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  • Author: John Whalley, Sean Walsh
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: The United Nations climate change negotiations currently underway and now seemingly likely to conclude only six to 12 months after the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) hosted meeting at Copenhagen in December 2009, are beset by a series of obstacles, the most fundamental of which reflect the North-South divide, largely between the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and non-OECD economies. In this brief we argue that movement across this divide is the single most important element in a successful conclusion to the negotiation. Current obstacles reflect asymmetries between developing and developed countries both in terms of growth in carbon emissions — and hence the costs of reducing emissions proportionately relative to some base date level, but also in terms of historical emissions as a source of damage. These are compounded by the imprecision of the negotiating mandate — a lack of a clear definition of the basic principles involved, particularly in the case of the original UNFCCC principle of common yet differentiated responsibilities, which accepts but does not clearly delineate differentiated responsibilities for developing and developed countries on climate change. Significant movement in the negotiating position of either side (or both) is likely a necessity for a climate deal to be reached even in post-Copenhagen negotiations. However, the recent unilateral commitment by China to reduce emissions by 40-45 percent per unit of GDP from a 2005 base year by 2020 is a positive first step.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Environment, Treaties and Agreements, Third World
  • Political Geography: China, United Nations
  • Author: John Whalley, Simon J. Evenett
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: This year was supposed to see breakthroughs in global environmental policy making, and that may still come to pass. However, the severity of the global economic downturn is intensifying protectionist pressures and fears of green protectionism.
  • Topic: Climate Change, International Cooperation, International Trade and Finance, Financial Crisis
  • Author: Paola Subacchi, Eric Helleiner
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: From many perspectives, the London Summit of the G20 leaders at the beginning of April 2009 was a success – and a hard act to follow. The discussion was framed around crisis resolution and the strengthening of the international financial architecture. Beyond any concrete achievement, the success of the London Summit is that it morphed into an ongoing process with a rolling agenda, rather than remaining a one-off event. Undoubtedly the Italian Presidency of the G8 has a hard task, being caught between the success of London and the decreasing relevance of the G8. But there is also scope for building a meaningful bridge between London and the G8 meeting in L'Aquila in July 2009, and continuing and strengthening the economic governance reform process. There is an urgent need to continue to push for progress on a number of key items that were not adequately addressed at the London Summit and where progress can be made in L'Aquila – fostering clarity for the G20 agenda for the next meeting in Pittsburgh in September 2009. With regard, in particular, to the reform of the International Monetary Fund, the Italian Presidency should use its G8 chair to initiate a dialogue on reform of the European representation, taking advantage of having all the key players gathered together in L'Aquila.
  • Topic: Economics, International Cooperation, International Trade and Finance, Treaties and Agreements, International Monetary Fund
  • Political Geography: Europe, London, Italy
  • Author: Andrew F. Cooper, Timothy M. Shaw
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Centre for International Governance Innovation
  • Abstract: Each Summit of the Americas forum has been accorded a single imprint. The 1994 Miami summit is remembered as the “Trade Summit,” the 1998 Santiago summit as the “Education Summit,” the 2001 Quebec City Summit as the “Democratic Summit,” and the 2005 Mar del Plata in Argentina—although officially focused on the themes of “Creating Jobs to Fight Poverty and Strengthen Democratic Governance”—is best remembered as the “Summit of Disorder.” The Fifth Summit of the Americas, April 17 – 19, 2009, presents an opportunity to identify the event with a regional sub-set of the Americas: the Caribbean. The host country, Trinidad and Tobago, is the first Caribbean country to host the event and, with a population of only 1.3 million, is the smallest state ever to host “such a logistically complicated and politically sensitive gathering” (Erikson, 2009: 179). Relegated to a marginal position in the first four summits, the Caribbean now moves to centre stage in 2009.
  • Topic: International Relations, Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Argentina, Latin America, Caribbean, Miami, Santiago, Quebec City, Mar del Plata, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Author: Martin Eling, Robert W. Klein, Joan T. Schmit
  • Publication Date: 11-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Independent Institute
  • Abstract: In this paper we compare insurance regulatory frameworks in the United States (US) and European Union (EU), focusing primarily on solvency, but also considering product and price regulation, as well as other elements of consumer protection. This comparison highlights the use of more fluid and principles-based approaches in the EU as it is developing under Solvency II, while the US continues to focus essentially on static, rules-based regulation. The discussion further notes evidence suggesting that the EU approach is more successful in promoting a financially solid insurance sector.
  • Topic: Government, Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe
  • Publication Date: 12-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Institute of International Education
  • Abstract: India is currently the top place of origin international students studying at U.S. colleges and universities. Over the past decade, the number of Indian students in the U.S. has increased more than 175 percent, from just under 37,500 students in 1998/99 to over 103,000 in 2008/09. India has, in fact, been the leading place of origin since 2001/02, when it surpassed China. Since 2007/08, students from India have comprised over 15% of all international students in the United States.
  • Topic: Education
  • Political Geography: United States, China, India
  • Author: Michael G. Plummer
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: East-West Center
  • Abstract: The economic crisis of 2008–09 is the second major crisis in just over a decade that Asia has endured. Unlike the Asian crisis of 1997–98, however, the current crisis originated mainly in the West. Asia's excessive reliance on net exports as the principal driver of economic growth since the 1997–98 crisis rendered it especially vulnerable to external shocks, and most Asian countries have paid dearly. The more open the economy, the more vulnerable it is to such shocks. The newly industrialized Asian economies (Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Taiwan), which are among the most open and dynamic in the world, are expected to contract by about 6 percent in 2009.
  • Topic: Emerging Markets, International Trade and Finance, Regional Cooperation, Global Recession, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Taiwan, Asia, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong
  • Author: Dieter Ernst
  • Publication Date: 08-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: East-West Center
  • Abstract: Political debates about globalization are focused on offshore outsourcing of manufacturing and services. But these debates neglect an important change in the geography of knowledge––the emergence of global innovation networks (GINs) that integrate dispersed engineering, product development, and research activities across geographic borders.
  • Topic: Emerging Markets, Globalization, Industrial Policy, International Trade and Finance, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Charles Chasie, Sanjoy Hazarika
  • Publication Date: 02-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: East-West Center
  • Abstract: In the first decade after India declared independence in 1947, the Indian state faced numerous challenges to its very existence and legitimacy. These ranged from a war with Pakistan over the state of Jammu and Kashmir immediately after independence, an issue that continues to challenge policy makers in both countries, to the first armed uprising in the country in Telengana led by Communists in what is today the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Topic: Security, Political Violence, Armed Struggle, Counterinsurgency
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh
  • Author: Yitzhak Shichor
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: East-West Center
  • Abstract: Beginning in 1949, China considered, and dealt with, so-called Uyghur separatism and the quest for Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) independence as a domestic problem. Since the early 1990s, however, Beijing has begun to recognize the international aspects of this problem and to deal with its external manifestations. This new policy has affected China's relations with Turkey, which has ideologically inspired Uyghur nationalism, offered sanctuary to Uyghur refugees, and provided moral and material support to Eastern Turkestan movements, organizations, and activities.
  • Topic: International Relations, Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Minorities
  • Political Geography: China, Central Asia, Turkey
  • Author: Kemal Derviş
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: This Note focuses on the relationship between L-20 ( L for Leaders) or G-20 type meetings and more formal reforms , particularly of the IMF. It should NOT be read as a proposed agenda for the April meeting of the L-20+, but as an input into the agenda of global reform that constitutes the context of the London and other international meetings. I do believe that given the massive and immediate threat posed by the unfolding worldwide economic crisis, the April meeting should focus on (i) the global size and coordination of the fiscal stimulus and macroeconomic policies worldwide (ii) immediate coordination as needed in the dramatic actions required with regard to the banking system in many major economies and, (iii) financial support to the developing countries experiencing a massive decline in export revenues, capital flows and remittances. The London meeting will be the first and very important start of a series of meetings in 2009, including the Spring and Fall meetings of the IMF/World Bank, which constitute an opportunity to build a global economic governance system that can manage the recovery from the current crisis, build globally coordinated financial sector regulation and reflect the realities of the 21st century.
  • Political Geography: London
  • Author: Menekşe Tokyay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Elections to the European Parliament, considered as the biggest trans-national elections in history, were held in the 27 member states of the European Union (EU) between 4 and 7 June 2009. The European Parliament is the only EU institution directly elected on a European mandate.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, France
  • Author: Bora Bayraktar, Can Yirik
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The crisis that started with Hamas winning the Palestinian Authority (PA) elections in January of 2006 seems to have entered a new stage with the start of 2009. Israel, which provides the occupied PA with the bulk of its economic resources, the US and the EU classifying Hamas as a terrorist organization and the resulting 3 year long economic siege and blockade, and the Israeli operation that started on the 27th of December and lasted for 22 days have all made the humanitarian situation in this region unbearable.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Humanitarian Aid, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Israel
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The question of Iran “ going nuclear” is of global concern. Iran has up to now used devious methods to violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty and has indeed misled the world community. The Obama Administration is concerned about these developments as much as the previous Bush Administration was. However, President Obama's approach to nuclear weapons in general and talks with Iran have been different both in essence and form. Another matter of concern has been the attitude of Israel and the manner in which the US has tried to handle the Israeli dossier towards Iran. The October 1st negotiations with Iran have been considered constructive by the West. These negotiations will take time and probably prove to be difficult. Turkey's attitude towards a “nuclear” Iran seems to be ambivalent in recent times, whereby while Turkey does not want a nuclear Iran, it seems to be pointing a finger to nuclear Israel.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons
  • Political Geography: Iran, Turkey, Israel
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 10-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: For many years successive governments in Turkey have ignored an even denied the existence of Kurds in Turkey. What would have been possible in the past by recognizing cultural rights has now been a problem whereby an operation seems to be needed. Two common and important mistakes of governments: one is to say Kurds are primary citizens of this country as if there are secondary citizens! The second is “end the terror and we will recognize some rights”. Basic rights cannot be negotiated. This second mistake has led Öcalan to announce his own road map paralel to the Governments. Negotiating with hostile entities is very difficult and needs public consensus. Turkey, unlike Britain and Spain does not have public consensus. The best way was and is to follow EU's democratisation road map.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Kurdistan
  • Author: Ozdem Sanberk
  • Publication Date: 03-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Will President Obama's speech in Cairo prove to have been a historic turning point in relations between the Islamic world and the United States? There is no doubt that the President himself sincerely intended it to be. And it is easy to see why. The antagonism between the USA and substantial sections of world Muslim opinion, particularly in the Arab Middle East and Iran, is one of the biggest challenges faced by US foreign policy, a clear threat to world peace. But can things change while the USA is closely aligned with Israel? How ?
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Author: Rebecca Bryant, Mete Hatay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: This article explores the actual and potential effects of recent European legal judgments on ongoing reunification negotiations in Cyprus. In particular, we argue that the European Union's failure to formulate a policy regarding the position of Turkish Cypriots in Europe has had increasingly negative consequences both for negotiations between the island's leaders and for relations between the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities. The EU has chosen to ignore the suspension of constitutional order in the Republic of Cyprus, in the process refusing to acknowledge the legal and political effects of the RoC's EU entry on Turkish Cypriots. We use a recent European Court of Justice judgment to illustrate the substantive effects of this hands-off approach, showing how the political use of transnational courts threatens to undermine what many have called the island's “last chance” at reunification.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Cyprus
3158. Turkiye
  • Author: Menekşe Tokyay
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: The relations between Turkey and the European Union, which have reached a unique level of harmonization and integration since the start of accession negotiations on 3 October 2005, has become one of the most important anchors for Turkish foreign policy. The accession negotiations towards full membership to the EU are still continuing despite a number of difficulties and delays. This Policy Brief aims to make an analysis of current developments regarding the accession process. It also intends to make some predictions about future prospects related to the EU-Turkey relations.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Yalım Eralp
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: Turkey became a non permanent member of the UN Security Council as of January 1, 2009. The Brief deals with the important functions of the Council and the election campaign which a candidate country to the Council may sometimes have to run. Five Security Council resolutions which have to various degrees changed the course of events are explained. More than that, the writer tries to portray the behind the scenes activities of the resolutions. Finally, by defining the atmosphere of the Council, the writer tries to give advice on what Turkey, as a non permanent member, should do and in particular the qualities which the Permanent Representative should possess.
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Şadi Ergüvenç
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Global Political Trends Center
  • Abstract: There are now less than fifteen years left before we celebrate the centennial of the Republic of Turkey. Taking into consideration the fact that we, the humans, managed to squeeze into the last century two or three world wars and worn out several ideologies, even raising the Earth's temperature whilst exhausting its natural resources, no doubt we will be living in a much different world than the present one, in fifteen years from now... Moreover, the pace of change has increased such that it is incomparable with that of the past and the possibility of unforeseen technological and societal change has dramatically improved. The way the latest financial crisis erupted is the manifestation of such a potential. Since no one yet can predict the eventual outcome of the crises that suddenly shook the financial markets and economies like an earthquake, an attempt to foresee the first quarter of the 21st century might seem like a futile effort.
  • Topic: Natural Resources, Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Turkey