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  • Author: Lauren McNally, Paul Bucala
  • Publication Date: 03-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: The success or failure of the U.S. mission in Afghanistan has reached a critical juncture. Newly appointed Defense Secretary Ashton Carter announced on February 21, 2015 that the United States is considering a number of changes to the U.S. mission in Afghanistan, including slowing the drawdown timetable and rethinking the U.S. counter-terrorism mission. On March 16, 2015, anonymous U.S. officials confirmed that the United States is likely abandoning its plans to cut the number of U.S. troops to 5,500 at the end of the year. The United States could allow many of the 9,800 troops in Afghanistan to remain beyond 2015. A visit by Afghan President Ashraf Ghani to Washington, DC from March 22-25, 2015 is intended to discuss these issues.
  • Topic: Civil War, International Security
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan
  • Author: Vitaliy Kravchuk, Malgorzata McKenzie, Mykola Ryzhenkov
  • Publication Date: 08-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Slovak Foreign Policy Association
  • Abstract: This is the first report of the project on vulnerable sectors in the Eastern Partnership (EP) countries. Its aim is to provide a macroeconomic setting for future structural reports. It also provides a toolkit for the sectoral reports in the sense that it offers a set of macroeconomic points of reference.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 04-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: With a view to enhancing its analytical capacity and its engagement with the research community, the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) launched a global research network at United Nations Headquarters, New York, on 19 February 2015
  • Topic: International Security, Counter-terrorism
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Cara Bertron
  • Publication Date: 12-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: Action Agenda for Historic Preservation in Legacy Cities" is a report containing a nine-point strategy to shape new approaches to preservation, to adapt existing tools and policies used by preservationists, and to promote place-based collaboration, especially in legacy cities like Newark, Detroit, and Cleveland. By offering new strategies for protecting local cultural heritage, "Action Agenda" serves as a guide for preserving the stories of Rust Belt cities and communities and make them more equitable, prosperous, and sustainable in the face of economic shifts. Using examples from Cincinnati, Buffalo, Detroit, and more, the report offers suggested next steps, potential partners from preservation and allied fields, and financing and coalition-building toolkits for urban development and preservation advocates.
  • Topic: International Development
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Joe Karaganis, Jennifer M. Urban
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: American Assembly at Columbia University
  • Abstract: It has been nearly twenty years since section 512 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act established the so-called notice and takedown process. Despite its importance to copyright holders, online service providers, and Internet speakers, very little empirical research has been done on how effective section 512 is for addressing copyright infringement, spurring online service provider development, or providing due process for notice targets. This report includes three studies that draw back the curtain on notice and takedown: 1. using detailed surveys and interviews with more than three dozen respondents, the first study gathers information on how online service providers and rightsholders experience and practice notice and takedown on a day-to-day basis; 2. the second study examines a random sample from over 100 million notices generated during a six-month period to see who is sending notices, why, and whether they are valid takedown requests; and 3. the third study looks specifically at a subset of those notices that were sent to Google Image Search.
  • Topic: Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Adam Lajeunesse
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: Ice islands are large rafts of multi-year ice that are carried by currents around the Arctic Ocean. They became politically significant in the early 1950s when American and Soviet research parties began occupying them. This activity called into question their legal status and highlighted the uncertain nature of polar maritime jurisdiction. This volume tracks the evolution of Canadian policy vis-à-vis ice islands and examines how the politics surrounding these bodies influenced the country’s broader position on Arctic maritime sovereignty.
  • Topic: Climate Change, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Canada
  • Author: P. Whitney Lackenbauer, Daniel Heidt
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
  • Abstract: The Advisory Committee on Northern Development (ACND), a high-level interdepartmental committee, was responsible for coordinating federal Arctic policies and programs from 1948-1971. The minutes of its main meetings provide unparalleled insight into how high-ranking civil servants in Ottawa grappled with what they perceived to be the most pressing issues of the era, including Canadian-American relations, sovereignty, security, Aboriginal affairs, socio-economic development, scientific research, and governance. As this volume reveals, the ACND represented an early example of the “Whole of Government” approach to policy deliberations, revealing the myriad activities that constituted the “Arctic revolution” during this pivotal quarter-century.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ali Resu Usul
  • Publication Date: 09-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Strategic Research (SAM)
  • Abstract: As Chairman of the Center for Strategic Research (SAM), I am pleased to present our 2015 Annual Report. SAM’s primary objective is to conduct research on foreign policy and related issues, develop alternative perspectives, provide new insights and make policy recommendations. SAM has risen to a significant peak in our Ministry’s policy making process, and has created more influence than what was ever expected. Each year, it continues to move beyond its accomplishments of the previous year.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Christine Fair
  • Publication Date: 05-2015
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: Pakistan continues to receive succour from its long-time ally, the U.S., despite blundering about in its neighbourhood unabashedly- be it through righteous indignation or through generous courtesies. The external affairs ministry needs to improve its approach towards U.S. officials who are visiting India in order to better its relation with the country.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 01-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for International and Regional Studies: CIRS
  • Abstract: A growing body of literature within the social science disciplines has developed over the last few decades around the concept of “state failure.” Initially, the scholarship focused on the poor economic performance of certain states, highlighting their weaknesses in delivering efficient economic growth and fostering development. An emerging developmental discourse, fuelled by the enthusiasm of international organizations that embraced the notion of inherent but potentially “fixable” weaknesses, added weight to this body of scholarship. Aid and assistance programs were implemented on the basis of this idea of state weakness, and on the assumption that these internal “weaknesses” could somehow be mitigated through externally-supported and specifically targeted development initiatives. Bilateral and multilateral efforts were devoted to turning these weak states around, supposedly from the brink of failure, into healthy, viable entities
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs, Fragile States
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: S. Akbar Zaidi, Manjeet Kripalani
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: After a brief a spell of bonhomie marked by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif attending Narendra Modi’s swearing-in ceremony, the hostilities between the two countries have resumed. Amidst the backdrop of increased tensions on the LoC, Gateway House recommends some small, realistic steps forward through state-to-state diplomacy, to mend the bilateral
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, India
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: This report examines the current state of Doordarshan and formulates an agenda for transforming the channel into an effective foreign policy tool for India
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: India
  • Author: Rajrishi Singhal
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: India’s decision to block the Trade Facilitation Agreement at the World Trade Organisation in July was perplexing; the confusion was compounded because India was almost alone in its position. This policy perspective explains the reasons for India’s curious stand
  • Topic: International Political Economy, International Trade and Finance
  • Political Geography: India, Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: This report of Gateway House's Policy Trip to Myanmar recommends how India can participate in Myanmar’s emerging market and enhance India’s trade and strategic interests in Asia
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: India, Myanmar
  • Author: Helena Gonçalves
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: In this article, Helena Gonçalves presents some of the main economic instruments and financial incentives in effect today, emphasizing some examples of good international practices in applying these mechanisms. The author highlights the cross-cutting nature between social and environmental problems, as well as the necessary complementarity between society, market and State in order to solve this crisis.
  • Topic: Environment, International Cooperation, International Affairs, Climate Finance
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Erika Pinto, Osvaldo Stella, Paulo Moutinho
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: In this article, Erika Pinto, Osvaldo Stella, and Paulo Moutinho present some of the main economic instruments and financial incentives set forth by Brazilian law, which are used by governments at the national and sub-national levels as well. The authors highlight the strain put on natural resources by the present economic model and emphasize the need to switch from production cycles that pollute and are obsolete in regards to sustainability to more environmentally conscious alternatives.
  • Topic: Environment, International Trade and Finance, Climate Finance
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Author: Claudio Contador
  • Publication Date: 07-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: The opening of the reinsurance market in Brazil finally took place in 2007, amidst euphoria and great expectations. The process lasted nearly two decades, with little movement, to the great frustration of the companies, international investors and, especially, the domestic insurance market, which was in need of modernization and less government involvement. The exhaustion of the nationalized reinsurance model created in 1939 was evident by the 1990s and became even more visible in that decade, in the face of opportunities for insurance offered by the large investments in infrastructure, and rural, environmental and disaster insurance, among others.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Global Markets, Financial Markets, Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Brazil, Global Focus
  • Author: Luara Lopes
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: Luara Lopes examines the main processes of the current international development agenda; including the review of the Millennium Development Goals, the negotiation of the Sustainable Development Goals and the construction of a new, post-2015 global framework.
  • Topic: Millennium Development Goals, Sustainable Development Goals, International Development, Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Haroldo Machado Filho, Thiago de Araújo Mendes
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: Haroldo Machado Filho and Thiago Mendes introduce the reader to the complex architecture of international funding available for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. In a very consistent manner, the authors propose an analysis on the institutional and political context in which the creation and maintenance of these financial mechanisms occur. Emphasizing the truly global spatial scale of climate change, Machado Filho and Mendes highlight the importance of international cooperation to promote the transformation to a low-carbon world and with more resilient societies to climate change. However, the authors show that the negotiations in multilateral forums aimed at the question of financing have been marked by slow decision-making and the absence of clear rules that guide the implementation of the agreements.
  • Topic: Climate Change, International Trade and Finance, Climate Finance
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: José Veiga
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: José Eli da Veiga critically examines the socioeconomic measures already established, like the GDP and the Human Development Index (HDI). The author contextualizes the creation of such measures and points out the limits of those, which can measure the economic performance of a given society, but are not intended to measure welfare and sustainability. With a keen eye, Eli da Veiga addresses the major issues related to the development and adoption of new indicators, selecting four emerging indicators to be examined in detail. These indexes – all created by renowned international institutions – seek to overcome the notion of wealth based on the production of commodities and on physical capital and propose a narrative of progress that is more compatible with the 21st century, focusing on people’s quality of life and on environmental sustainability.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Political and institutional effectiveness, International Development
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI)
  • Abstract: In recent times, Brazil has been passing through a process of evaluation as it is set to host major international events, mostly sportive ones, in the next few years. Due to the realization of extensive infrastructure work, occurrence of natural disasters and existence of nuclear power plants, the debate surrounding the reinsurance topic has been growing.
  • Topic: Development, International Trade and Finance, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Author: Daniel H. Rosen
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Asia Society
  • Abstract: DURING THE PAST THREE DECADES, perhaps no country has turned in an economic performance as impressive and transformative as China’s. China has emerged as the world’s second largest economy and its greatest exporting nation, accumulating huge trade surpluses, vast foreign currency reserves, and enormous influence on the global economy. Despite all the attention that policymakers, business executives, and scholars have paid to China’s economic rise, much debate surrounds China’s future growth prospects. For their part, President Xi Jinping and the new generation of Chinese leaders responded to the risk of a major economic slowdown by announcing a far-reaching reform campaign at the Chinese Communist Party’s Third Plenum in November 2013. If Beijing shifts direction along the lines it has announced, the behavior of Chinese companies, government agencies, and individual members of society is likely to change in remarkable ways – and thereby create opportunities for the rest of the world. Should the reform program stall, the effects will be just as profound. Either way, China’s new policy design, and its success or failure in achieving it, will have a major influence on the international economy and stability and security in Asia and beyond. With so much at stake, and an outcome that is far from certain, there is an evident need for greater clarity about what the reform program consists of, how it is progressing, and what it means for policy and business.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Thilo Hanemann, Daniel H. Rosen
  • Publication Date: 04-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Asia Society
  • Abstract: it became evident that the world was on the cusp of a significant shift in patterns of global foreign direct investment (FDI). China, which had been a major recipient of inflows from the developed world, was poised to become a more active investor in mergers, acquisitions, and greenfield projects abroad. Therefore, the Asia Society undertook the first of a series of studies to map this shift and to suggest how these new investment flows, might benefit the United States while also enhancing U.S.–China relations. The first study, An American Open Door? Maximizing the Benefits of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (2011), was written by Rhodium Group’s Daniel H. Rosen and Thilo Hanemann (as were subsequent joint efforts). It examined Chinese investments in the United States, prospects for their growth, potential benefits and risks, and obstructions to even greater flows in the future. Our conclusion was that flows of Chinese capital into the United States—the most open and vibrant economy in the world—were on the precipice of growing dramatically. We also concluded that in spite of political concerns, the United States had much to gain by encouraging even greater inflows from China.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: China, America
  • Author: Maria Haimerl
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: German Council on Foreign Relations (DGAP)
  • Abstract: Egypt and Tunisia have been witnessing radical transformations ever since presidents Hosni Mubarak and Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali were toppled. The countries have seen, among other changes, a remarkable awakening of public interest in politics and in shaping their own societies, an unprecedented flourishing of their political landscapes, and relatively free and fair, and hence historic, elections. However, as is to be expected, uncertainties prevail, and both countries are struggling hard with the complex steps of their respective transitional processes. They are encountering formidable challenges (although the degrees and dimensions of these challenges vary), such as the emergence of new powerful political actors with an Islamic reference system and an unpredictable and unclear agenda as regards their commitment to democratization; a society split along a secular-Islamist divide; and, correspondingly, a lack of consensus on the draft of a new constitution. A deteriorating and hence alarming socio-economic situation, an unwillingness to deal with atrocities committed in the past, a highly politicized judiciary, and a complex and opaque constellation of actors further complicate the situation.
  • Topic: International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Egypt, Tunisia
  • Author: Alexander Pan, Randall Kempner
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: From our perspective at ANDE, we have seen impact investing become an increasingly important tool used to support small and growing businesses in the developing world that are capable of creating jobs, stimulating long-term economic growth, and generating social impact. However, impact investing is still very much an emerging tool. If it is to scale and become a viable solution to social issues in the United States, There are several key lessons from the international context that the industry should consider.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Social Movement
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Mike McCreless
  • Publication Date: 09-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: Social enterprises and impact investors, along with non-profits and foundations, have invested significant effort in designing metrics to monitor and evaluate impact. Yet these impact metrics do not create as much value as they could. Too often, impact metrics, and the people who manage them, are siloed in their own departments, databases, and discourses, one step removed from strategic and financial decision-making in their organizations
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Aspen Institute
  • Publication Date: 08-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: During the past 10 years of impact investing in Brazil, we have observed a significant development in the impact investing space. Five years ago, only a few players identified themselves as impact investors, very few organizations in the social sector were investor-ready, and there were almost no co-investment opportunities. A steep increase in the number of investors and amount of capital, greater coordination among players, and a more professional workforce active in the industry today have facilitated the development of impact investing. This market study of the impact investing sector in Brazil reveals significant market growth. Nineteen of Brazil’s largest impact investors, including fund managers, banks, foundations, family offices and others surveyed expect to commit 40% to 50% more capital to impact investments in 2014 compared to 2013.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Author: Aspen Institute
  • Publication Date: 08-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: ANDE Brazil chapter releases, in partnership with LGT VP, Quintessa Partners and University of St. Gallen, the most recent mapping about the Impact Investment sector in the country. A study conducted with various national and international investors that captures some data about capital and investments on the field as some trends and challenges for the sector evolvement in the country. O polo da ANDE no Brasil lançou, em parceria com LGT VP, Quintessa Partners e Universidade de St. Gallen, o mais recente mapeamento sobre o setor de Investimento de Impacto no país. Um estudo realizado com vários investidores nacionais e internacionais, que capta alguns dados sobre o capital e os investimentos realizados no campo, assim como algumas tendências e desafios para a evolução do setor no país.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Brazil
  • Author: Aspen Institute
  • Publication Date: 03-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Aspen Institute
  • Abstract: This guide provides an introduction to what term sheets are and provides entreprnuers with an overview of the key points to look for in negotiating their own term sheets.
  • Topic: International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Ian Dudgeon
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: On 31 December 2014 Afghanistan will move from a UN-led period of ‘transition’ (2001- 2014) to an Afghan-led and owned ‘transformation decade’ (2015-2024). During transition, the UN has sought to rebuild the basic political, security, economic and societal institutions and infrastructure of Afghanistan, which were all but destroyed by the previous Taliban government, but are essential prerequisites for the restoration of Afghanistan as a functional nation. Transformation will seek to consolidate and build on the outcomes of transition and ensure that Afghanistan achieves the goal of being not only a functional nation, but also a stable and durable nation.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established in 1924 to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. The AIIA works actively to engage younger people in its work by coordinating events such as careers fairs, school events, mentoring, internships and a Young Diplomats Program. As part of the AIIA’s commitment to engage young people, AIIA National Office launched an internship program in 2006 that has hosted more than 150 interns to date. Internship opportunities also exist in all AIIA state and territory offices. Anyone who has served as an intern at the AIIA is eligible to submit a paper for publication in Emerging Scholars.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: In February 2013 the Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) held a one-day Forum to examine the achievements of Australia’s foreign ministers between 1960 and 1972. The Forum brought together some of Australia’s most eminent academics and experts in international relations, former senior diplomats and government officials to explore the major issues that confronted foreign ministers during this period.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Lise Johnson
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment
  • Abstract: This paper, prepared in connection with a February 2014 conference organized by the UN Economic Commission for Africa, discusses some of the implications that investment treaties have for investments in infrastructure and the extractive industries. It focuses on liability for government conduct (1) in connection with tenders and negotiations; (2) when responding to questions regarding the legality of the investment; (3) in using performance requirements to leverage benefits and capture spillovers from the investment; (4) changing the legal framework governing an investment in response to evolving needs, circumstances, and interests; (5) administering the investment; and (6) requesting, and responding to requests for, renegotiation. After describing some investment treaty disputes, this paper concludes by outlining options for addressing and minimizing tensions between investment treaties and government policies and practices in these areas.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Foreign Direct Investment
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Enrique Bustamante
  • Publication Date: 02-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Fundación Alternativas
  • Abstract: Han transcurrido tres años desde que la Fundación Alternativas elaboró el primer informe sobre el estado de la Cultura en España. En aquella ocasión, después de hacer un repaso de la situación en los diferentes sectores culturales, se llegó a la conclusión de que nuestras políticas culturales obtenían un aprobado raspado, pues nunca ha sido nuestro fuerte, como país, dedicar la debida atención en medios, al mundo de la cultura. A tenor de este II Informe que, con el título «La salida digital», publicamos ahora, seguramente no obtendría, nuestra cultura, ni tan siquiera un modesto aprobado y quiero dejar claro, con el fin de evitar confusiones, que cuando hablamos de la situación o estado de la cultura no nos referimos a los creadores culturales que los hay en abundancia y de gran mérito, sino a las políticas culturales que se realizan, ya sea desde el ámbito público como privado. He sostenido, desde hace tiempo, que España reúne las mejores condiciones para ser una potencia cultural, aunque solo fuera por ese arma formidable que es su lengua, la segunda más hablada del mundo y con tendencia a la expansión. No obstante, desde los poderes públicos y desde instancias privadas, no se le presta el apoyo debido, ya sea en términos de legislación, de fiscalidad, de patrocinio o institucional. No es normal que en un momento de grave y sostenida crisis económica, como la actual, se haya castigado fiscalmente a nuestras industrias culturales, se haya recortado de manera drástica la inversión en cultura, se hayan deteriorado las condiciones laborales de sus actores o se haya eliminado el Ministerio de las Culturas, por solo mencionar algunos estragos.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Spain
  • Author: Sinan Adnan, Aaron Reese
  • Publication Date: 10-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Institute for the Study of War
  • Abstract: The Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham (ISIS) is not the only violent group opposed to the government of Iraq. Groups ranging from Salafist-jihadist to Sunni nationalist have also been mobilized against Baghdad since at least 2013. They remain a threat to the government even if ISIS is removed, especially if the core concerns of Iraqi Sunnis remain unaddressed by the Iraqi government. The primary grievances of most Iraqi Sunnis include the integration of Shi‘a militias into the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), attacks by the ISF in Sunni civilian areas, and political exclusion in Baghdad
  • Topic: International Security, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Iraq
  • Publication Date: 12-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: The self-styled Islamic State is an accident of history, emerging from multiple social, political, and economic tensions in the Middle East and beyond. It has challenged the territorial divisions imposed on the region following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire by carving out for itself a large area of territory. But ultimately, its impact will flow as much from its challenge to established concepts of government, national sovereignty, and national identity.”
  • Topic: Terrorism, International Security, Islamic State
  • Political Geography: Global Focus
  • Author: Richard Barrett
  • Publication Date: 06-2014
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: The Soufan Group
  • Abstract: Over 12,000 fighters from at least 81 countries have joined the civil war in Syria, and the numbers continue to grow. Around 2,500 are from Western countries, including most members of the European Union, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. There are also several hundred from Russia. But the great majority are from the Arab World. Most are fighting with rebel groups, and increasingly with the most extreme among them; but many are also fighting with the Government, or with ethnic or faith communities that are trying to protect themselves from both sides. A lot are young, often teenagers, and a fair percentage of those arriving from non-Muslim majority countries are converts to Islam. These and others who share their faith commonly express their motivation as a religious obligation to protect fellow Muslims from attack. This sense of duty is captured by their loose use of the word ‘jihad’.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Syria
  • Publication Date: 01-2013
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for International and Regional Studies: CIRS
  • Abstract: Middle East experts, scholars, and laymen were equally caught off guard by the startling political upheaval that rippled through the Arab world like a contagious disease in early 2011. While the situation is still in flux and one cannot draw conclusions as to what will ultimately emerge, the unexpected nature of these Arab uprisings has certainly provoked debate around some of the existing assumptions about the domestic politics of the region. Over the years, a robust body of scholarship has developed focusing on the durability of authoritarian rule in the Middle East, and the remarkable resilience of the regimes in power. Much of this analysis has been based on the rigorous study of the patterns of socio-political behavior in the Middle East, both at the regional level of analysis as well as that of individual states, and, in particular, on the carefully crafted “ruling bargains” between regimes and their citizens.
  • Topic: International Affairs, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Publication Date: 08-2013
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: This report examines whether traditional liberalism stands a chance in today’s India, where the individual’s role has been nearly subsumed by a dominant state seeking to be benefactor.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: India
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2013
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established in 1924 with to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. The AIIA works actively to engage younger people in the community in its work by coordinating events such as careers fairs, school events, mentoring, internships and the Young Diplomats Program
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Saban Kardas
  • Publication Date: 04-2013
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Strategic Research (SAM)
  • Abstract: This policy brief studies Turkey’s contributions to the resolution of the Afghan conflict by focusing on its regional approach. The brief puts forth the argument that Afghanistan provides a good show-case to demonstrate the elements of a new security culture Turkey has adopted in its post-Cold War transformation. Reflecting the growing power of civilians in the making of foreign policy, Turkey’s security culture has evolved in ways that it has embraced many liberal elements, which can be grouped under the concept of cooperative security.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Publication Date: 09-2012
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relation
  • Abstract: This bi-annual report includes features written exclusively (unless mentioned otherwise) for Gateway House: Indian Council on Global Relations by various contributors, and Gateway House staff, from January-July 2012.
  • Topic: Global Political Economy
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, India, Brazil
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2012
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established in 1924 to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. The AIIA works actively to engage young people in its work including through young professionals’ networks, careers fairs, schools events, internships, mentoring and the Young Diplomats Program
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Bülent Aras
  • Publication Date: 12-2012
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Center for Strategic Research (SAM)
  • Abstract: This brief critically examines a new area of activism in Turkey’s foreign policy agenda: Turkey’s rise as a mediator in regional and international crises zones. It contextualizes Turkey’s reliance on a multitude of actors to support its mediation initiatives, most notably its vibrant civil society and NGOs, as a successful case of total performance, a principle forming Turkey’s new foreign policy doctrine. The brief then outlines the broad frameworks and characteristics of Turkey’s approach to mediation, as laid out by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ahmet Davutoğlu. The brief takes a closer look at the case of Turkey’s involvement in the attempt to seek resolution in the Afghanistan conflict and it illustrates a good example of Turkey’s new style in mediation. The brief concludes with a discussion of the Friends of Mediation Initiative, launched under the UN framework through joint Turkish-Finnish initiative.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Garry Rodan
  • Publication Date: 08-2011
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: Broadly, Australia’s post-WWII foreign relations with Asia are characterised by four dominant themes, with the focus on India being most recent. From 1954 through to the mid-1990s, Australia’s dealings with Indo-China consumed considerable political energy of policy makers, not least through involvement in the Vietnam War. In the same period, Australian engagement with Southeast Asia was also extensive as many countries in this region secured independence and underwent significant social, political and economic transformations. Australia’s levels of diplomatic engagement and expertise on Southeast Asia were high, most notably in relation to Indonesia. Meanwhile, Australia’s engagement with Northeast Asia has been forged fundamentally by economic opportunities, reinforced by security objectives. Finally, an interest-driven relationship with South Asia has assumed priority since the 1990s as India has adopted a different post-Cold War foreign policy direction.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: India, Australia
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2011
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established more than 75 years ago to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. In recent years, the AIIA has been active in extending its activities to younger members of the community. The AIIA has launched a variety of initiatives to engage young people including young professionals‟ networks, careers fairs, schools events, mentoring programs and the Young Diplomats Program.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2010
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established over 75 years ago to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. In recent years, the AIIA has been increasingly active in promoting its activities to younger members of the community. The AIIA has launched a variety of initiatives to involve young people including Young Professional Networks, careers fairs, schools events and the Young Diplomat Program. This has helped the AIIA reach its present strength of more than 1600 members across seven State and Territory Branches.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia
  • Author: Melissa Conley Tyler
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Special Report
  • Institution: Australian Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: The Australian Institute of International Affairs (AIIA) was established over 75 years ago to promote public understanding and interest in international affairs. In recent years the AIIA has been increasingly active in promoting its activities to younger members of the community. The AIIA has launched a variety of initiatives to involve young people including ACCESS Youth Networks, careers fairs, schools events and the Young Diplomat Program. This has helped the AIIA reach its present strength of more than 1600 members across seven State and Territory Branches.
  • Topic: International Affairs
  • Political Geography: Australia