterans of the resistance” to Indonesia's occupation 1975-99. The role of veterans dominates the country's political equation from the villages to the capitol. These divisions are manifested in the ill-advised and ongoing creation of the state's security institutions. That the United Nations' security forces' withdrawal from Timor Leste will be complete in May 2004 underscores the pressing nature of this problem. The below paper will examine the development of the defence force with some allusion to the police services. I will view the development of defence forces from the inception of an indigenous armed force in 1975.
  • Topic: Security, Government, Peace Studies, Politics
  • Political Geography: Indonesia
  • Author: Michael Brzoska
  • Publication Date: 11-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a survey of current discussion on 'security sector reform'. Created only in the late 1990s, the term has spread rapidly in international discourses. It is now used in a number of contexts, ranging from its origin in the development donor community2 and to debate on reform in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe to changes in the major industrialised countries of Western Europe (Winkler, 2002). That the term is used widely suggests that the time was ripe for it. It would seem obvious that there was a need to find a new term for a plethora of phenomena and activities related to reform of the sector of society charged with the provision of security.
  • Topic: Security, Development, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Willem F. van Eekelen
  • Publication Date: 08-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The term security sector reform is in fashion because it recognises the need for adaptation to changed circumstances after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the emergence of fanatical terrorism, without being precise about its vast agenda. In the report 2003 of the Secretary General of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly defence sector reform was defined as the reorientation away from Cold War structures of armed forces and defence establishments through reorganisation, restructuring and downsizing in order to meet the demands of the new security environment. It is a challenge that all countries - Alliance and partners alike - have had to confront. However, the need has been particularly acute for the countries of central and eastern Europe because of the military legacy many of these countries inherited and the dire straits of many of their economies.
  • Topic: Security, NATO, Civil Society, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Louis L. Boros
  • Publication Date: 08-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Nearly all nations recognize and acknowledge the need for national defence and hence the need for national armed forces. However, the existence of armed forces also causes problems for every government, since, as Mao Tse-Tung so aptly put it, power comes from the barrel of a gun. One of the concerns of government, therefore, is how to ensure, that the political will remains in civilian hands. As we know, history has shown that this concern is both legitimate and well founded, since militaries have repeatedly seized control of government in many parts and nations of the world. (It has also been generally true, that military-led governments have not been exceptionally successful in running the government, regulating the economy, or solving social issues). Thus, a debate arises about the degree to which civilian leaders should control, or command the armed forces.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Economics, Politics
  • Author: Vladimir Shustov
  • Publication Date: 08-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: To start with, I would like to note that the degree to which the civil society influences state national security policies depends on political and social and economic character of the state and, accordingly, on relationships between various branches of power and the society itself represented by its organizations, mass media and individuals.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Economics, Politics
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Publication Date: 07-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Democracy is founded on every citizen's right to take part in the management of public affairs. This requires the existence of representative institutions at all levels and, as a cornerstone, a parliament in which all components of society are represented and which has the requisite powers and means to express the will of the people by legislating and overseeing government action.
  • Topic: Democratization, Economics, Government, Politics
  • Author: Marie Vlachová
  • Publication Date: 05-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Throughout modern history, the fate of the Czech nation has always been determined by politicians and not the armed forces. Czech soldiers have seldom fought for "their cause", i.e. one with which they are able to identify fully. The existence of Czechoslovakia's pre-war army, which was supposed to guarantee national sovereignty, was too short-lived, ending unimpressively when the political representation decided to demobilize prior to the country's occupation by the Nazis. The First Republic tradition was not sufficient to overcome widespread anti-military sentiments, which were personified by the infamous Czech literary character known as "Soldier Shweik" - whose origins lie in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the Communist era, most people were unable to identify with a fight against imperialism, that was designed by the Communist regime as the main reason for compulsory service in the military. The fact that the army stayed away from the public resistance to the 1968 occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact forces, only exacerbated the common perception that the military was no more than an obedient instrument of the Soviet Union's power politics. Even after the collapse of communism, doubts about the necessity to have an army persisted within Czech society. After November 1989, the armed forces drifted from the public.s and politician.s centre of attention for a short time. However, once it became apparent that the army would not intervene in the political transformation process; both the population and the new political representation shifted their focus towards political, economic, and also social issues.
  • Topic: Security, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Czech Republic
  • Author: Ian Leigh
  • Publication Date: 05-2003
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper is a contribution to a continuing project of the Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF): to provide a map or 'matrix' of legal norms to govern security sector reform. Previous contributions have addressed civil-military relations and work remains to be done on policing. The focus here is on the implications of this approach for the norms governing security and intelligence agencies.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Geneva
  • Author: Dr. Dietrich Genschel
  • Publication Date: 10-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The paper concentrates on the principles and prerequisites of DCAF as followed and applied in established (western) democracies. "Commonality" does not imply adherence to all principles to the same degree and in any detail. National history and tradition do condition the ways in which armed forces are structured and organized, educated, motivated and commanded. "Best practice" does not imply that there are no deviations from the principles and violations of their content. On the other hand the principles themselves take account of dangers of misuse und deviant behavior by providing corrective mechanisms. Overall the principles are guided by a vision of how best democratic and armed forces structures and behavioral features can be harmonized to the benefit of both with clear subordination of the armed forces under democratically legitimized political supremacy, without degrading efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Alice Hills
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper provides a baseline of knowledge and reference materials to support future work on the role of border control services in security sector reform (SSR). It summarises the current state of research on border control services in the broader context of SSR, examines the discursive field, and identifies the relevance to border services of the concept of democratic control.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Civil Society, Politics
  • Author: Daniel Zirker, Costas Danopoulos
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: The pivotal role of soldiers in warfare, empire building, and national security has been the subject of epic poets, historians, and other social scientists since time immemorial. By comparison, one finds precious little on the role military officers played in domestic politics, despite the fact the soldiers overthrew emperors and other office holders, installed new ones, and influenced government decisions in prehistoric, ancient, and modern societies. Yet, beginning with WWI, a series of major political, social, and economic developments, including the travails suffered by newly independent countries,stimulated empirically oriented social scientists to seek to understand the critically important role the armed forces played in the domestic politics of old and new societies alike. This gave birth to civil-military relations as subfield of comparative politics.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Marina Caparini, Philipp Fluri
  • Publication Date: 06-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: When the Fourth International Security Forum was held in November 2000, the idea of security sector reform (SSR) was just beginning to spread through those policy and academic communities that deal with democratisation, development, defence and foreign assistance. The emergence of the concept suggested the growing acceptance of a broader definition of security than the traditional definition focused on military security of the state. According to this broader definition, security has nonmilitary elements as well, and the object of security is not only the state, but importantly includes individuals and society more broadly. Security sector reform expands the scope of security to include "public security", or the safety of the individual from threats of crime, disorder and violence. Because security sector reform is focused on the use of public resources to provide security for citizens, there is a necessary focus in security sector reform on state (often executive) institutions and public policy. Such institutions include military forces, policing structures, paramilitary forces, intelligence agencies, border management services, the judicial system and penal institutions, as well as the state bureaucratic structures that exist to formulate policy and manage these institutions. SSR accordingly recommends a holistic approach to reforming state structures responsible for providing security. Although the policy and academic communities promoting the security sector reform concept favour a holistic approach, serious practical obstacles exist in achieving a comprehensive and integrated understanding of the enormously complex public policy domains relevant to security, and the multi-sectoral reform requirements that would inhere in a democratising state.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Author: Marian Zulean
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: After the end of the East-West-conflict the Eastern European countries have been struggling to build market economies and democratic institutions. An important issue of democratization is the reform of the armed forces and changing civil-military relations. No one can assess the level of democratization without taking into consideration civil-military relations. Thus, the civilian control of the military has been seen as an important indicator of democratization. Internal and international actors have required the transformation of this relationship as well. In the case of Romania, public opinion as well as NATO has been asking for such a radical change. Now, after 10 years, it is very challenging to see how Eastern European countries, and Romania in particular, have succeeded in changing civil-military relations.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Alice Hills
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There now exists a broad agreement regarding appropriate standards of democratic border security within Europe. The relevance of professionalism to this convergence process is, however, problematic. Professionalism's meaning is contested and consensual trends cannot represent a 'principle of professionalism'. Yet the notion is valuable because it provides insight into what is distinctive about border services. There are, however, too many variables involved to allow for an easy linkage between professionalism, appropriate service standards, and fundamental democratic principles. The factors affecting transferability are equally complex.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Johanna Mendelson Forman
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Perhaps it is no coincidence that this workshop on civil society and civil-military relations is taking place in Prague. In the modern history of Europe Prague has become a symbol of how democracy and human rights drive a revolution. From the famous Prague Spring of 1968, where dissidents challenged the repression of the Soviet state, to the Velvet Revolution and Charter 77 that launched the breakdown of Communist rule, civil society has played a central role in challenging the state's arbitrary use of force against its own citizens. And Czech President Vaclev Havel has become a symbol of democratic dissent, not only in his own nation, but to all those who aspire to freedom and justice around the world.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: David Whittlesey
  • Publication Date: 07-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There is broad consensus in the international development assistance community that two of the critical, interlocking building blocks in the foundation of sound democratic society are "good governance" and an engaged civil society. Though there may be quibbles as to the meaning of the concepts, there is common understanding that to arrive at the reality is damn difficult. This is especially true with societies emerging from the social, political and economic impacts of conflict, or attempting to transform from years of dictatorial and rigid governmental structures, be they communist or autocratic. It is particularly difficult in either case when addressing the issue of security sector reform. To address the transformation of military forces, policing structure, intelligence services and the judiciary in societies already struggling to overcome conflict is therefore doubly difficult.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil Society, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Intelligence services are an instrument in the hands of the state institutions, which can be used both for the better and the worse. If the intelligence services are in the hands of responsible democratic leaders, then intelligence contributes to the democracy's ability to function well. This is can be learnt from the history of the 20th Century: intelligence played a crucial role in helping to defeat Hitler, it played a significant role in preventing the Cold War from turning into a nuclear war and intelligence kept the super power arms race from getting totally out of hand2. On the other hand, if intelligence services are in the hands of those who are interested in conflict and coercion, intelligence can be used for the worse. Therefore, it is essential to secure democratic and parliamentary oversight of the intelligence services.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Government, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Liviu Muresan
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: From the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Romania had one of the most complex heritages of security structure becoming famous under the name of SECURITATE.
  • Topic: Democratization, National Security, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Wilhelm Germann
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper intends to contribute to a systematic consideration of what constitutes success and failure in the conduct of Security Sector Reform (SSR)1. Its purpose is of an introductory and methodological nature: to assist in preparing the grounds for an initial analysis of the potential of lessons learnt in this regard from the experience made by Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries in establishing the principle of democratic control of armed forces within the overall reform of their respective security sectors. The paper deliberately refrains from commenting in detail on the substance of SSR in CEE countries and on the results achieved so far. This aspect remains the central subject of the presentations by participants/ witnesses from the respective countries.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Intelligence is the collection, processing and dissemination of information according to the needs of a national government. Informed policymaking and decision making require adequate information and reliable analysis. Only if policymakers and decision makers are sufficiently informed about the state of the world and the likely developments, can they be expected to make sound judgments in the areas of internal and external security, national defense and foreign relations.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Istvan Szikinger
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: This paper argues that instead of developments toward civilian control over armed forces, there is rather a tendency resulting in a growing role of armed organs in overseeing the life and all kinds of activities of the people and organisations of the civil society in Hungary. Although the country is far from being a military dictatorship, the role of the agencies empowered to use coercive means has been substantially increased.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Hungary
  • Author: John E. Tedstrom
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: There are many precedents for establishing a National Security Council (NSC), but no strict rules to follow. Countries tend to develop their own models based on the pre-existing institutional structure of the government and the specific needs of top officials. In the United States, the NSC has evolved over a 50-year period; different presidents have assigned it different roles and different National Security Advisors have given the position different personalities.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, Eastern Europe
  • Author: Robertas Sapronas
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: During the first half of the 1990s all Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, including the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, were struggling through the difficult process of transition toward a democratic system and market economy. The transformations of the post Cold War era had profound effects on practically every sector of the respective societies, which had to find their new role and place in the new world.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Cold War, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia
  • Author: Janis Arved Trapans
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Since 1991 Latvia no longer has been in the Soviet world and is intent on returning to the Western community of nations--politically, economically, and socially. Politically, Latvia has restored a democratic, parliamentary system of government. Economically, it is bringing back a free market system. Socially, it wants to have what is generally called a “civil society”. All this influences defence reform. When Latvia regained independence and the Soviet Army withdrew, according to a NATO Parliamentary Assembly Report “(All) that was left behind consisted of 26 sunken submarines and ships leaking acid, oil, and phosphorous. On this foundation Latvia began building its armed forces.” The military infrastructure was in ruins and equipment and logistical support were almost non-existent. Latvia had to build everything ab initio and that demanded resources and time. However it did not inherit a large bloc of former Warsaw Pact as the national forces of a newly sovereign state. It did not have to reduce a massive military force structure or restructure redundant defence industries, deprived of domestic markets, as many other transition states have had to do. Latvia's reform problems have been different from those in other Central European countries. In some ways, Latvia was in a less advantageous situation than other transition states, in other ways, in a better one.
  • Topic: Defense Policy, NATO, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Soviet Union, Latvia
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Winston Churchill once labelled the parliament as the workshop of democracy, and it goes without saying that the parliament does play a central role in any democracy, though this role may greatly vary across political systems. While parliaments may range from ornamental to significant governing partners, they have some common characteristics, which include three basic functions that they perform: representing the people, making (or: shaping) laws, and exercising oversight. Parliaments articulate the wishes of the people by drafting new laws and overseeing the proper execution of those policies by the government. In short: the parliament is the mediator between government and the people.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Hans Born
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Democracy always implicitly presumes unlimited civilian supremacy over the command of the armed forces – anything short of that defines an incomplete democracy. But what exactly is democratic oversight, and how can we conceptualise it? Generally speaking, we see a state's system of democratic oversight as being a product of its system of government, politics, history and culture. Aditionally, as there are many different cultures and political systems, many different norms and practices of democratic oversight also exist. Consequently, and for better or worse, there is no single, definitive normative model for democratic oversight. At least several models are present, some of which appear to contradict others. Keeping this in mind, the main question of this chapter is 'how can democratic oversight be conceptualised?' The following questions relating to the issue will be addressed:
  • Topic: Defense Policy, Democratization, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Budimir Babović
  • Publication Date: 04-2002
  • Content Type: Working Paper
  • Institution: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
  • Abstract: Apart from the principal question of their content, reforms in general pose a twofold preliminary question: is there a sufficient quantum of willingness to proceed with the reforms and how speedily should they be carried out. A public opinion survey carried out by The Center for Policy Studies (Belgrade) in the period from August 25 to 28, 2001 has demonstrated that only 38 percent of interviewed persons consider the reforms should be quick and thorough, even painful for most citizens. At the same time, 47 percent of those interviewed believe that reforms should be conducted gradually, so they are less painful. The first question left 35 percent of persons without a response or undecided, the second left 30 percent.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Government, Politics
  • Political Geography: Yugoslavia, Serbia