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  • Author: Ingmar Karlsson
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The article analyzes what do terms such as nation and nationalism mean in the current age. The author provides the reader with an extensive historical background of the topic. He explains the relevant notions from the perspective of various philosophical approaches. The possibility of emergence of a European nation and the challenges waiting on the way to common European identity, are addresses, as well.
  • Topic: Nationalism
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Cheryl Rita Kaur
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: Turtles are vital for the health of the marine and coastal ecosystems. Where green turtles graze on seagrass and algae, the sea bottom habitat is healthier and more productive, hence commercially important species such as shrimps, lobster, and fish thrive. This translates to better sea harvest, boosting the income of the fishing industry. Besides that, by depositing their eggs on the shore, turtles transport vital nutrients from the ocean to nutrient-poor coastal and inshore areas.
  • Topic: Environment, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Natural Resources
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Capt. Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The new convention on recycling of ships will provide regulations for the design , construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling , without comprising the safety and operational efficiency of ships.
  • Topic: Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Capt. Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: A contract of insurance must impose an obligation upon the insurer to indemnify the assured in the event of a loss from an insured risk provided that other contractual provisions have been fulfilled. In other words, there must be a legally enforceable agreement in order to properly refer to it as a 'contract'. Accepting that the contract between a member and his club is a contract of insurance, a further issue to consider is whether the contract of insurance amounts to a contract of marine insurance.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, War, Maritime Commerce, Law
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The implementation of National Single Window (NSW) as an electronic trade platform augurs well with Malaysia\'s intention to provide the infrastructures and processes to facilitate more efficient trade and generate bigger trade volumes. This commentary argues in favour of conducting trade in an online environment using this platform to enhance the efficiency of the trade supply chain and to increase Malaysia\'s trade competitiveness. It also provides several recommendations to ensure smooth and successful implementation of the NSW.
  • Topic: International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid, Ibrahim Hj Mohamed, Rakish Suppiah
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The proposal to build a bridge across the Straits o f Malacca will have significant impacts on the shipping, environment and trade dynamics in the sea lane. This commentary discusses the potential repercussions of this megaproject from th e maritime perspective.
  • Topic: Development, Environment, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Infrastructure
  • Political Geography: Southeast Asia
  • Author: Nazery Khalid
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Maritime Institute of Malaysia
  • Abstract: The Wall Street meltdown has had a massive domino effect on major industries worldwide. The ensuing financial crisis cuts deep and wide across the global economy. It has clipped the wings of growth of many business activities and industry.
  • Topic: Economics, International Trade and Finance, Maritime Commerce, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Malaysia
  • Author: Daniel Keohane, Charlotte Blommestijn
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: European Union Institute for Security Studies
  • Abstract: EU governments formally launched the European Security and Defence Policy (now renamed the Common Security and Defence Policy) in lune 1999, shortly after NATO's war in Kosovo. That war exposed huge equip¬ment gaps between US and European armed forces. Euopeans did not have adequate transport or communica¬tions equipment, or enough deployable soldiers. Since the Helsinki summit in December 1999 therefore, EU governments have committed themselves to a number of military reform plans. The essential aim of these plans has been to develop more useful equipment for international peacekeeping, such as transport planes and helicopters, and encourage a reform of national armies oriented away from territorial defence towards external deployments.
  • Topic: Security, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: Europe, Kosovo, Balkans
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
  • Abstract: The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) holds an open debate on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict (POC) twice yearly. Following the UNSC's reaffirmation of the World Summit agreement on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) populations from genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes and crimes against humanity in Resolutions 1674 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on POC, discussion of R2P has been an important component of these debates. This is reflected in government statements, presentations by the Emergency Relief Coordinator, and in the Secretary-General's 2007 report on POC where he referred to the agreement on R2P as a "cardinal achievement."
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Human Rights, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corporate lobbying and financing of political activities are carried out by most large corporations. Lobbying enables them to understand, track and shape the development of legislation and regulation. Financial and in-kind contributions to parties and campaigns can be used to support a country's political process and development. Both sets of activities, when undertaken with integrity and transparency by a company, can be a legitimate and positive force. Yet, the extensive funds at the disposal of businesses and the close relationship that exists between many companies and lawmakers can lead to undue, unfair influence in a country's policies and politics.
  • Topic: Corruption, Democratization, Politics
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: The Carter Center
  • Abstract: President Carter tells the story of the inspiration for The Carter Center by recalling how in 1981 amid fundraising for his presidential library and trying to figure out what to do with the rest of his life, he awoke one night and sat up in bed. Mrs. Carter, worried, asked him what was wrong. He replied that he wanted to create an institute similar to Camp David adjacent to the new library, where warring factions could go for mediation. And so The Carter Center was born.
  • Topic: Diplomacy, Human Rights, Humanitarian Aid, Poverty, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Sudan
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Japan Institute of International Affairs
  • Abstract: Recognizing the strategic potential for expanding cooperation on regional and global challenges and the shared values among the United States, Japan and India, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), and the Japan Institute for International Affairs (JIIA) initiated the U.S.-Japan-India Strategic Dialogue in June 2006.
  • Topic: Globalization, Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Treaties and Agreements
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, India
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: A comprehensive regulatory framework for the private sector is a prerequisite for a transparent, honest and just society: where regulation is weak, corruption risks grow strong. As the primary rule makers and enforcers, governments have a responsibility to ensure the effective regulation of markets, protection of citizens and enforcement of laws. Ultimately, an inadequate or unstable regulatory framework for the private sector — without the will, power or resources to enforce legislation — facilitates the marginalisation of stakeholder rights, distortion of markets and negligent or corrupt practices.
  • Topic: Security, Corruption, Genocide, Markets, Law
  • Political Geography: Russia, United Kingdom, Brazil
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Corporate integrity is often perceived to be the product of ethical leadership, strong compliance and effective regulations that prevent and sanction wrong-doing. While these elements are essential, each on their own is not sufficient to comprehensively and sustainably tackle the broad range of interrelated corruption risks that face companies.
  • Topic: Corruption, Crime, International Trade and Finance, Markets
  • Publication Date: 07-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: Cartels are illegal and costly. They inflate prices for consumers, exact an economic toll on countries and undermine the integrity of companies. Cartels can form in any sector, ranging from health care and transport, to construction and telecommunications. They leave no industry untouched or consumer unburdened. When companies engage in collusion by conspiring to fix prices, markets become inefficient and consumers bear unjustified price hikes that can reach up to 100 per cent.
  • Topic: Corruption, Economics, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Law
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Transparency International
  • Abstract: The collapse of global financial markets in September 2008 has ignited a debate on what caused their quick undoing. As captured in the comments of the OECD Secretary-General, there is a growing sentiment that poor corporate governance is one of the forces to blame. It allowed the transparency, accountability and integrity of companies to be compromised and for abuses to go unchecked, particularly on matters of corruption.
  • Topic: Corruption, Genocide, Markets, Financial Crisis
  • Author: Sabine Kurtenbach
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute for Development and Peace
  • Abstract: Conflict and violence have become an important context for development cooperation during the last decade. Donors not only have to cope with the consequences of conflict in their day-to-day work on the ground, but also need to develop strategies in the fields of early warning and prevention, as well as instruments for conflict analysis and conflic-sensitive approaches for cooperation. At the same time, external actors have been important supporters for many peace processes aiming at the termination of armed conflicts and violence. When wars or armed conflicts end (or at least when violence on the ground decreases) the hope for sustainable peacebuilding grows. UN General Secretary Ban Ki Moon pointed out the importance of the immediate post-conflict/post-war period in a report to the Security Council on June 11, 2009: “The immediate post-conflict period offers a window of opportunity to provide basic security, deliver peace dividends, shore up and build confidence in the political process, and strengthen core national capacity to lead peacebuilding efforts.” This gives a first impression of the many challenges internal and external actors face; at the same time experiences on the ground show that liberal peacebuilding conceived as a profound transformation process is a difficult endeavour.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Political Violence, Development, War, Armed Struggle
  • Political Geography: United Nations
  • Author: Koen Vlassenroot
  • Publication Date: 09-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: EGMONT - The Royal Institute for International Relations
  • Abstract: In the pursuit of security and development in Africa, more and more reference is being made to the concept of fragile states. This paper explores the meaning of this concept and considers the attention that is being paid to it as a consequence of integrating security and development into the policy of the major donor countries. In an African context state fragility is a cause of numerous conflicts, but also a major focal point of peace processes and donor interventions. This paper is intended to be a warning against a too narrow focus on security in the process of combating fragility. It pleads for an integrated policy, based on the pursuit of sustainable development and emphasises the strengthening of the authority and power of the state and the promotion of local economic and social development.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Security, Political Violence, Development, Economics, Fragile/Failed State
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Andy Johnson, Kyle Spector, Scott Payne, Matt Bennett
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Third Way
  • Abstract: Speaking at West Point, President Obama clarified America's mission in Afghanistan and announced a new strategy designed to defeat al Qaeda, respond to the security threat posed by chaos in the Afghanistan-Pakistan region, and set a clear path for turning the war over to the Afghans. Third Way believes that the President's approach is worthy of strong support from Congress and other leaders.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Military Strategy
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Afghanistan, United States, North America
  • Author: Kurt Volker
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Atlantic Council
  • Abstract: Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, NATO stands at a crossroads. Will it reinvent itself yet again, to serve as the foundation for the security and defense of Europe and North America in a world of diverse, non-conventional threats, many of which come from outside of Europe? Will it return to a passive, geographically defined approach of protecting the territory of European Allies against armed attack? Will it merge these visions into a new hybrid? Will it retain the political will and resource commitments of its members, whether in Europe or North America?
  • Topic: NATO, International Cooperation, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe, North America