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  • Author: Jeffrey Boutwell, George Rathjens
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
  • Abstract: The global effect of the September 11 terror attacks on New York and Washington, DC demonstrated yet again that, in today' s world, national security no longer is confined within national boundaries. Fully one-third of the more than 3,000 people killed in the attacks were non- Americans, citizens of more than 60 countries. The economic and social impacts of the terror attacks were similarly global; in addition to the loss of hundreds of thousands of jobs in the US and worldwide, World Bank President James Wolfensohn estimated that that“ between 20,000 and 40,000 more children” would die, and millions of people would be “ condemned to live below the poverty line” because of the global recession that became more severe because of September 11.
  • Topic: Human Welfare, Nuclear Weapons
  • Political Geography: New York, Washington, Asia
  • Author: Jeffrey Boutwell, George Rathjens
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
  • Abstract: As we went to press, the election of a new US President was still undecided. More than a week after 100 million Americans went to the polls, the ultimate margin of victory for either George W. Bush or Al Gore appeared to hinge on several hundred Florida votes. Whoever does take office on January 20, the next American President (and Commander in Chief), the man with ultimate authority over the world' s largest nuclear arsenal, will begin his term in office in the most politically tenuous position of any American president in perhaps a century.
  • Topic: Government, Nuclear Weapons, Peace Studies, War
  • Political Geography: America
6443. East Timor
  • Author: Lynn Fredriksson
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: The half-island nation of East Timor was a colony of Portugal for some 450 years. After the Portuguese dictatorship fell in April 1974, the Indonesian government began to intervene in the decolonization process. When it became clear that it had little political support in East Timor, the Indonesian regime launched a military offensive from West Timor and fomented a civil war in the summer of 1975.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Human Rights, Sovereignty
  • Political Geography: United States, Southeast Asia
  • Author: John Feffer
  • Publication Date: 12-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: It was a striking juxtaposition, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and North Korean leader Kim Jong Il sitting side by side at a display of mass gymnastics in Pyongyang this last October. “Spectacular and amazing,” Albright called the coordinated movements of the 100,000 performers. When a picture of the August 1998 Taepodong rocket launch was displayed, Kim Jong Il confided that it would be his country's first and last such launch. The North Korean leader was a man with whom she could do business, Albright concluded at the end of her visit. The U.S. and North Korea, technically at war for over fifty years, had never before been on quite such cordial speaking terms.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Arms Control and Proliferation, Peace Studies
  • Political Geography: United States, Israel, North Korea, Korean Peninsula, Pyongyang
  • Author: Dan Connell
  • Publication Date: 11-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Some two million Sudanese—nearly 8% of the country's population—have lost their lives to war or famine-related causes since 1983, when fighting resumed in Africa's longest running civil war. Millions more have been displaced, many fleeing to neighboring states. Despite competing peace initiatives on the table today, there is no end in sight to the conflict. Instead, the prospects are for intensified combat as the war spreads to new areas of the country.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict, Migration
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Sudan
  • Author: George Ann Potter, Linda Farthing
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: In September 2000, Bolivia, South America's poorest country, was rocked by a series of civilian protests, including roadblocks throughout the country. Unionists, teachers, peasant coca farmers, and others have demanded that the Bolivian and U.S. governments stop trying to completely eradicate coca growing and cease construction of three new military bases in the Chapare region. Among the other demands, protesters also want the government to improve alternative development programs in the coca growing region. In mid-October, the two sides reached a 19-point “truce”, but protesters vowed to reinstate the roadblocks in 30 days if the government did not adhere to the the agreement.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Democratization, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, South America, Latin America, Bolivia
  • Author: Abigail Abrash
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Papua is a leading example of a failed decolonization process. Indonesian integration-cum-colonization of Papua—implemented with U.S. complicity—has amounted to an undeclared war against the indigenous population. Indonesia's military buildup and East Timor-style militia activities threaten to destabilize Papua and the region.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Environment, Ethnic Conflict, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, Southeast Asia, Papua
  • Author: Cynthia Enloe
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Feminist analysis reveals some of the chief causes and costs of militarizing U.S. foreign policies. Civilian policymakers' desire to appear “manly” is a chief reason for the Pentagon's remarkable influence over current U.S. foreign policy. U.S. military policies today marginalize women and entrench the masculinization of political life at home and abroad.
  • Topic: Security, Foreign Policy, Defense Policy, Gender Issues
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Miriam Young
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Sri Lanka's troubles are rooted in the practices of its former colonial power and in unaddressed political and economic grievances following independence. This is a war that takes few prisoners; both parties practice blatant disregard for international humanitarian law, causing ongoing civilian suffering and massive internal displacement. The war has eroded Sri Lanka's social achievements in health and education.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Foreign Policy, Ethnic Conflict, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: United States, South Asia, Sri Lanka
  • Author: Coletta A. Youngers
  • Publication Date: 10-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Foreign Policy In Focus
  • Abstract: Since taking office in 1990, President Fujimori has concentrated power in his own hands, greatly strengthened the role of the armed forces and SIN, and thwarted political opposition through bribery and intimidation. The recent Peruvian elections failed to meet even the most minimal international standards for a free and fair process, and Fujimori embarked upon an unconstitutional third term, which left the country deeply polarized. Fujimori's decision to call for new elections and dismantle SIN is an important step toward putting Peru back on the path to democratization; however, the situation remains very tense and the position of the military and intelligence services uncertain.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Democratization, Government
  • Political Geography: United States, South America, Latin America, Peru