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  • Publication Date: 11-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Global Development
  • Abstract: Hospitals are central to building and maintaining healthy populations around the world. They serve as the first point of care for many, offer access to specialized care, act as loci for medical education and research, and influence standards for national health systems at large. Yet despite their centrality within health systems, hospitals have been sidelined to the periphery of the global health agenda as scarce financial resources, technical expertise, and political will instead focus on the expansion of accessible primary care. As a result, many hospitals in low- and middle-income countries have failed to evolve and modernize, both in operations and infrastructure, while the knowledge base on hospital effectiveness and efficiency remains small and inadequate. In turn, the standard of care and efficiency achieved by these hospitals has stagnated. The gap in treatment capacity and quality between wealthier and poorer countries—and between hospitals serving wealthier and poorer populations—is widening, just as emerging economies are poised to expand the range and depth of healthcare through universal health coverage.
  • Topic: World Health Organization, Health Care Policy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Juan Masullo
  • Publication Date: 08-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: International Center on Nonviolent Conflict (ICNC)
  • Abstract: Confronted with civil war, local civilians typically either collaborate with the strongest actor in town or flee the area. Yet civilians are not stuck only with these choices. Collectively defying armed groups by engaging in organized nonviolent forms of noncooperation, self-organization and disruption is another option. This monograph explores this option through sustained and organized civil resistance led by ordinary peasants against state and non-state repressive actors in Colombia’s longstanding civil war: the case of the Peace Community of San José de Apartadó.
  • Topic: Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: East View Information Services
  • Abstract: Russian World special
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: A. Kortunov, A. Frolov
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: East View Information Services
  • Abstract: The U.S. foreign policy today has fallen on hard times. The world is entering a new era with a lot of totally new challenges, including untraditional challenges that the U.S. leadership is faced with. In some instances, Washington manages to fit into ongoing processes while in others, the situation starts to follow a different scenario and then this policy, which is based on a number of important and fundamental principles, begins to founder.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: D. Malysheva
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: East View Information Services
  • Abstract: ON JULY 26, 2015, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin on board the frigate Admiral of the Soviet Navy Gorshkov endorsed a new version of the Maritime Doctrine of the Russian Federation, the basic document that specifies Russia’s naval and maritime policy. This version added the Mediterranean to the areas of the national maritime policy (the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific zones) and specified that Russia’s naval pres- ence there is aimed at “turning it into the zone of military-political sta- bility and good-neighborly relations.”1 This is not fortuitous: The region is one of the main zones of Russia’s politics and international coopera- tion. Time has come to sort out regional developments, varied interests of the states involved and the problems they have to cope with. In other words, we should arrive at a clear idea about the region’s importance for the Russian Federation.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, International Affairs, Geopolitics
  • Political Geography: Russia
  • Author: Ian Dudgeon
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: Any assessment of the multitude of dynamics that contribute to the ongoing regional stability in the Middle East requires an understanding of the factors that motivate the perceptions and actions of each state and other non-state actors. Iran and its neighbours, the Islamic State (IS) and the Sunnis and Shiite sects of Islam are all stakeholders in this mix, and in shaping any solution that contributes to regional peace and stability.
  • Topic: International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Iran
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established in 1924 to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. The AIIA works actively to engage younger people in its work by coordinating events such as careers fairs, school events, mentoring, internships and a Young Diplomats Program. As part of the AIIA’s commitment to engage young people, AIIA National Office launched an internship program in 2006 that has hosted more than 150 interns to date. Internship opportunities also exist in all AIIA state and territory offices. Anyone who has served as an intern at the AIIA is eligible to submit a paper for publication in Emerging Scholars.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Luis Ayala Cañón
  • Publication Date: 11-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: Contexto y objetivos: El I Informe sobre la Desigualdad en España de la Fundación Alternativas, publicado en 2013, recogía una situación preocupante sobre la evolución de la desigualdad social. Por un lado, las diferencias económicas entre los hogares dejaron de reducirse a comienzos de los años noventa y la fase de crecimiento económico anterior a la reciente crisis no consiguió que éstas disminuyeran. Por otro lado, la caída de la actividad económica y la destrucción del empleo que comenzó en 2007 elevaron los indicadores a niveles desconocidos desde hacía décadas. En el momento actual, en el que ya se vislumbra una cierta mejoría de las condiciones macroeconómicas y, con mayor lentitud, del empleo, no parece que las desigualdades hayan disminuido. Por el contrario, la información más reciente muestra, inequívocamente, que el crecimiento de la desigualdad no se ha frenado. En este contexto, resulta de sumo interés la pregunta sobre el papel que han tenido las prestaciones sociales y los impuestos en el crecimiento de la desigualdad para entender cómo pueden prevenirla en el futuro. La respuesta a esta pregunta ha constituido el objetivo del II Informe sobre la Desigualdad en España 2015 cuyo eje conductor ha sido tratar de vincular los procesos de desigualdad existentes con las principales políticas del Estado de Bienestar.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Joaquín Roy
  • Publication Date: 06-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: Joaquín Roy es licenciado en Derecho por la Universidad de Barcelona y doctor por la Universidad de Georgetown. Es catedrático Jean Monnet ad personam y anteriormente fue profesor en Georgetown University, John Hopkins University (Washington DC) y Emory University (Atlanta). Entre las distinciones recibidas destaca la Encomienda de la Orden del Mérito Civil, otorgada por el Rey Juan Carlos I.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Joaquín Estefanía
  • Publication Date: 06-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: El Informe sobre la Democracia en España nació con el objetivo de analizar el funcionamiento de la democracia española y los desafíos derivados del afán por mejorar sus instituciones. En las distintas ediciones continúa proporcionando una información fiable sobre acontecimientos y decisiones colectivas, de utilidad para el análisis, el debate social y la formación de la opinión pública. De este modo, cada entrega anual da cuenta del comportamiento efectivo de nuestro sistema de convivencia: las elecciones, las relaciones entre los poderes e instituciones del Estado, los partidos políticos, la vida parlamentaria; las relaciones entre los poderes centrales y territoriales, la creación y difusión de la información, el comportamiento de los medios y la articulación de la opinión pública, el papel de los poderes económicos, etc. Un selecto plantel de investigadores y un Consejo Asesor de especialistas en la materia hacen posible esta ambiciosa publicación que incorpora una auditoria de la democracia española para intentar aproximarnos a la evolución de la calidad del sistema democrático en nuestro país.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus