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  • Publication Date: 04-2014
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Queen 'Mamohato Memorial Hospital, which opened in October 2011, was built to replace Lesotho's old main public hospital, the Queen Elizabeth II (QE II) Hospital, in the capital, Maseru. It is the first of its kind in Africa – and in any low-income country – because all the facilities were designed, built, financed, and operated under a public – private partnership (PPP) that includes delivery of all clinical services. The PPP was developed under the advice of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private sector investment arm of the World Bank Group. The promise was that the PPP would provide vastly improved, high-quality healthcare services for the same annual cost as the old public hospital.
  • Topic: Economics, International Cooperation, International Organization, International Trade and Finance, Health Care Policy
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Lysa John
  • Publication Date: 06-2014
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In July 2014, a new multilateral and Southern-led development bank is expected to be launched by the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – better known as the BRICS. The BRICS Development Bank will provide a fresh source of finance for developing and emerging economies to meet their development needs. Little has been made public regarding the proposed Bank's core mandate or activities but while governments negotiate the technicalities of the Bank, it is critical that they also provide a solid vision of the principles, priorities and objectives on which the Bank's activities and operations will be premised. This policy brief recommends that these include commitments to: ending extreme poverty and inequality, with a special focus on gender equity and women's rights; aligning with environmental and social safeguards and establishing mechanisms for information sharing, accountability and redress; leadership on the sustainable development agenda; the creation of mechanisms for public consultation and debate; and the adoption a truly democratic governance structure.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Gender Issues, International Cooperation, Poverty
  • Political Geography: Africa, Russia, China, Europe, India, Asia, South Africa, Brazil, South America
  • Author: Scott Stedjan, Colby Goodman
  • Publication Date: 10-2011
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: With the trial of Viktor Bout nearly underway and the UN negotiations on an Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) starting in the summer of 2012, this briefing paper seeks to provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the challenges the US government faces in tackling unscrupulous arms brokers abroad and to show how the adoption of a strong and comprehensive ATT could help the United States and other governments in such efforts.
  • Topic: Arms Control and Proliferation, Crime, International Cooperation, Law Enforcement
  • Political Geography: United States, United Nations
  • Author: Jasmine Burnley
  • Publication Date: 05-2010
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: In Mozambique, the government has a national plan to tackle poverty and inequality, but it cannot finance this plan from national resources alone. Despite this, Mozambique – just 20 years ago the poorest country in the world – has increased its spending on health care by over half, and in the past decade the number of children who die before their fifth birthday has come down by almost 20 percent.
  • Topic: International Cooperation, Poverty, Third World, Foreign Aid
  • Political Geography: Georgia
  • Author: Antonio Hill, Julie-Anne Richards, Richard King
  • Publication Date: 06-2009
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: A fair and adequate global climate regime requires a massive effort across the board to reduce the risks to lives and livelihoods that poor people face first and most. Rich countries must reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions first and fastest, with ambitious targets at home. High levels of rich-country pollution over the last century mean that even ambitious emissions-reductions targets will not be enough to avoid catastrophic climate change. Deep emissions reductions in rich countries are still critical, but climate security will now be won or lost as a result of co-operative efforts in which rich countries finance large-scale reductions in emissions in developing countries. Establishing a Global Mitigation and Finance Mechanism could achieve these reductions while respecting principles of equity, and delivering tangible development gains for poor people. This must be a centre piece of the Copenhagen deal in December 2009. But much greater political attention and support is needed for this vital part of the deal to be developed in time.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Energy Policy, Environment, International Cooperation
  • Author: Matt Waldman
  • Publication Date: 02-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Existing measures to promote peace in Afghanistan are not succeeding. This is not only due to the revival of the Taliban, but also because little has been done to try to ensure that families, communities, and tribes - the fundamental units of Afghan society - get on better with each other. War has fractured the social fabric of the country and, in the context of severe and persistent poverty, local disputes have the potential to turn violent and to exacerbate the wider conflict. But there is no effective strategy to help Afghans deal with disputes in a peaceful and constructive way.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Development, International Cooperation, Non-Governmental Organization, War
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Asia, Taliban
  • Author: Daniel Maxwell, Patrick Webb, Jennifer Coates, James Wirth
  • Publication Date: 04-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: This paper serves as a background document to help frame discussion at the Food Security Forum in Rome, April 2008. It focuses on policy and institutional reform issues centered on the links between chronic and transitory crises. The first part of the paper provides an overview of trends and future challenges. The second considers effectiveness of the “humanitarian system” in addressing food insecurity and whether the current institutional set-up is fit for service. The third part examines links between “chronic” and “transitory” food insecurity, and whether current approaches to prevention and response appropriately bridge these two forms of vulnerability. A concluding section highlights key issues, raising questions on gaps in the humanitarian system's analytical capacity, its programmatic practices, and on food security policy more broadly.
  • Topic: Security, Agriculture, Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation
  • Publication Date: 08-2008
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: “The challenge facing the international community in getting countries on track to achieve the MDGs is considerable, even more so in the face of the global challenges of inequality, climate change and impending insecurity. Global companies have a role to play: their first and most important contribution must be to minimise the negative and maximise the positive impacts of their core business operations on human development.”
  • Topic: Development, International Cooperation, International Organization, Non-Governmental Organization, United Nations
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The International Coffee Agreement (ICA) establishes the only dedicated intergovernmental forum for coffee-related matters: the International Coffee Organization (ICO). The ICO brings together various stakeholders—including coffeeimporting and coffee-exporting countries, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—to discuss, negotiate, and cooperate on shared strategies and policies regarding the global coffee economy.
  • Topic: Agriculture, International Cooperation, International Trade and Finance, Markets, Treaties and Agreements
  • Publication Date: 05-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: There is a deep injustice in the impacts of climate change. Rich countries have caused the problem with many decades of greenhouse-gas emissions (and in the process have grown riche r). But poor countries will be worst affected, facing greater droughts, floods, hunger, and disease.
  • Topic: Climate Change, Environment, International Cooperation
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: It seems impossible that the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) would give advice to developing countries without fully considering how it might affect the lives of poor people. Yet, despite it being a long-stated policy of both institutions to do so, and some recent progress on the part of the IMF, they are still failing to consistently ensure that there is a proper assessment of the likely consequences of different policy actions on the poorest people.
  • Topic: Development, International Cooperation, International Organization, World Bank
  • Publication Date: 12-2007
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The Global Campaign for Education believes that, halfway to the Education For All deadline of 2015, governments are failing their children and jeopardising the lives and prospects of future generations. Their broken promises are cast into sharp relief by this, the first global version of the GCE 'School Report'. Bringing together data from diverse sources it proves what can be done with political will, but how far away the world is from showing the courage of its convictions across the entire EFA agenda, leaving no child or adult behind.
  • Topic: Education, International Cooperation
  • Author: Alex Renton, Robin Palmer
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: On 26 December 2004, an earthquake off the Indonesian island of Sumatra triggered a tsunami that hit the coasts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Malaysia, Burma, the Seychelles, and Somalia.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Malaysia, India, Asia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Somalia
  • Author: Ben Phillips
  • Publication Date: 11-2005
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: The 8 October 2005 earthquake–Pakistan's biggest ever natural disaster–generated sympathy and support from people around the world. The Government of Pakistan reacted swiftly and with remarkable energy. However, major and immediate challenges remain. Six weeks after the earthquake, the response is not yet being organised in a manner that ensures that peoples' rights and needs are being met, according to international humanitarian principles.Donor countries need to provide their fair share of the resources and help required.The international response needs to be co-ordinated and led through a properly resourced, empowered, and staffed UN presence.The continuing relief and reconstruction effort requires civil authority management and civil society participation, and an early handover, where practical, by the military.All those involved in the response have an obligation to ensure not merely the restoration of bearable poverty, but 'reconstruction plus'– to build back better than before. The accountable management of funds and adherence to proper building standards are key to the reconstruction effort.The international community needs to fulfil its obligations not only in the relief phase but in longer-term reconstruction too, through a package of measures on aid and debt.
  • Topic: Disaster Relief, Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, Asia
  • Publication Date: 10-2005
  • Content Type: Policy Brief
  • Institution: Oxfam Publishing
  • Abstract: Every year the lives of millions of people are devastated by natural disasters, conflict and other humanitarian emergencies. 2005 has seen particularly extreme humanitarian emergencies including the tsunami, the Sahel food crisis, and hurricanes Katrina and Stan. Tackling these crises requires a range of actions including immediate humanitarian assistance and long-term development. This short paper focuses on one concrete way in which the global humanitarian response could be improved to help prevent avoidable suffering and death — the upgrading of the existing UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF) to a new Central Emergency Response Fund.
  • Topic: International Relations, Disaster Relief, Humanitarian Aid, International Cooperation
  • Political Geography: United Nations