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  • Author: Philip S. Robertson
  • Publication Date: 09-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: A world-class human rights abuser, Burma's military junta is condemned both by the UN Human Rights Commission—every year since 1989—and by the International Labor Organization for its systematic use of forced labor. The SPDC continues to refuse to recognize the results of the 1990 elections, won overwhelmingly by the National League for Democracy (NLD), and has imprisoned over 55 NLD parliamentarians. Economic sanctions by the U.S. and other nations continue to pressure the SPDC regime, despite a recent ruling by the Supreme Court overturning the Massachusetts Burma law.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Human Rights, Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, Burma, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Carlos Salinas
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Violence and warfare in Colombia are often blamed on the drug trade, but the roots run much deeper. The overwhelming majority of victims are noncombatant civilians. Since 1987, more than 35,000 noncombatant civilians have been murdered or have “disappeared.” Despite rich natural resources, Colombia's wealth is unevenly distributed, with some sectors of the population in deep misery.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, Colombia, South America, Latin America
  • Author: Erika Weinthal
  • Publication Date: 03-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: U.S. foreign policy is geared toward oil development in Central Asia. The Aral Sea crisis has offered a safe issue-area in which to exert U.S. foreign policy in Central Asia. Effectively mitigating the Aral Sea crisis in Central Asia has proven more difficult than originally conceived by U.S. and Central Asian policymakers.
  • Topic: Security, Environment, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: United States, Central Asia, Asia
  • Author: Stephen Zunes, Tom Barry, Martha Honey, As'ad Abukhalil
  • Publication Date: 02-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: U.S. involvement with Lebanon has extended over several decades. The Middle East was a key battleground during the cold war era, the legacy of which continues to this day. The U.S. sent combat troops into Lebanon in 1958 and again in 1982 to support unpopular right-wing presidents. The U.S. has largely supported Israeli attacks against Lebanon, furthering Lebanese resentment of the U.S. role in the region.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East, Lebanon
  • Author: David Cortright, Samina Ahmed
  • Publication Date: 11-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: The United States must unequivocally demand that India and Pakistan join the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non-nuclear weapon states. The United States should retain punitive sanctions which target Indian and Pakistani institutions and policymakers responsible for their nuclear weapons programs. Targeted incentives should be provided that seek to diminish internal support for nuclear weapons in India and Pakistan. The United States should fulfill its obligation under Article VI of the NPT to achieve global nuclear disarmament.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Nuclear Weapons, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, United States, South Asia, Middle East, India, New Delhi
  • Author: David Cortright
  • Publication Date: 05-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: As many scholars have observed, economic sanctions are often ineffective as instruments of international statecraft. In his recent study of five major cases of U.S. sanctions, Ernest Preeg concluded that sanctions "have been almost entirely ineffective in achieving their intended foreign policy objectives while having a substantial adverse impact on other U.S. foreign policy and commercial interests." The eminent sanctions scholar Margaret Doxey has argued that sanctions can achieve modest gains of the "slap on the wrist" variety but that "a major change in policy is . . . harder to come by. The definitive empirical work in the field, conducted by Gary Hufbauer and his colleagues at the Institute for International Economics in Washington, concluded, "Sanctions are seldom effective in imparing the military potential of an important power, or in bringing about major changes in the policy of the targeted country."
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Foreign Policy, Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, Washington
  • Publication Date: 02-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Fourth Freedom Forum
  • Abstract: Commissioned by the International Peace Academy, with support from the government of Canada, The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s was released at the symposium "Toward Smarter, More Effective United Nations Sanctions" on 17 April at the UN Plaza Hotel in New York. More than 100 ambassadors, UN officials and sanctions practitioners and experts attended the symposium. All the participants received a copy of the book before the symposium. Many of the panelists at the symposium cited specific themes from the book in their remarks.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Peace Studies, United Nations
  • Political Geography: New York, Canada
  • Author: Marc R. Rosenblum
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, University of California
  • Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of undocumented immigration to the United States from Mexico, and current and proposed policies designed to control these undocumented flows. Undocumented migration from Mexico is a subject that already receives disproportionate attention in the sense that many and probably most undocumented immigrants in the United States do not illegally cross the U.S.-Mexican border, yet INS enforcement efforts focus overwhelmingly on these border crossers. Although undocumented Mexican migration to the United States is disproportionately targeted, the subject merits analytical attention for three reasons. First, undocumented immigration from Mexico to the United States is the largest illicit migration flow in the world, at about one million crossings per year. Second, partly for this reason, U.S. enforcement efforts devoted to controlling Mexican immigration cost taxpayers billions of dollars, and have resulted in the transformation of the INS into the largest civilian gun-carrying force in the world. And third, immigration remains central to U.S.-Mexican bilateral relations (Binational Commission 1997, Rico 1992, Rosenblum 1998) as U.S. immigration policy-making takes on an increasingly transnational character (Rosenblum 1999 and forthcoming).
  • Topic: Migration
  • Political Geography: United States, Latin America, Central America, North America, Mexico
  • Author: Catriona Gourlay, Sibylle Bauer, Sharon Riggle, Thomas Sköld, Jensen Frederik
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: At the Nice Summit on 8 December, EU member states agreed that it is time for the EU to 'play...its role fully on the international stage' by cementing a new military dimension to its structures. The 60-page 'Presidency Report' (doc#14056), attached at the end of the Presidency Conclusions, exhaustively describes the modalities of the new common European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), and describes how the new structures will enable the EU to carry out the so-called Petersberg Tasks. [This article includes excerpts from a longer paper, available soon at www.cesd.org].
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Catriona Gourlay, Sibylle Bauer, Jensen Frederik
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: International Security Information Service
  • Abstract: On 26 July 2000 EU Ambassadors voted to introduce new rules denying the public access to classified, secret or top-secret documents containing information on military or non-military crisis management. The decision was adopted in August without further consultation of other EU institutions or any parliamentary or public debate. The Council has since been accused by some member states and the European Parliament (EP) of bringing secrecy into the EU by bypassing normal decision-making procedures and excluding an entire category of documents from the public — challenges which will ultimately be resolved in the European Court of Justice.
  • Topic: Security, Defense Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe