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You searched for: Content Type Policy Brief Remove constraint Content Type: Policy Brief Publishing Institution Oxfam Publishing Remove constraint Publishing Institution: Oxfam Publishing Topic Development Remove constraint Topic: Development
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  • Publication Date: 01-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This paper outlines urgent action necessary to address immediate challenges in Afghanistan and to avert humanitarian disaster. It does not seek to address all issues of concern but focuses on essential policy change in development and humanitarian spheres. While aid has contributed to progress in Afghanistan, especially in social and economic infrastructure – and whilst more aid is needed – the development process has to date been too centralised, top-heavy and insufficient. It is has been prescriptive and supply-driven, rather than indigenous and responding to Afghan needs. As a result millions of Afghans, particularly in rural areas, still face severe hardship comparable with sub-Saharan Africa. Conditions of persistent poverty have been a significant factor in the spread of insecurity.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Africa, Asia
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Late in the evening of 15 November 2007, Cyclone Sidr struck Mahmouda's home and thousands of other villages across Bangladesh's southern coastal areas, leaving around 4000 people dead and millions homeless. The initial response to the disaster was prompt and vigorous, but three months after the disaster the affected communities' needs – particularly in terms of housing and livelihoods – remain staggering.
  • Topic: Development, Humanitarian Aid
  • Political Geography: Bangladesh
  • Author: Matt Waldman
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Existing measures to promote peace in Afghanistan are not succeeding. This is not only due to the revival of the Taliban, but also because little has been done to try to ensure that families, communities, and tribes - the fundamental units of Afghan society - get on better with each other. War has fractured the social fabric of the country and, in the context of severe and persistent poverty, local disputes have the potential to turn violent and to exacerbate the wider conflict. But there is no effective strategy to help Afghans deal with disputes in a peaceful and constructive way.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Development, International Cooperation, Non-Governmental Organization, War
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia, Taliban
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Developing-country governments desperately need more long-term and predictable aid, given through their budgets, to finance the expansion of health care, education, and other vital social services. The European Commission (EC) is one of the biggest donors providing this kind of essential budget support, and has innovative plans to further improve and increase this aid. European Union (EU) member states must support these ambitious plans. The EC in turn must do more to improve on this good start, delinking this aid from harmful International Monetary Fund (IMF) prescriptions, putting an end to unnecessary bureaucratic delays, and doing more to make its aid accountable to citizens in poor countries.
  • Topic: Development, Education, Health
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: “The challenge facing the international community in getting countries on track to achieve the MDGs is considerable, even more so in the face of the global challenges of inequality, climate change and impending insecurity. Global companies have a role to play: their first and most important contribution must be to minimise the negative and maximise the positive impacts of their core business operations on human development.”
  • Topic: Development, International Cooperation, International Organization, Non-Governmental Organization, United Nations
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Global food prices are up 83 per cent compared with three years ago. The resulting food price crisis constitutes an unprecedented threat to the livelihoods and well-being of millions of rural and urban households who are net food buyers. Around the world, Oxfam International and many of its partners have seen soaring prices force people to eat less food or less nutritious food and drive poor households to cut back on health care, education, and other necessities. Women and children's nutritional levels are particularly vulnerable, as women often put men's consumption before their own.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, Economics, Humanitarian Aid, International Trade and Finance
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Cambodia is one of the most disaster-prone countries in East Asia, with its vulnerability to annual floods and droughts. One of the reasons why it is vulnerable to natural disasters is that the livelihoods of the majority of people depend directly upon natural resources, with a large proportion of its population occupied in agriculture and related sectors, including animal husbandry. Extreme poverty, which limits access to food, water, and other basic amenities, increases vulnerability. These characteristics heighten Cambodia's exposure to the impacts of climate change too. The Mekong region has recently been showing signs of climate change, as illustrated in our previous report on VietNam ('Drought-Management Considerations for Climate-Change Adaptation: Focus on the Mekong Region – Report (VietNam)', October 2007). There is evidence of greater climatic extremes: both declining rainfall in the dry season and more violent rainfall in the wet season, causing flash floods. Increasingly powerful typhoons also appear to be occurring.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Development, Energy Policy, Environment, Non-Governmental Organization
  • Political Geography: East Asia, Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This is the first in a series of three papers that examines the financing of services in developing countries. This paper focuses on external assistance in the form of aid and debt cancellation. The other papers in the series will focus on internal revenues; first, receipts from taxation and then receipts from extractive industries.
  • Topic: Debt, Development, Education, Health, Humanitarian Aid, International Political Economy, Poverty
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It seems impossible that the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) would give advice to developing countries without fully considering how it might affect the lives of poor people. Yet, despite it being a long-stated policy of both institutions to do so, and some recent progress on the part of the IMF, they are still failing to consistently ensure that there is a proper assessment of the likely consequences of different policy actions on the poorest people.
  • Topic: Development, International Cooperation, International Organization, World Bank
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: After two decades of indefensible neglect, agriculture is back on the agenda. The World Bank's publication of the 'World Development Report 2008: Agriculture For Development' (hereafter WDR), the first WD R on agriculture since 1982, reflects this renewed interest in the sector's potential to reduce rural poverty and inequality.
  • Topic: Agriculture, Development, World Bank