Search

You searched for: Content Type Special Report Remove constraint Content Type: Special Report Publication Year within 3 Years Remove constraint Publication Year: within 3 Years
Number of results to display per page

Search Results

  • Author: Denys Kutsenko
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: The space of post-Soviet city centres used by protesters was especially analysed by Ukrainian and Russian scholars after the Orange Revolution, Euromaidan and Russian anti-election protests in 2011-2012. There were also works devoted to the Tahrir Square (Cairo, Egypt)1 and Taksim Square (Istanbul, Turkey)2, which appeared after Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and wave of demonstration and civil unrest in Instanbul in 2013. After protests in Russia and Ukraine city movements like coffee urbanism or hipster urbanism became more active and ideas of new urbanism spread with new strength.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Security
  • Political Geography: Ukraine
  • Author: Kazimierz Wóycicki
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: The war that Russia is conducting against Ukraine today is not only related to breaking the post-World War II rules of engagement, but is also being run in a new way, which was to a certain degree unknown before. is phenomenon had been named “hybrid warfare”, initially mainly paying attention to the military aspect of the issue, symbolically represented by “little green men”. e focus of attention has been shifting to what military actions of hybrid-war are often accompanied by intense propaganda activities, with the Internet as the main tool. they are planned and carried out in Russia, possessing extensive resources in Russian literature on so-called “information warfare”.
  • Topic: International Security, Cybersecurity
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: Vladislav Volkov, Oksana Ruzha
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: Interethnic communication is viewed as a form of social communication that happens “between people of different cultures”. Researchers associate the importance of studying such communication with the need to analyse the possibilities for mutual understanding of effective interaction between people of different cultures (Rogers, Hart, Miike 2002, p. 5, 7). Communication between people of different cultures can encompass a wide range of characteristics and goals – from the desire to put forward legitimate claims of ethnic identity to bias against other groups, from the establishment of associative relationships between groups prior to their dissociation (Kim 2006, p. 284, 291), from imposing the dominant culture’s standards and exclusion of non-dominant cultures from public life to the positive recognition of ethno-cultural minorities in the common cultural space (Young 1996, p. 29), etc.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Grażyna Drzazga, Magda Stroińska
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: Words can be like tiny doses of arsenic: they are swallowed unnoticed, appear to have no e ect, and then after a little time the toxic reaction sets in after all,” wrote Victor Klemperer in his study of the language of the third Reich (Klemperer 1946/2000: 15-16). the importance of language for effective persuasion has been acknowledged by the teachers of rhetoric and orators since the age of antiquity. In modern times, there were both politicians who practiced deception through language for political or other gains, and also those who studied the effects of language-based manipulation. Among the most profound research on the mechanisms and effects of propaganda, one could name the writings of George Orwell, Friedrich Hayek, or Michał Głowiński. In this paper, we focus on one particularly disturbing aspect of propaganda: the use of hate speech. e reason for this choice of topic is the unprecedented explosion of populism all over the world, and the spread of perhaps its strongest weapon – hate through political and social fearmongering and use of what Klemperer referred to as ‘poisonous language’.
  • Topic: Political Violence, Political stability
  • Political Geography: Poland
  • Author: Richat Sabitov
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: Russian foreign policy and European security is continuing to receive special attention in light of the ongoing conflict in Ukraine. An analysis of Russia- NATO relations is necessary to understand Moscow’s behaviour in the so-called “near abroad” – the territory of the former Soviet republics. It is, therefore, important to study Russia’s reaction to Ukrainian aspirations towards Europe and the implications it holds for the Crimean Peninsula’s status
  • Topic: International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Crimea
  • Author: Rudolf Pikhola
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: On 25 September 1990, one of the rst meetings of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of Russia was held in the building of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. e agenda consisted of the issue of ensuring the economic sovereignty of Russia in the USSR. Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Yuri Skokov, responsible for industrial policy, spoke with bitterness about his meeting with Minister of Metallurgy of the USSR Seraphim Baibakov: “We spoke to him about our sovereignty, and he said: ‘I’m sorry, but last year I became an owner of property and a legal successor of state property.’ Kolpakov became Krupp. Now he creates 10-15 companies, leaving a small management structure. It is presidential rule in the steel-casting complex.”
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: Kateryna Nasonova
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: Nowadays virtual social networks have become the most frequently visited Internet resources. Although the Internet space exists as an open area of communication – overcoming linguistic, spatial and temporal barriers – certain internet products, like social networks, are gaining popularity in particular geographical areas. For example, Facebook, which is popular all over the world, failed to gain much of a foothold in countries of the former USSR. ere, the Facebook niche is dominated by such networks as VKontakte and Odnoklassniki. It shows that virtual social networks are a re ection of the community functioning in real-time, space and area. Social network users are not relieved of the burden of group, religious or ethnic identity, nor the ideology of the dominant society in the process of virtual communication. Such virtual activity becomes an expression of the system of coordinates and philosophical orientations that emerges during the process of socialization. Further, we can presume that the unpopularity of Facebook in former countries of the USSR is due to the impact of the post-Soviet mentality on the formation of virtual social networks, like VKontakte and Odnoklassniki. To con rm this thesis, we conducted a comparative analysis of three virtual social networks: VKontakte, Odnoklassniki and Facebook. these sites are quite similar in structure and function. However, they distinguish themselves from one another through the conceptual framework around which their user audience communication is built.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Social Media
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Vakhtang Maisaia
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: he NATO Wales and Warsaw Summits held in 2014 and in 2016, were historic events due to the complex processes associated with them. The Summits have generated much discussion and are comprised of decisive issues and decisions. In the last Warsaw Summit, up to ten documents were adopted, including the final communique, which was for the first time quite “thick” for and more detailed, compared to previously adopted documents (about 139 items). For the first time in the last few decades, the European Union and NATO came to a consensus and adopted a common declaration, where they expressed their united position on common problems within the frameworks of Transatlantic security, and agreed on plans for further strategic cooperation (EU-NATO Joint Declaration 2016). Most importantly, the representatives of both organisations declared a common approach toward threats emanating from the East and South (i.e. Russia and ISIS). At this stage, the Alliance identi ed three geostrategic special regions for more active operations in the context of strategic defence and deterrence. ose regions became the main issue of the summit: the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. NATO must boost its support for the Southern ank via crisis management capabilities and strengthened partnerships (Lorenz “NATO at a Critical Crossroads”, 11). In general, NATO has returned to a collective defence strategy. is is a new game where the South Caucasus is becoming a “red frontier” line between the main actors: NATO and Russia. It seems that the priorities of NATO and Russia in the region are evolving within the framework of the so-called “security dilemma”, where both parties are trying to build up their military capabilities and tools of political pressure on the countries of the region, competing with each other in various geostrategic dimensions. is includes intensive NATO military exercises in Georgia and implementation of the Comprehensive Assistance Package, as well as strengthening military potential in the territories of occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia, not to mention the establishment of a joint air defence system with Armenia, and strengthening the Caspian Flotilla by Russia.
  • Topic: NATO, International Trade and Finance, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
409. Forward
  • Author: John S Micgiel, Pawel Kowal
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: Twenty- five years ago, we bade farewell to the Soviet Union, but after a quarter- century we still feel how much of its empire it left behind. It was not an “ordinary” empire because its essential feature was a totalitarian system. ideological pressure of Soviet Russia has changed the social structures of great swathes of the globe. e legacy of the USSR is a fascinating research topic, unfortunately today one rarely raised by researchers.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: Pawel Kowal
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for East European Studies, University of Warsaw
  • Abstract: List of contributors in latest review
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
  • Abstract: A conference report on CCSI’s Conference on “Climate Change and Sustainable Investment in Natural Resources: From Consensus to Action” is available here, and a shorter outcome document , which was disseminated at COP22, is available here. These documents summarize the discussions at the eleventh annual Columbia International Investment Conference, which took place on November 2-3, 2016, at Columbia University. The Conference offered a high-level opportunity to discuss how countries can reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Paris Agreement, while also advancing the Sustainable Development Goals, and in particular the important implications for the world’s approach to natural resource investments. It featured leaders from government, the private sector, civil society, and academia, and brought together nearly 400 participants. In the lead-up to the Conference, CCSI also published a Blog Series on the Earth Institute’s State of the Planet Blog.
  • Topic: Climate Change, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ana Belén Sanchez
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: La Fundación Alternativas presenta un nuevo estudio: ¨Cambio climática y salud. Mayor impacto en los más vulnerables¨. Informe encargado y financiado por DKV y ECODES; ha sido elaborado por ana Belén Sánchez y Waleska Guerrero Lemus.
  • Topic: Climate Change
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ana Belén Sanchez
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: Lo que este IIº Informe sobre sostenibilidad plantea es que conviene pasar a la acción, sin más demora, si queremos evitar situaciones catastróficas. Los datos son concluyentes. En 40 años hemos doblado las emisiones de carbono, dentro de unos años habrá más plásticos que peces en los mares, con la desaparición de miles de especies marinas; la energía sigue dependiendo de materias fósiles y 7 millones de personas mueren al año por contaminación. Los desórdenes atmosféricos se suceden, amenazando territorios y millones de personas. Es como si la madre naturaleza protestara ó castigara los despropósitos de sus descarriados hijos, los humanos.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: The year since the publication of our previous report in April 2016 has been nothing short of an annus horribilis for the European Union. The victory for Leave in the UK referendum was followed by the triumph of Donald Trump in the US elections and his stated support for the further weakening of the EU, an attitude that the President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, has described as a threat. At the same time, there have been a number of significant events, both in Europe and elsewhere in the world, which we analyse in this 6th Report on the State of the EU, produced in partnership between Fundación Alternativas and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Brexit
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: El periodo comprendido entre la publicación del anterior Informe –abril 2016– y el actual se podría calificar, sin exagerar, como el annus horribilis de la Unión Europea (UE). Al referendo británico que se inclinó por la ruptura con la Unión, el brexit, se ha sumado el triunfo de Donald Trump en las elecciones norteamericanas y su manifestado deseo de que se produzcan nuevos brexits. Una amenaza en palabras del presidente del Consejo Europeo Tusk. Entre medias se han sucedido muchos acontecimientos en la vida europea y global que se analizan en este VI Informe sobre el estado de la UE, producto de la colaboración de la Fundación Alternativas y de la Fundación Friedrich Ebert.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Brexit
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Antonio Fernández Tomás
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: La Fundación Alternativas presenta un nuevo estudio: ¨The impact and consequences of Brexit on acquired rights of EU citizens living in the UK and British citizens living in the EU-27¨. Informe encargado y financiado por el Parlamento Europeo, ha sido elaborado por Antonio Fernández Tomás y Diego López Garrido.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Brexit
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: Un año más el Observatorio de Cultura y Comunicación de la Fundación Alternativas (OCC/FA) aborda la edición del Informe sobre el Estado de la Cultura en España (ICE 2017). En esta ocasión la publicación coincide con los inicios de una legislatura que ha llegado después de un largo año de incertidumbre. Estamos de nuevo ante una oportunidad, que esperamos esta vez se aproveche, de dar a la cultura en su institucionalidad el papel y el reconocimiento que merece. Estamos de acuerdo en que los cambios que está provocando la que ha venido a llamarse cuarta revolución industrial han comenzado a incidir en todos los aspectos de la sociedad, y que la cultura se está viendo afectada de manera clara. No obstante, si asumimos este periodo como una ocasión para dar respuestas adecuadas a los múltiples desafíos a los que nos enfrentamos, podremos salir airosos del momento disruptivo y seguir avanzando por la senda del progreso.
  • Topic: Multiculturalism
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Rubén Ruiz-Rufino
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: El Informe sobre la Democracia en España nació con el objetivo de analizar el funcionamiento de la democracia española y los desafíos derivados del afán por mejorar sus instituciones. En las distintas ediciones continúa proporcionando una información sobre acontecimientos y decisiones colectivas, de utilidad para el análisis, el debate social y la formación de la opinión pública. Para la realización del Informe sobre la Democracia en España (IDE 2016), el Laboratorio de la Fundación Alternativas designó un Consejo Asesor que, junto con el director del IDE, debatió su estructura y orientación a lo largo de varias sesiones, conoció los trabajos en curso y la propuesta de documento final. Un equipo de investigadores contratado por el Laboratorio llevó a cabo la recogida de la información, la elaboración de los datos relevantes y la redacción inicial de los diferentes capítulos que componen este IDE. La edición final correspondió a la dirección del mismo.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Democracy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Georgetown University nstitute for the Study of Diplomacy
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University
  • Abstract: Climate change and shifting weather patterns are not the Tinker Bells of science or of policy. Disbelief, or denial, or a suspension of research will not make melting icecaps, rising sea levels, desertification, and floods go away. There may be legitimate debate on the pace of these changes, or whether there is a meaningful difference between the degrees of global warming that will result in inconvenient, catastrophic, or apocalyptic scenarios. But the empirical data is there. There is change and it affects human security—whether food can be grown, if water is available, and which lands are likely to become uninhabitable. And these needs, along with other drivers, will influence where humans live—and whether they must abandon their homes. As people are forced to migrate simply to survive, we face the possibility of major shifts in human settlement patterns, along with increased competition for resources.
  • Topic: Environment, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Casimir A. Yost
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University
  • Abstract: Let me join in welcoming you toWashington, DC, a city President Kennedy described as having “northern charm and southern efficiency.”I am not sure that in the intervening 60+ years Washington has become either more charming or more efficient..
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Jessa Rose Dury-Agri, Omer Kassim, Patrick Martin
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: The liberation of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sh­am’s (ISIS) urban holdings in Iraq was necessary but not sufficient to secure America’s vital national interests. ISIS has lost neither the will nor the capability to fight, even as it withdraws into desert hideouts and sleeper cell formations in November 2017. Rather, dispersed ISIS militants have begun an insurgent campaign in northern and western Iraq as some of its foreign fighters have returned to their home countries to serve in ISIS’s external operations network.
  • Topic: Islam, War, International Security
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Middle East
  • Author: Matias Spektor
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: Throughout its 18 years of existence, the Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI) has established itself as one of Brazil’s most important centers for critical reflection on international relations. As a result of Brazil’s accession on the international stage in recent decades, Brazil now enjoys a position of appropriate prominence within the global scenario. As one of the most important international relations think-tanks in the country, CEBRI has an important mission to fulfill, and to shed light on the main contemporary global issues in an independent, nonpartisan and pluralistic way.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: In July, representatives from the public and private sectors, think tanks, and academia, discussed, over a day, themes common to Brazil and Africa, explored ways to bring the two regions together, and inaugurated, in practice, a new phase of inter-Atlantic interaction.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Dr Jans Woischnik
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: In the last decade of the 20th century, when the Cold War came to an end, there was a growing understanding that International Law was consolidated as legitimation body for state actions. It was the beginning of a new peaceful world order, the world hoped that an old problem of geopolitics could finally be fully addressed by the International Law, a problem which the Athenian General Thucydides observed already more than 2000 years ago, according to which in the realm of the international, “the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must”. In this new world order right was supposed to finally come before might.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Robert Einhorn, Steven Pifer
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: In conducting its Nuclear Posture Review, the Trump administration needs to consider how best to meet U.S. deterrence requirements in a changing security environment. Today’s most pressing challenges to U.S. deterrence goals come not from the threat of a massive nuclear attack against the U.S. homeland but from the possibility that nuclear-armed adversaries will use the threat of escalation to the nuclear level to act more aggressively in their regions and prevent the United States from coming to the defense of its allies and partners.
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Wyatt Hoffman, Ariel Levite
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: The cyber revolution and ever-growing transfer of human activities into the virtual world are undermining the social contract between modern states and their citizens. Most governments are becoming unable and unwilling to protect citizens and private enterprises against numerous, sophisticated cyber predators seeking to disrupt, manipulate, or destroy their digital equities. Inevitably, states are focused on protecting governmental assets and national infrastructure, leaving themselves with modest residual capacity and resolve to underwrite other cybersecurity risks. Faced with this reality, private entities are reluctantly but increasingly complementing their passive cybersecurity practices with more assertive “active cyber defense” (ACD) measures. This approach carries substantial risks, but if guided by bounding principles and industry models, it also has the potential for long-term, cumulative benefits.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Cybersecurity
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Maha Yahya
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: Lebanon’s and Iraq’s political systems are based on sectarian and ethnic power-sharing. In summer 2015, both countries faced popular protests demanding better governance. These protests began over poor service provision but escalated into opposition to the countries’ overarching power-sharing systems. These demonstrations were framed as nonsectarian, civic responses to deteriorating conditions and corrupt leadership. While protestors raised hopes that change was possible, their curtailment by the sectarian leadership underlined the challenges of political transformation in divided societies.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Security
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Anouar Boukhars
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: More than six years after the revolution that ousted former president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Tunisia’s border regions remain hotbeds of social discontent and agitation. Aggrieved youth increasingly express their anger through fiery protests, street violence, and in some cases violent extremism. In response to this ongoing social unrest and terrorism, the Tunisian government has developed hardline security policies, whose effects often exacerbate social tensions, political violence, and militancy. Breaking this vicious cycle requires Tunisia’s government to rethink its approach to the border regions.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Tunisia
  • Author: Salman Ahmed, Alexander Bick
  • Publication Date: 08-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: The sixteen national security strategies issued by presidents Ronald Reagan to Barack Obama reaffirmed U.S. leadership of a liberal international order, even as they acknowledged it enabled the rise of others and eroded U.S. economic dominance. President Donald Trump may decide that is no longer tenable. His forthcoming national security strategy will be closely scrutinized to understand what “America First” means for the U.S. role in the world and whether it represents a shift toward a narrower, neo-mercantile approach.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Rajesh Rajagopalan
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: India is a rising power, but its transformation is occurring in the shadow of China’s even more impressive ascent. Beijing’s influence will almost certainly continue to grow and has already upset Asia’s geopolitical balance. India must decide how to secure its interests in this unbalanced environment by choosing among six potential strategic options: staying unaligned, hedging, building indigenous military power, forming regional partnerships, aligning with China, or aligning with the United States. A closer alignment with Washington likely represents India’s best chance to counter China, while efforts to foster regional partnerships and cultivate domestic military capabilities, although insufficient by themselves, could play a complementary role.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: India
  • Author: Ashley Tellis
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: The international community’s routine call for continuous India-Pakistan dialogue is not only misguided but also counterproductive. This entreaty, which often follows major Pakistani-supported terrorist attacks in India, fails to recognize that the security competition between the two nations is not actually driven by discrete, negotiable differences. Rather, the discord is rooted in long-standing ideological, territorial, and power-political antagonisms that are fueled by Pakistan’s irredentism, its army’s desire to subvert India’s ascendency as a great power and exact revenge for past Indian military victories, and its aspirations to be treated on par with India despite their huge differences in capabilities, achievements, and prospects.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: India
  • Author: Sarah Chayes
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • Abstract: In some five dozen countries worldwide, corruption can no longer be understood as merely the iniquitous doings of individuals. Rather, it is the operating system of sophisticated networks that cross sectoral and national boundaries in their drive to maximize returns for their members. Honduras offers a prime example of such intertwined, or “integrated,” transnational kleptocratic networks. This case thus illustrates core features of the way apparently open or chaotic economies are in reality structured worldwide—and some of the dynamics that are driving climate change, persistent inequality, and spiraling conflict.
  • Topic: Corruption, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Honduras
  • Author: Wael Abdul-Shafi
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: EastWest Institute
  • Abstract: Falling oil and gas prices and shrinking demand across global energy markets pose enormous challenges for energy exporting countries like Iran and Saudi Arabia and lead to decreasing revenues from this sector. Despite differences in the structures of their respective national economies, both countries share common challenges in adapting to this new situation. High youth unemployment rates, an underrepresentation of women in the workforce, a public sector unable to absorb the high numbers of university graduates as well as environmental degradation and pollution, all constitute major problems for both countries and their economies. But, while solving many of these issues would ideally demand bilateral cooperation, a political climate of mutual mistrust and enmity currently inhibits such a process.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Iran, Saudi Arabia
  • Author: Thomas Renard
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: EGMONT - The Royal Institute for International Relations
  • Abstract: Belgium may not be China’s prime destination for investment in Europe, but as in other neighboring countries these investments are increasing in quality and quantity. Chinese investments are mostly welcomed and encouraged by the government, its agencies and the business community. However, a recent failed deal with EANDIS, a public energy company, has also raised some concerns about the economic and security implications of (some) Chinese investments. Belgian intelligence services, notably, argue for a bit of caution vis-à-vis China. While these two visions could be complementary, they remain held by distinct communities that seem reluctant to acknowledge and listen to one another. As a result, the Belgian response to China’s economic offensive remains overwhelmingly reactive and uncoordinated.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Sven Biscop
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: EGMONT - The Royal Institute for International Relations
  • Abstract: How will the great powers behave? That is what determines the future world order – or the absence of order. Could it be that China and the EU have found an alternative for the old-fashioned grand strategies that Russia and the US are again pursuing
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Johan Verbeke
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: EGMONT - The Royal Institute for International Relations
  • Abstract: Scholars and pundits alike have been qualifying our times as of “transition and turbulence”, “disorder” and “strategic unease”. Other concepts that recur in discussions on the present state of the world are ‘uncertainty’ and ‘unpredictability’. They all seem to point to a world in flux. Let’s see what that means.
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Mitvim: The Israeli Institute for Regional Foreign Policies
  • Abstract: Israel’s Foreign Service needs improvement, as has become profoundly evident over the last few years. Israel’s foreign policy is not based on clear guiding principles, Israel lacks a full-time Foreign Minister, and responsibility for core foreign policy issues has been transferred from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) to other governmental entities. This situation is detrimental diplomatically and to Israel’s national security and foreign relations
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Israel
  • Author: Peter Brazani
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: Tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis. As an old Latin adage has it, times change, and we change with them. The year 2017 was no different in that regard, and change continued to be the buzz word in the realm of international relations. Political trends became unpredictable and complex, sometimes even tectonic. It does not come easy to me to say that the world did not become a more stable and safer place last year. We saw turmoil and regional tensions, with the international community starting to lose consensus on some key issues previously understood as common interests. These changes are no longer situational. They are early warnings of new, long-term tendencies, stemming from protracted conflicts, social inequality, isolationism and lack of trust. Changing constants have placed new demands on our foreign policy, and on us as diplomats.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Slovakia
  • Author: Alexander Duleba
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: Integration Without Membership: Potential and limits of Ukraine’s Association with the EU
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Ukraine
  • Author: Alexander Duleba
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: Ukraine and the Energy Union
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Miriam Lexmann, Zsuzsanna Végh, Maja Bobić
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: Is there a Shared transition Experience?
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Ana Marjanović
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: Advocacy Strategy for the EU Integration of the Western Balkans
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: From Paris to Istanbul, sports and entertainment venues, to include stadiums, convention centers and arenas – often easily accessed and filled with large groups of people – have become increasingly attractive targets. While there is a history of targeting stadiums around the world, the increased prevalence of these attacks, along with new tactics, may forecast future activity that requires both public and private sector stakeholders to examine existing efforts and implement new measures to enhance safety and security
  • Topic: Intelligence, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Britain
  • Author: Richard Barrett
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: As the so-called Islamic State (IS) loses territorial control of its caliphate, there is little doubt that the group or something similar will survive the worldwide campaign against it so long as the conditions that promoted its growth remain. Its appeal will outlast its demise, and while it will be hard to assess the specific threat posed by foreign fighters and returnees, they will present a challenge to many countries for years to come.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Christine Nissen
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: This week constitutes yet another step towards the materialization of an ‘EU defence union’. On 13 November the so-called ‘PESCO’ provision was launched, which allows groups of willing EU member states to make binding commitments to each other on security and defence. 23 EU member states immediately signed up to participate, and since then, Ireland and Portugal have also joined in, which means that the only hold outs are Malta, Denmark and the United Kingdom. At the European Council summit held on 14-15 December, EU leaders will welcome the PESCO initiative cementing their willingness to significantly strengthen the EU as a framework for European security and defence cooperation. This week, EU foreign ministers will adopt the decision establishing PESCO as well as unveil the first common projects, which will drive their engagement in the years to come. 17 concrete projects are now on the table, including an European Medical Command, the creation of a crisis response centre and a plan for increased military mobility.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Peter Gibbon, Jakob Vestergaard
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Danish Institute for International Studies
  • Abstract: A few weeks ahead of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), to be held in Buenos Aires from 10 to 13 December, the international trade community is gripped with a mixture of angst, disbelief and despair. Although US President, Donald Trump, made radical statements during his presidential campaign – including the infamous statement that the “WTO is a disaster” [for the US] – few expected much of that to translate into actual policies when he was elected and appointed President. Yet, this is very much what has in fact happened over the past 10 months.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: America
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: Innovation is at the centre of the current economic policy discourse in Canada. Innovation drives productivity and with it, standards of living. Innovation is the process of using ideas, typically in the form of intellectual property (IP), to offer new or improved products or services for the same or lower overall cost of production. This collection of essays, which were first published online in the spring of 2017, marshalls new thinking on innovation, and brings together a community of scholars and practitioners who offer fresh approaches to innovation in Canada, and Canada’s place in the world. The essays discuss the role that international trade plays in stimulating innovation, including the nature of trade agreements; consider domestic policy on innovation; and examine how global processes such as the World Trade Organization and the Group of Twenty might foster a climate in which the innovation strategies of smaller countries could be accommodated. An epilogue maps the key themes to emerge from the discussion and suggests a framework for an IP-centric innovation strategy. Rapid developments in technologies, often referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, are upending established structures in every part of the economy and society. As in other facets of international negotiations, the starting point in efforts to bring order to and shape the current technology-fuelled environment for the global good is national policies and postures.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: James Bacchus
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: There is a looming collision between the rules frameworks of the two separate international institutions that have been created and entrusted with addressing trade and climate change. Links between trade and climate change can no longer be ignored by either the World Trade Organization (WTO) or the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Neither has considered the consequences of the trade restrictions that are likely to be part of many national measures enacted to address climate change, which will fall within the scope of the WTO Agreement and will surely lead to a lengthy WTO dispute settlement process. Such trade-restrictive national measures will be fed by domestic fears of “carbon leakage” and a loss of national competitiveness, and WTO disputes resulting from such measures will confront numerous unanswered legal questions due to an absence of relevant WTO jurisprudence. To minimize the political risks of such a collision to both the WTO and the COP, and to combine the most benefit for the climate with the least risk to trade, a WTO climate waiver is urgently needed. The adoption of a WTO climate waiver should be only the first of the ways in which WTO members revise and realign WTO rules in accordance with the objectives of sustainable development.
  • Topic: Climate Change
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Todd E Col Key
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College
  • Abstract: Today's global security environment remains volatile, uncertain, ano complex. Resurgent, revanchist, and unstable states, and radical terrorist organizations continue to challenge the international order, undermine peace and stability, and threaten U.S. interests. In the face of this, the United States Army remains America's combat force of decision. If the political leaders of the United States decide to deploy its Army, the Nation's opponents know they will be defeated. This certainty is the foundation of America's deterrent capability
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Dr. Robert J. Bunker
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College
  • Abstract: Armed robotic systems—drones and droids—now emerging on the battlefield portend new strategic realities not only for U.S. forces but also for our allies and future potential belligerents. Numerous questions of immediate warfighting importance come to mind with the fielding of these drones and droids that are viewed as still being in their experimental and entrepreneurial stage of development. By drawing upon historical weapons systems life cycles case studies, focusing on the early 9th through the mid-16th-century knight, the mid-19th through the later 20th-century battleship, and the early 20th through the early 21st-century tank, the monograph provides military historical context related to their emergence, and better allows both for questions related to warfighting to be addressed, and policy recommendations related to them to be initially provided.
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Mr. Jeffrey L. Caton
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College
  • Abstract: In 2011, the Department of Defense (DoD) released its Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, which officially recognized cyberspace as an operational domain akin to the traditional military domains of land, sea, air, and space. This monograph examines the 2015 DoD Cyber Strategy to evaluate how well its five strategic goals and associated implementation objectives define an actionable strategy to achieve three primary missions in cyberspace: defend the DoD network, defend the United States and its interests, and develop cyber capabilities to support military operations. This monograph focuses on events and documents from the period of about 1 year before and 1 year after the 2015 strategy was released. This allows sufficient time to examine the key policies and guidance that influenced the development of the strategy as well as follow-on activities for the impacts from the strategy. This inquiry has five major sections that utilize different frameworks of analysis to assess the strategy:
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Samuel R White Jr
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College
  • Abstract: The Defense Innovation Initiative (DII), begun in November 2014 by former Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, is intended to ensure U.S. military superiority throughout the 21st century. The DII seeks broad-based innovation across the spectrum of concepts, research and development, capabilities, leader development, wargaming, and business practices. An essential component of the DII is the Third Offset Strategy—a plan for overcoming (offsetting) adversary parity or advantage, reduced military force structure, and declining technological superiority in an era of great power competition. This study explored the implications for the Army of Third Offset innovations and breakthrough capabilities for the operating environment of 2035-2050. It focused less on debating the merits or feasibility of individual technologies and more on understanding the implications—the second and third order effects on the Army that must be anticipated ahead of the breakthrough.
  • Topic: Science and Technology, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Paul C. Brophy, Pamela Puchalski, Stephanie Sung
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: "Middle Neighborhoods: Action Agenda for a National Movement" is a report that summarizes discussions on policy, practice, and research, as well as priorities and recommendations for action following the meeting, held November 15-16, 2017 in Baltimore
  • Topic: Social Movement, Domestic politics
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Adam Lajeunesse, Robert Huebert
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: In 1985, the government of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced the drawing of straight baselines around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, defining the full extent of the country’s Arctic maritime sovereignty and enshrining that sovereignty in legislation for the first time. This decision was a reaction to the voyage of the US Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea through the Northwest Passage that summer, an expedition that both sparked a political crisis and led to years of negotiations between Canada and the United States to settle the precise status of the northern waters. This volume contains documents surrounding that policy shift and the subsequent negotiations, which students, academics, and policy makers can use to chart the development of Canadian policy and Canadian-American relations in the Arctic. From this, readers can gain a greater understanding – not only of Canadian history – but of the nature of Canadian Arctic policy, and why it exists in its present form.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Richard Goette, P. Whitney Lackenbauer
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: This volume examines the role of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in the Arctic through the pages of The Roundel, the service magazine that ran from 1949-65. Readers will gain a deeper appreciation of the air force’s efforts to develop a greater sense of Arctic “air-mindedness” in the early Cold War through articles explaining the history of the RCAF’s engagement in the Arctic and Subarctic, lessons observed during postwar operations, life at isolated stations, and roles in continental defence. Access to these insights (which span from resupply missions to social relations with host communities and indigenous peoples) remains important today, when the RCAF is being called upon to prepare to respond to safety and security challenges in an increasingly complex Arctic region.
  • Topic: Cold War, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Kristopher Kinsinger
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: This volume brings together archival documents and newspaper reports related to the landmark 1923 trial of Alikomiak and Tatamigana, the first Inuit tried and executed for murder under Canadian law. This show trial, designed by the federal government to show the Inuit that authorities would no longer tolerate acts of violence, was meant also to demonstrate Canada’s Arctic sovereignty to the world. The conviction and execution of Alikomiak and Tatamigana caused controversy at the time, and this volume encourages further discussion and debate about the legal aspects of the case, the media coverage of it, and the interactions between the legal cultures of Inuit and the Canadian state.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: Shelagh Grant
  • Publication Date: 09-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: In 1953, the Government of Canada announced plans to resettle Inuit from areas of dwindling food resources to the High Arctic where game and fur animals were reported in abundant supply. That August, seven families from the Inukjuak (Port Harrison) area in northern Quebec and three families from Pond Inlet were resettled in communities at Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island and at Grise Fiord, near the Craig Harbour police post on Ellesmere Island. This volume makes Shelagh Grant’s important interpretations and research on these controversial relocations available to the public and provides essential background to understand the Government of Canada’s 2010 official apology for the Inuit High Arctic relocation.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Arctic
  • Author: Bilal Bağış, Çağlar Yurtseven
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Strategic Research (SAM)
  • Abstract: This paper aims to analyze potential future areas of greater cooperation between Turkey and the other OIC member economies. It then provides some specific policy recommendations. In particular, the paper aims to contribute to economic policymaking efforts in terms of the potential future areas of increased cooperation. Broadly speaking, the Muslim world has immense savings-holding accumulated over the past few decades. Human and physical capital potentials are extremely high. Yet, there are also huge economic disparities and extremely diverse demographic dynamics. This paper is built on the idea that a crucial strategy to boost economic development and social prosperity is an intense economic, financial and strategic integraton of the OIC members. In particular, countries with common historical, cultural and even religious backgrounds have much to gain from such specific collaboration efforts. In that line, this paper deals with opportunities and challenges regarding the strategic position of Turkey. It focuses on sectors in which Turkey has a comparative advantage within the OIC league. It further analyzes the reasons Turkey and the other OIC economies must cooperate and build stronger economic ties. The paper suggests that such a modern economic cooperation or a strategic union that is strengthened by historical, social and cultural roots is both inevitable and to the benefit of all parties.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Hugh Sandeman
  • Publication Date: 11-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: LSE IDEAS
  • Abstract: In November 2017 the Global Strategies Project at LSE IDEAS brought together a group of British politicians, senior officials, and other experts at Ditchley Park to discuss options for the UK’s foreign, defence, and security policy after Brexit. This report summarieses that discussion, which covered the UK’s future relations with Europe, the US, and China, as well as the relationship between policymakers and the British public.
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: LSE IDEAS
  • Abstract: In late 2016 thirty British politicians, officials and former officials, officers, and experts met to discuss ways in which the UK foreign policmaking leaves the country vulnerable to strategic errors.
  • Topic: Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: LSE IDEAS
  • Abstract: This report considers the hybrid warfare techniques of Daesh, Al Qaeda, the Taleban, and Iran, and makes specific suggestions on how the UK and other Western countries can better counter this threat. The report is sistilled from discussions with senior British officials, academics, and current practitioners in the media, strategic communications, and cyber security
  • Topic: Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: LSE IDEAS
  • Abstract: The future of the transatlantic relationship is rarely out of the headlines in Europe or North America. Despite the closeness, the relationship faces – as it has always done – new and familiar challenges.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Adam Jay Harrison
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: National Defense University Press
  • Abstract: Historically, the Department of Defense (DOD) has relied on strategic forecasting to determine specifications for new military products. These specifications are codified in formal product requirements that drive new product development (NPD). The rapid rate of technology change combined with increasing uncertainty in the global security environment challenges the ability of DOD to make accurate longterm predictions about future military product needs. To improve the efficacy of capability development, many DOD agencies and the Defense Industrial Base are exploring NPD strategies based on the insights of lead users with direct exposure to emerging military-technology problems. This paper details emerging approaches to military NPD that incorporate lead users; that is, practitioners who experience and proactively solve needs ahead of the market.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Adam Jay Harrison, Bharat Rao, Bala Mulloth
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: National Defense University Press
  • Abstract: The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is looking at new ways to spur entrepreneurship and innovation among its stakeholders and related constituencies.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: David C. Logan
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: National Defense University Press
  • Abstract: China is developing its first credible sea-based nuclear forces. This emergent nuclear ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) force will pose unique challenges to a country that has favored tightly centralized control over its nuclear deterrent. The choices China makes about SSBN command and control will have important implications for strategic stability. Despite claims that the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Rocket Force will be responsible for all Chinese nuclear forces, Chinese SSBNs currently appear to be under the control of the PLA Navy. However, China may choose to revise its command and control structures as its SSBNs begin armed deterrent patrols. There are three broad command and control models, allocating varying degrees of authority to the PLA Navy or the Rocket Force.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Håkan Gunneriusson, Sascha Dov Bachmann
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: The Russian National Security Strategy of 2015 aims at achieving autarky from Western influences on global security, the rule of law and global trade. Russia aims at attaining this by applying a holistic mix of military, political and economic means to weaken the West and to strengthen its own role as a global player. The Russian approach builds on a strategy of reflexive control which as such is an old method, but the outcome of the application of this approach results in hybrid warfare which as such is a new emerging concept of warfighting. This short article looks at one particular aspect of this Russian strategy, namely using Hybrid, or non-linear, Warfare against its Western direct neighbours in particular and the West in general. We will discuss the underlying cultural logic in Russia’s actions and will reflect on the impact of Russia’s utilization of the existing cultural asymmetry as a form of warfare in regard to the West. The examples used in this text are taken from the context of the conflicts of Ukraine and Syria, but have to be seen as constituting a part of an on-going global conflict aimed at NATO and the EU. The text builds on years of research within the hybrid threat, warfare respectively, context by both authors.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Joanna Świątkowska
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: The paper aims to analyse how information warfare can be conducted in cyberspace and to look at this issue from the perspective of Central and Eastern European Countries. It argues that this form of hostile actions will be increasingly utilized in the region. The main assumption, following Alvin Toffler’s theory, is that ‘information’ – as an increasingly important element of modern societies and as their strategic resource – also serves as a significant tool of modern conflicts. Since information is nowadays strongly related to new technologies, mainly the aspects connected to cybersecurity are analysed. The article looks closer at different aspects of cyberthreats and explains their possible consequences. It may serve as good material for further research and recommendations on countermeasures that may increase security in Europe.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Central Europe
  • Author: Marcin Czyżniewski
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: Author analyzed the programs of all Czech political parties which have their representatives in the Chamber of Deputies in the parliamentary term 2013–2017, assuming that political programs are a reflection of the public discourse, and of the public eye. Security is one of the most important categories in the programs of Czech political parties, in some literally the most important, however, this importance is determined through quantitative, not qualitative, perspective. Diagnosis and solutions are similar in all cases, what allows to conclude that security is not a factor differentiating the Czech political scene
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Hanna Wiczanowska
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: The current EU migration and asylum policy crisis has been perceived to constitute one of the most serious challenges for European security. The attitude of fear and reluctance towards admission of cultural others (including: refugees, asylum seekers and the immigrants) has been particularly visible in the V4 countries. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the grounds of such a position with reference to general European tendencies as well as specific features of attitudes of Poland and Slovakia as the representatives of V4 countries in the light of their particular economic and social situation. Due to volume limitations the author will focus mainly on the two presented States. The decision regarding choice of Poland arises from the fact that as the only V4 State it has voted in favour of the mandatory quota of relocation of 120.000 refugees. Instead Slovakia constitutes the most vivid example pro-European parties changing rhetoric for more national which is quite transparent for the V4 countries. The whole analysis has been conducted in the specific context of relocation of the symbolic division of Europe an replacement of ideological Iron Curtain with cultural Velvet Curtain which leads to the phenomenon of culturalisation.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Eastern Europe
  • Author: Krystyna Gomółka
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: The national security strategy adopted in 2007 provided a detailed definition of security and identified its threats. The key threat to the Armenian state was considered to be the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The document indicated the Collective Security Treaty Organisation main guarantor of security, with Russia being Armenia’s main partner in bilateral relations. The second position in the strategy was assigned to cooperation with the NATO and the OSCE. One of the priorities identified was to intensify the economic and trade connections with the European Union and participation in the European Neighbourhood Policy as a step towards integration with European structures. As to bilateral relations, the most significant were Armenia’s contacts with Georgia and Iran. If we compare the assumptions of the strategy with the policy pursued by Armenia after 2007, it is clear that the measures taken are in line with the provisions of the document. By the end of 2016, the most serious threat to Armenia – the Nagorno-Karabakh issue – remained unresolved. Russia reinforced its position as Armenia’s strategic ally. The talks conducted between Armenia and the NATO are of little significance in view of the obligations assumed by Armenia. The same goes for the talks with the European Union after Armenia’s withdrawal from signing the association agreement, accession to the Eurasian Economic Union on 01 January 2015 and signing bilateral agreements with the Russian Federation.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Armenia
  • Author: Anna Kuleszewicz
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: This paper aims to explain that the stable situation of Belarus is important for Western Europe and why any fluctuations may present a challenge for European integrity and stability. Belarus, since the beginning of its independence in 1991 seems to show a great willingness to cooperate closely with Russia, claiming Western Europe and NATO as a potential enemy. In reality, the Belarusian position is much more complicated and ambiguous. Despite it’s close military cooperation with Russia, different tensions between Minsk and Moscow regularly happen and Belarusian authorities are still looking for new foreign partners and new energy suppliers (what was clearly visible in the last months of 2016 and the first period of 2017). Russia, old Belarusian partner, may actually even pose a threat for Belarus, so the country’s authorities have a hard challenge to maintain its stability. Western countries may be open for a new chapter of cooperation with Minsk but any rapid changes in Belarusian foreign preferences may result in unpredictable results and Moscow reaction that – in turn – would be very challenging for the whole European stability and security
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: Anna Kobierecka
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Polish Political Science Association (PPSA)
  • Abstract: The aim of the article is to examine whether Nordic area can be regarded as a homogenous and successfully cooperating region, which is providing one unified political front. Considering many similarities between Nordic states, as for example shared values (equality, women rights, common love of democracy, peace and welfare state), one could say that Nordic states constitute a single and unitary area. What is more, the linguistic, cultural and historical closeness of those states is a fact, but at the same time many differences can be pointed, especially considering their security and foreign policies. Those aspects seem to be the main obstacle in introducing full cooperation in the region. Nevertheless, it is worth noticing that current international developments and appearance of new threats to security are influencing the Nordic states which, as a result, are changing their attitudes towards security policy. Those factors could lead to introducing new dimensions of their cooperation
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Nordic Nations
  • Publication Date: 05-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: Blue Economy Vision 2025: Harnessing Business Potential for India Inc and International Partners is a pioneering effort by FICCI to sensitise India Inc about the growing global and regional emphasis on sustainability of harnessing the ocean resources. It makes a convincing argument that the oceans, with a current estimated asset value of US$ 24 trillion and an annual value addition of US$ 2.5 trillion, would continue to offer significant economic benefits both in the traditional areas of fisheries, transport, tourism and hydrocarbons as well as in the new fields of deep-sea mining, renewable energy, ocean biotechnology and many more, only if we integrate sustainable practices with our business models.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Rachael Stephens
  • Publication Date: 04-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Third Way
  • Abstract: Based on our review of skill shortages, growth trends, and labor market demands, Third Way has identified the four skillsets that will make people successful and resilient in the new economy. They are the personal skills and thinking skills that automation can’t easily replicate, the digital skills to work with new technology, and job-specific skills for sectors facing major labor shortages.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Rachael Stephens
  • Publication Date: 07-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Third Way
  • Abstract: Third Way conducted an original, multi-dimensional analysis of skill gaps across the country using five kinds of data to identify patterns in industry labor markets.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Employment
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 02-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: The Carter Center’s in-depth report, “A State Affair: Privatizing Congo’s Copper Concessions,” is the culmination of the Center’s analysis of mining sector trends in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since the end of the Zaire era 20 years ago, with a strong focus on the DRC’s key state-owned mining company, Gécamines. The report draws on the Center’s detailed analysis of the mining contract review process in the DRC following the 2006 elections and includes a broader economic and political analysis of mining privatization in the former Katanga province, a region particularly rich in copper and cobalt.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Basel Ammane
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Council on International Policy (CIP)
  • Abstract: The Nile Basin is among numerous areas around the world that experience water scarcity. Many of the countries that are in it fail to meet the minimum of 2,740 litres per person per day needed to avoid being listed as a country with chronic water scarcity. 1 To make matters worse, the collective population of these countries is expected to rise to around 647 million by 2030, a 52 percent increase from what it was in 2010 according to the UN Population Division
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Marcelo Lopez de Aragon
  • Publication Date: 08-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Council on International Policy (CIP)
  • Abstract: Thanks to the ruling majority in the Brazilian Parliament, President Michel Temer, a self-styled political centrist, was barely saved on August 2, 2017, from undergoing a corruption trial that could have led to his dismissal and potential imprisonment. The Brazilian president is accused of accepting bribes in exchange for granting political favours to various Brazilian companies and politicians since 2010. According to secret telephone recordings taken of the president, these illegal practices reportedly continued after Temer took the presidential reigns. Regardless of the judicial fate of the Brazilian president, the fact that his mandate is peppered with scandals reflects how corruption has spread throughout the Brazilian political system like a cancer metastasized across the halls of power.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Marcelo Lopez de Aragon
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Council on International Policy (CIP)
  • Abstract: Founded in 1948, the Organization of American States (OAS) is billed as the premier political multilateral forum of the western hemisphere with 34 member states. At its core, the raison d’être of the OAS rests on the promotion and safeguarding of four pillars: democracy, human rights, security and development.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Fuad Olajuwon
  • Publication Date: 03-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Council on International Policy (CIP)
  • Abstract: Japan is in a unique position. With the rise of Trump and the changing of the American political landscape, the world faces a new challenge. That challenge is uncertainty. If you’re from a realist background, that raises concern. The shifting of the global narrative is one to look out for, as countries across Europe and the Western world are shifting away from the “liberal world order” and more into an ideologist that puts the concerns of the host over that of the guest. With Brexit and “#AmericaFirst” rhetoric gaining momentum, what is the fate of East Asia? One thing is sure: this is a unique time as ever for Japan to stand on its own two feet.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Basel Ammane
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Council on International Policy (CIP)
  • Abstract: The Nile Basin is among numerous areas around the world that experience water scarcity. Many of the countries that are in it fail to meet the minimum of 2,740 litres per person per day needed to avoid being listed as a country with chronic water scarcity. To make matters worse, the collective population of these countries is expected to rise to around 647 million by 2030, a 52 percent increase from what it was in 2010 according to the UN Population Division. Fortunately, however, there does not seem to be sufficient evidence to establish a strong relationship of one-way causality between water scarcity and conflict. In fact, a comprehensive study of the matter at Oregon State University in 2001 concluded that incidents of cooperation far outnumbered those of conflict among countries that shared a water resource and experienced water scarcity. This paints a substantially different picture from that portrayed by the dramatic rhetoric expressing quasi-certainty about the occurrence of water wars one typically encounters in sensationalistic pieces. What’s more, the record has shown that the typical response to water scarcity has been one of cooperation and innovation. Having said that, increasing inter-annual variability in the flow of the waters of the river and the consequent increase in instances of floods and droughts, coupled with a rise in the willingness and ability of upstream countries to challenge Egypt’s hegemonic status in addition to the demographic changes mentioned earlier will certainly test the basin countries’ capacity for cooperation, innovation and adaptation. This will ultimately be crucial in determining the state of relations among them and the future of their populations with respect to water.
  • Topic: International Organization, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: Since its inception in 2010, AIHSG has enjoyed a close relationship with the Secretary of Homeland Security and the rest of the department's senior leadership team. We commend former Secretary Johnson for his service to the nation and the progress the department made during his tenure. We congratulate Secretary Kelly on his nomination and confirmation, and look forward to working with him and his senior leadership team in the years ahead
  • Topic: Global Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Daniel S. Hamilton, Muhammad Al-Ubayadi
  • Publication Date: 06-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
  • Abstract: This report examines the Islamic State’s self-reported military activities in 16 cities, 11 in Iraq and five in Syria. From each city’s date of liberation from the Islamic State until April 2017, the Islamic State reported that it carried out 1,468 separate attacks in these 16 cities. The volume of military operations in these cities provides evidence for the idea that the Islamic State, once relegated in Iraq to guerilla warfare from 2003-2011, may be returning to this form of existence in Iraq and Syria. However, this activity is not uniform across each of the cities. As the coalition edges closer to taking formal control of Mosul and Raqqa back from the Islamic State, this report highlights trends in the data to provide additional insight for those planning and implementing post-liberation security, reconstruction, and governance plans.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Brian Dodwell, Daniel S. Hamilton, Don Rassler
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
  • Abstract: Using two different sets of data derived from internal, bureaucratic documents produced by the Islamic State (and its predecessor group) during two distinct periods of time (2006-2007 and 2011-2014), this report evaluates how the make-up, scale, and scope of the Iraq- and Syria-bound foreign fighter problem has changed over the last decade. It does so across three dimensions. First, it outlines the similarities and differences that exist in the backgrounds of the foreign fighters who joined the Islamic State during separate blocks of time. Second, it provides insight into the local travel and flow of foreign fighters across time as well as the mobilization infrastructure that the Islamic State had in place to facilitate the travel of recruits into Syria or Iraq. Third, it details changes in the preferences of foreign fighters, as reflected by the roles they wanted to fill within the organization.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Arie Perlinger, Daniel S. Hamilton
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point
  • Abstract: In April 2016, the CTC released a major report on Islamic State foreign fighters. This report, based on over 4,000 leaked personnel records, gave an interesting inside look at who the group was able to bring into the organization and also how the group was trying to manage the large number of recruits. The Combating Terrorism Center is pleased to announce the release of another major report on foreign fighters. This report, From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria, breaks down the experience (or lifecycle) of foreign fighters into three stages: pre-departure, in theater, and return. However, because the personnel records used in the previous report do not speak to each of these stages, this report then uses open-source reporting on these fighters to code variables in each of these different stages. Using a dataset of nearly 1,200 foreign fighters from mostly Western Europe and North America, this report offers a more holistic examination of what the fighter flows look like, but also what challenges policymakers and practitioners will face as they continue to deal with this enduring and complicated problem.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Amit Bhandari, Vasily Shikin
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: In 2017, Russia and India celebrate the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations. Over the years the two states have implemented a wide range of long-term and large-scale joint projects in energy sector, first and foremost in the nuclear area, making it one of the foundations of their special and privileged strategic partnership. However, in order to boost comprehensive ties and bring them to a new level corresponding to the changing global economic environment Russia and India are in need of innovative approaches in energy sector. The present paper is a result of Russian and Indian experts’ joint efforts to evaluate the potential of new collaboration formats and develop specific recommendations for enhancing cooperation.
  • Topic: International Organization, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Amit Bhandari
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: The transition to renewable energy is hampered by the lack of suitable, affordable products and specialised financing for its infrastructure. This infographic, as part of a policy brief put forth by Gateway House, set to be tabled at the 2017 Hamburg G20 conference, outlines an ecosystem to overcome these hurdles
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Akshay Mathur
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: Cross-border trade in services is increasingly the pre-eminent driver of growth for developed and developing countries alike. Service-related commitments are included in most of the new trade agreements. Effective policy-design however, is dependent on collection and presentation of accurate data. Inter-agency task forces of multilateral organizations such as UN, WTO, IMF and OECD have designed a framework to capture cross-border trade in services but data classification by partner trading company, partner trading country and by modes-of-supply, remains a challenge. The G20 can plug this gap through comprehensive information-collection and sharing
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI)
  • Abstract: El Consejo Mexicano deAsuntos Internacionales (COMEXI), a través de su Grupo de Trabajo de Energía, presenta un análisis y serie de recomendaciones para garantizar la continuidad de la Reforma Energética, implementada en el 2013. El Grupo de Trabajo de Energía (GTE) es una iniciativa de COMEXI que surgió ante la necesidad de atender los retos que el sector energético ha representado para México en los últimos años, así como para aprovecharla oportunidad de convertirlo en un motor de desarrollo para los mexicanos. Para ello, diversos expertos, actores clave y directivos de empresas energéticas en nuestro país han sumado esfuerzos para recopilar mejores prácticas internacionales en el tema, con el fin de influir positivamente en el fortalecimiento del mercado energético
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Mexico
  • Publication Date: 12-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI)
  • Abstract: l Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales, COMEXI, es una Asociación Civil sin fines de lucro dedicada al estudio, análisis y diálogo sobre las relaciones internacionales. Su objetivo es generar propuestas que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones y que incidan—de manera estratégica—en la definición e implementación de las políticas públicas que afectan a México. También busca contribuir efectivamente en el posicionamiento e impacto de México en el mundo. La riqueza de COMEXI radica en el talento de su membresía, la cual está integrada por más de 500 asociados expertos en diferentes sectores y disciplinas (académicos, empresarios, funcionarios públicos, diplomáticos y líderes de opinión). También contamos con la participación de embajadas, organismos internacionales, y centros de investigación dedicados al estudio de la vida política, social, y económica del país.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Mexico
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Natural Resource Governance Institute
  • Abstract: This report presents the key findings and core messages of the 2017 Resource Governance Index. The index measures the quality of resource governance in 81 countries that together produce 82 percent of the world’s oil, 78 percent of its gas and a significant proportion of minerals, including 72 percent of all copper. It is the product of 89 country assessments (eight countries were assessed in two sectors), compiled by 150 researchers, using almost 10,000 supporting documents to answer 149 questions
  • Topic: International Security, Natural Resources
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 01-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: When Islamic finance is mentioned around the world, the first thing that comes to mind is Islamic banks. The sphere of Islamic finance has expanded in the last decade with developments particularly in capital markets and the insurance sector. Nonetheless, the market share of Islamic finance in the world’s financial market accounts for approximately 1 percent. Still, many segments are interested in Islamic finance because of its high growth figures, resilience against crises, and the fact that it offers a system that prioritizes ethical values in contrast to conventional finance. Islamic banks in Turkey date back to the establishment of the Adapazarı Islamic Trade Bank (Adapazarı İslam Ticaret Bankası) in Sakarya (Adapazarı) in 1913. However, examples of globally accepted Islamic banking models in Turkey appeared with the emergence of Special Finance Houses (SFHs) following the passage of relevant legal regulations in 1984
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Markets
  • Author: Richard Barrett
  • Publication Date: 10-2017
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: As the so-called Islamic State (IS) loses territorial control of its caliphate, there is little doubt that the group or something similar will survive the worldwide campaign against it. As long as the conditions that allowed the group to exist in the first place remain, IS or something like it will survive. The threat will mutate…
  • Topic: International Security
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Philippe Le Corre, Jonathan Pollack
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: China’s emergence as a global economic power and its fuller integration in the international order are among the principal policy challenges facing Europe and the United States in the early 21st century. At the time of Beijing’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, China (though already growing rapidly) was in global terms an economic actor of limited consequence. A decade and a half later, China’s transformation is without parallel in economic history. Over the past 15 years, China has experienced an eightfold increase in GDP, enabling it to serve as the pri- mary engine of global economic growth in the early 21st century. It has leapfrogged from sixth to second place among the world’s economies, trail- ing only the United States in absolute economic size. In addition, China has become the world’s leading trading state and is now the second largest source of outward foreign direct investment. Change of this magnitude has enhanced China’s political power and eco- nomic leverage. It has also stimulated China’s internal economic evolution, simultaneously expanding the power of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) while also contributing to major growth in the private sector. China has also begun to think bigger, devoting increased attention to the rules of global economic governance. Although Beijing insists it has no intention of supplanting the existing international order, China contends that chang- ing power realities will require modification of global rules.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Political Economy, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: China, America, Europe
  • Author: Steven Pifer
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: rms control has figured on the agenda between Washington and Moscow since the 1960s. Suc- cessive U.S. administrations since that of Richard Nixon have pursued negotiated arms control arrangements to limit and reduce the number of Soviet (and Russian) nuclear weapons, to enhance strategic stability, to increase transparency and predictability, to reduce the costs of U.S. nuclear forces, and to bolster America’s non-proliferation credentials. Negotiations on arms control have proceeded in times of both good and difficult relations. At times, progress on arms control has helped drive a more positive over- all relationship between Washington and Moscow. At other times, differences over arms control and related issues have contributed to a downward slide in rela- tions. The next president will take office in January 2017, when the overall U.S.-Russia relationship is at its lowest point since the end of the Cold War.
  • Topic: International Relations, Arms Control and Proliferation, Nuclear Weapons, International Security
  • Political Geography: Russia, America
  • Author: David Mastro
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: The international community is beginning to grapple with several questions regarding whether one or more countries contributing troops to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)—which has been key to successes against al-Shabaab in recent years—will prematurely withdraw their troops from the mission due a confluence of regional and international factors.1 What is the likelihood that one or more troops contributing countries (TCCs)—Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda—withdraw from AMISOM? How would AMISOM’s operational effectiveness be impacted if a TCC left the mission? Would another country or countries be willing and able to fill the void created by a TCC’s withdrawal? This paper attempts to provide answers to these questions to inform policy discussions related to the long-term commitment of the TCCs to the mission. It also seeks to provide some actions or policies that the international community could undertake to reduce the likelihood that a TCC leaves AMISOM early.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Affairs, Peacekeeping
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Iñigo Guevara Moyano
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
  • Abstract: Over the past decade, the Mexican military has been crafted into hardened and more professional military, skilled in fourth generation warfare, operating across the spectrum of conflict from surgical small-unit Special Forces missions to division-level stability operations in areas comparable in size to Belgium. As new—state and non-state—threats loom on the horizon, the U.S. and Mexican militaries will need to rely on deepening their connection and increasing bilateral trust to build a stronger and interdependent defense relationship. The increase in dialogue and cooperation builds trust and promotes mutual understanding between Mexico and the United States, crafting deep ties between both militaries during a time when the radicalization of political ideas threatens to transcend electoral campaign rhetoric and affect the economic and social fields of North America. For two neighbors that share an annual trade worth USD 534 billion along a 2,000-mile border, understanding each other’s strengths and weaknesses should be a priority. This paper is meant to provide a deeper understanding of the Mexican military and its contribution to the defense and security of North America. It does so by analyzing the evolution of Mexico’s armed forces, and the past and present cooperation between the Mexican and the U.S. militaries.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Affairs, Armed Forces, Military Affairs
  • Political Geography: America, Mexico
  • Author: Fredrik Erixon, Bjorn Weigel
  • Publication Date: 10-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Cato Institute
  • Abstract: The great value of innovation is not merely in invention but rather diffusion and adaptation. And real innovation requires an economy that runs on the culture of experimentation and is open to innovators and entrepreneurs contesting markets—challenging incumbents to such a degree that it redefines the market (like Apple’s iPhone did with the handset market in 2007). In the past decades, however, these forces of diffusion and adaptation simply have not been powerful enough; in fact, legislators have acted to shield incumbent businesses from them. Now the existential challenge that capitalism faces is the growing resistance to innovation.
  • Topic: Economics, Political Economy, Digital Economy
  • Political Geography: America, Global Markets
  • Author: William Perry, Deep Cuts Commission
  • Publication Date: 06-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: This report contains a number of bold proposals on how to better manage relations between the West and Russia in order to avert worst-case scenarios. Specifying that cooperative solutions are pos- sible without giving up on the fundamental interests of each side, it warrants a close look by officials in both Moscow and Washington.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Cooperation, International Security, International Affairs, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Russia, America, Europe, Global Focus
  • Author: International Crisis Group
  • Publication Date: 11-2016
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: International Crisis Group
  • Abstract: The December 2015 Libyan Political Agreement, signed in Skhirat, Morocco, has re- configured more than contributed to resolving internal strife. A year ago, the conflict was between rival parliaments and their associated governments; today it is mainly between accord supporters and opponents, each with defectors from the original camps and heavily armed. The accord’s roadmap, the idea that a caretaker government accommodating the two parliaments and their allies could establish a new political order and reintegrate militias, can no longer be implemented without change. New negotiations involving especially key security actors not at Skhirat are needed to give a unity government more balanced underpinning.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Civil War, Peacekeeping, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Libya