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  • Author: Arfan Latif, Ahmed Usman, Jafar Riaz Kataria, Muhammad Abdullah
  • Publication Date: 07-2015
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: The objective of the current study is to find out the male’s perception about female political participation. Prior researchers in this area were mostly quantitative hence the current study is a qualitative study to get an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. This study used purposive sampling technique and the findings of the study are based on 20 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions. The study concluded that religious, economic and patriarchal mind-set is the main factors that hinder women in the field of politics. The findings of the current study can be effectively used to make women participate in a more productive way by increasing the awareness at the grass root level and by making appropriate policies and the national level.
  • Topic: Gender Issues, Politics, Women, Inequality
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Azhar Rashid, Muhammad Arshad Watoo
  • Publication Date: 07-2015
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Globalization is a growing phenomenon in the contemporary times when man has become modern in its thinking, actions and evaluation. Growing awareness regarding human rights is not only bringing human into mainstream affairs being major stakeholders indirectly but also greater expectations. This reality of preservation of human rights has brought the issue into legislation to make it law as a written part of the constitution at national, regional and global level in almost all spheres. Consequently, assurance of human fundamental rights is ground reality and written part of all the constitutions of the world. Globalization has transformed the world into a global village where there are commonalities of the cultures, exchange of ideas and free economic approaches are struggling to bring consensus among the world society to protect and preserve the human rights against any violation. World has divided into two blocks global north and global south based on their economic and political capacities. Globalization phenomenon was started by global north so it augurs well for the advancement of their interests while South is less benefited because of having underdeveloped status and weaker rule of law, social, economic and political condition. There are disparities of resources between both the blocks that are why south is suffering and north is maintaining status quo. State like Pakistan being the part and parcel of global south is facing economic and political hurdles where there is no provision of basic human requirements like food, health, education, employment and socio-economic stability. Globalization is north-centered phenomenon and more beneficial for them as compare to south. Globalization has positives and negatives. On one side it is providing awareness about the human rights violations while on other side it seems unable to protect human rights violations. Human rights violation scale is growing in Pakistan where there is nationalistic economy that is anti-thesis of the globalization and free market economy of north. Moreover, weak socio-economic and political conditions in Pakistan causing deprivations and grievance are growing where a specific chunk of society is violating all norms and rules of human rights by using their economic power and social status. In comparison to internationalization of economies under the umbrella of globalization, limited weightage is given to Pakistani exports in international market as compare to exports that proves very costly with the emergence of issue balance of payment that causes severe economic implications on Pakistan economy where social and political sector already going downwards and lacking to provide basic needs of life and fundamental rights. Labor issues and forced labor menace is growing in Pakistan where there are less facilities and larger number of labor and phenomenon of brain drain is growing. Globalization is impacting Pakistan more in a negative way and less in positive way. In this phase of initial years of second decade of twenty first century, human rights violation has decreased due to constitutional protection, media campaigns, role of NGO’s but still long way to go ahead to curb the menace.
  • Topic: Development, Globalization, Human Rights, Labor Issues
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, Punjab
  • Author: Shahida Aman, Muhammad Ayub Jan
  • Publication Date: 07-2015
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: South Asian Studies
  • Institution: Department of Political Science, University of the Punjab
  • Abstract: Although, historically, the first political manifestations of Pakhtun nationalism may be traced to Bayazid Ansari’s (1525-85) Roshani movement (Gregorian, 1969 :43-45; and Misdaq, 2006: 36-39) and Khushal Khan Khattak’s (1513-89) rebellion against the Mughal rule, however, its ethno-nationalist roots are usually mapped out from the pre-partition mobilization of common Pakhtun masses by the Khudai Khidmatgar (servants of the God) movement of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Starting off as a social reform society, the Khudai Khidmatgars metamorphosized into first an anti-colonial nationalist movement, evolving on the eve of partition of India, into one of ethnic nationalism. The post-independence period witnessed calls for attainment of either an independent Pakhtunistan or greater autonomy for the Pakhtun regions within a federal structure of the state. The irredentist trend in Pakhtun ethno-nationalist politics manifested itself in the controversial Pakhtunistan issue that strained relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistani state’s growth and rise in ethnic Pakhtun share in the civil-military bureaucracy witnessed greater integration of Pakhtuns within the polity of Pakistan and a dampening of separatist tendencies in them. Renaming of NWFP as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and extension of provincial autonomy under the 18th Amendment further boosted Pakhtun ethnic integration into the state of Pakistan. More recently, however, Pakhtun ethno-nationalist movement is believed to be assuming a distinct fervor. The rise of Taliban phenomenon in the tribal belt and settled districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been labeled as a violent manifestation of Pakhtun ethnonationalism manifested in an Islamist garb. The paper, besides analyzing the integrationist and the separatist (irredentist) trends in Pakhtun ethno-nationalist politics, also aims at exploring the more recent phenomena of its construction around the conceptual framework of ‘ethnicizing Islam’ in the Pakhtun context. It argues that the current Islamist manifestation of Pakhtun ethno-politics is a product of Pakistani state’s attempts at subduing the irredentist Pakhtun strain (that bothered the state throughout the 1960s and the 1970s in Pakhtunistan issue) through support to the Islamist movement inside Afghanistan, especially in later half of 1970s and in the wake of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This paper analyzes the Pakhtun ethno-nationalist struggle, especially in the earlier decades as a South Asian Studies 30 (2) 232 form of class struggle to attain political power in the state. As such, it primarily adopts a Marxist lens to the problem of ethnic nationalism among the Pakhtuns for the beginning phase of it. Most of the analyses are historical in a sense that the paper traces the history of Pakhtun ethno nationalism in Pakistan. Moreover, the paper does not claim to be a consummate effort, rather it proposes that there are alternative explanations as plausible as this one to understand the issue.
  • Topic: Nationalism, History, Ethnicity, Class
  • Political Geography: Pakistan, South Asia, India, Punjab