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  • Author: Ananya Roy
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Wilson Center
  • Abstract: In recent times, there has been avid policy interest in paradigms of enablement. From declarations that the poor are “heroic entrepreneurs” (de Soto 2000) to recommendations on how to capitalize on the social capital of poverty, there is a loud call to help the poor help themselves. I want to focus on a key characteristic of the enablement framework: the attention to women. The policy investment in poor women now spans a range of institutional actors – a kinder and gentler World Bank, the UN shelter debates, and the NGOs that crowd the stage of development. Microcredit programs targeting women, mothers' clubs in squatter settlements, female farming cooperatives have become standard fare. One could say that women have become the currency of this latest round of development, the “instrument,” as Jackson (1999) puts it, of enablement. Drawing upon a rich corpus of feminist research, I want to critically examine the implications of this feminization of policy.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Civil Society, Development, Politics
  • Publication Date: 01-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: In 2002, we celebrate the 20th anniversary of the founding of The Carter Center to wage peace, fight disease, and build hope worldwide. Underlying our work is the principle that basic human rights—the right to live in peace, have adequate food and health care, and a voice in choosing political leaders—comprise the foundation for the human spirit to flourish and societies to prosper. There always has been an imminent need to secure these rights for people worldwide, but the events of Sept. 11, 2001, raised the collective consciousness about the urgent need for the work of The Carter Center.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, Human Rights, Migration, Science and Technology, Third World
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Abstract: The OECD recognises the valuable contribution that civil society can make to the public policy-making process, and attaches great importance to the Organisation's own consultation and dialogue with civil society organisations (CSOs). This continuing dialogue builds trust in public institutions and promotes public understanding of the benefits and challenges of global economic and social change.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Non-Governmental Organization
  • Publication Date: 11-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Abstract: The on-going structuring of the Greater Helsinki Region (GHR) should be encouraged by the central government. Managing the growth of the Helsinki region is crucial to avoid urban sprawl and the waste of resources, especially in the long run. With priorities for the Greater Helsinki Region identified, there is room to negotiate a general agreement between the central government and municipalities of the GHR. This agreement should receive large publicity and raise a debate in Parliament as the goal is to reassess both the role and the dependence of Helsinki upon the rest of the country, i.e. how can Finland develop as a whole by making better use of the motor, Helsinki.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, International Trade and Finance
  • Publication Date: 05-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxford Analytica
  • Abstract: This week's piece examines the prospects for tidal stream and competing offshore renewable energy technologies. Options for exploiting the energy available from the world's oceans include offshore wind, wave and tidal stream energy. Offshore wind is by far the closest to commercial exploitation, but the range of possibilities is surprisingly broad.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, Government, Science and Technology
  • Author: Charles Grant, Christopher J. Makins, Sergey Rogov, Christoph Bertram, Robert Nurick
  • Publication Date: 09-2002
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: The integration of Russia into the West will be one of the most important, and most difficult, tasks facing the United States and Europe during the next decade. Yet a closer relationship with the West will be key to the development of Russian prosperity, democracy, and stability – achievements that will benefit the West as well as Russia. The attacks on September 11 and the resulting campaign against terrorism have given a decisive push to this effort, providing the political will for closer cooperation between Russia and the West.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Asia
  • Author: Jean O Lanjouw
  • Publication Date: 06-2001
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: We are in the midst of a dramatic extension of the global reach of the patent system. Until recently, in an effort to keep their prices low, many developing countries did not grant patents on new pharmaceutical products. Today, however, most countries have extended their patent laws to include pharmaceutical innovations, and in order to fulfill World Trade Organization membership requirements, the rest will soon follow.
  • Topic: Civil War, Development, Human Welfare, International Trade and Finance, Treaties and Agreements
  • Author: Shang-Jin Wei
  • Publication Date: 04-2001
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: At least since the Asian financial crisis, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has, from time to time, included transparency and anti-corruption measures as part of the conditions for countries to borrow its funds. Because of this, it has been criticized as having overstepped its mandate, or even having made crises worse in countries the IMF is supposed to help.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Globalization, Third World
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Carol Graham
  • Publication Date: 04-2001
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Brookings Institution
  • Abstract: There is much speculation about a new round of protests at the upcoming meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The protestors contend that globalization is bad for poor people in poor countries. But the evidence suggests the opposite: that globalization provides the poor in developing countries with new opportunities for upward mobility. Yet it also introduces new vulnerabilities, particularly for those in the middle income strata, which cause even the upwardly mobile in these strata to negatively assess their economic progress. We propose three sets of policies for poor countries — increasing access to higher levels and better quality education, eliminating market distortions that block the upward mobility of the poor (including excessive levels of inequality), and providing more broadly available safety nets for people without steady incomes — that could help prevent these negative sentiments from growing into a broader backlash against globalization, which would ultimately hurt the poor in these countries the most.
  • Topic: Development, Globalization, Human Welfare, Third World
  • Author: James M. Sheehan
  • Publication Date: 04-2000
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Cato Institute
  • Abstract: The World Bank has a dismal environmental record that environmentalists have long condemned. Its lending policies have financed ecological destruction, human rights violations, and forced resettlement, and its projects have suffered from high failure rates, according to the bank's own criteria.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, International Organization