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  • Author: Todd Moss
  • Publication Date: 04-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Energy is fundamental to modern life, but 1.3 billion people around the world live without “access to modern electricity.” The current definition of modern energy access—100 kilowatt-hours per person per year—is insufficient and presents an ambition gap with profound implications for human welfare and national economic growth. This report summarizes the energy access problem, the substantial efforts underway to bolster power generation and access in the poorest regions, and highlights concerns about the specific indicators being used to measure progress. It then condenses a set of analytical and conceptual questions the working group grappled with, such as why and how to better measure energy usage and the multiple options that should be considered. The report concludes with five recommendations for the United Nations, International Energy Agency, World Bank, national governments, major donors, and other relevant organizations.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, Climate Finance, International Development
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Stijn Claessens, Liliana Rojas-Suarez
  • Publication Date: 03-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: As recently as 2011, only 42 percent of adult Kenyans had a financial account of any kind; by 2014, according to the Global Findex, database that number had risen to 75 percent. [1] In sub­Saharan Africa, the share of adults with financial accounts rose by nearly half over the same period. Many other developing countries have also recorded gains in access to basic financial services. Much of this progress is being facilitated by the digital revolution of recent decades, which has led to the emergence of new financial services and new delivery channels. Whereas payment services often are the entry point into using formal financial services, they are not the only low­cost and widely accessible financial services being delivered in recent years. Driven by advances in new digital payment services, small­scale credit and new modes for delivering insurance services are being offered in several developing countries. Digital (payment) records are being used to make decisions about provision of credit to small businesses or individuals who do not have traditional collateral or credit history to secure loans. Additionally, affordable mobile systems have led to the provision of new and innovative financial services that would not be economically sustainable under the traditional brick­and­mortar model such as mobile­based crop microinsurance in sub­Saharan Africa and pay­as­you­go energy delivery models for off­grid customers in India, Peru, and Tanzania. [2] Increased access to basic financial services, especially payments services, by larger segments of the population reflects the growing use of digital technologies in developing countries. Simultaneously, the adoption of proper regulation based on country­specific opportunities, needs and conditions has been critical.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Trade and Finance, Financial Markets
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Alexandr Lagazzi
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Europeum Institute for European Policy
  • Abstract: Regardless of its outcome, the Italian constitutional referendum will affect Italy’s position within the EU. Prime Minister Matteo Renzi proposes to simplify the legislative process by stripping the Senate of most its role in the law-making process whilst boosting the power of the executive branch. Voters will have the opportunity to decide whether to approve or decline these substantial constitutional changes on December 4, 2016, in the third constitutional referendum of the country’s history. The aim of this paper is to analyse the proposed bill and offer a prognosis of both the outcomes of the referendum in terms of Italy’s position within the EU before the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaty in March 2017.
  • Topic: International Relations, Political structure
  • Political Geography: Europe, Italy
  • Author: Eva Krizkova
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Europeum Institute for European Policy
  • Abstract: The development cooperation policy of the EU is an important political and economic tool. Nevertheless, its importance might be underestimated in today’s public debate. In 2000 and 2015 the international community adopted development goals (the so-called Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals), in which poverty eradication and global inclusive sustainable prosperity were set as priorities. In this framework, EU development cooperation is one of the most important tools in the accomplishment of these goals.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Millennium Development Goals, International Development
  • Political Geography: European Union
  • Author: Tereza Novotná
  • Publication Date: 03-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Europeum Institute for European Policy
  • Abstract: Federica Mogherini, the EU’s foreign policy chief, has recently been praised for mediating the Iran nuclear deal. However, policy action (or inaction) should not be the only metric by which to judge Mogherini’s successes and failures. Any High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice- President of the European Commission (HRVP) is also responsible for the effective organization and management of the European External Action Service (EEAS) and its officials. The importance of this issue lies in the fact that it is the EEAS personnel who prepares HRVP’s foreign policy proposals and represents the EU in third countries.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 05-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Europeum Institute for European Policy
  • Abstract: Conference Programme
  • Topic: Political stability, Populism
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Jameela Raymond, José María Marín
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: At the Anti-Corruption Summit held in London in May 2016, 42 governments made more than 600 commitments across a range of issues. From anti-money laundering regulation to open data to public sector integrity, ambitious ideas for tackling corruption were central to the Summit.1 Transparency International evaluated the commitments made at the Summit and found many to be significantly new (generated by the summit), ambitious (strong steps in the context of the country they are coming from) and concrete (actionable and measurable). But without any formal mechanism in place for follow up, the commitments are at risk of being forgotten or left behind. Open Government Partnership Action Plans have offered a key means of implementing and monitoring Anti-Corruption Summit pledges. In fact, the Anti-Corruption Summit communiqué2 states:
  • Topic: Corruption
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Our new publication focusing on corrupt wealth in London property. Using multiple data sources, this report finds that there is no data available on the real owners of more than half of the 44,022 land titles owned by overseas companies in London whilst nine out of ten of these properties were bought via secrecy jurisdictions
  • Topic: Corruption, Monetary Policy
  • Political Geography: Britain
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Spring Cleaning” a new report from Transparency International UK (TI-UK) analyses the role of the UK in providing a safe haven for corrupt wealth from Middle Eastern rulers. In Syria Egypt and Libya, amongst others, corruption played a major role in igniting the “Arab Spring”, with mass protests decrying the misuse of power by political establishments.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Corruption
  • Political Geography: Britain, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 03-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Al Jazeera
  • Abstract: The 7 March 2016 attacks on Ben Gardane by Islamic State (IS) occurred in the context of growing upheaval in next-door Libya, internal government tension in Tunisia and challenges faced by Tunisia’s security apparatus after several armed attacks in the country during 2015. This policy brief examines the security, political and regional contexts of the Ben Gardane attack, the positive and negative aspects of the state’s response and addresses preventative measures the state is likely to take in the future.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Terrorism, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Tunisia