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  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: InternationalA1. John Holmes, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, Briefing to the Security Council on the Situation in the Middle East, Geneva, 26 February 2008 (excerpts)Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 37, no. 4 (Summer 2008), p. 159Documents and Source Material John Holmes's briefing emphasizes the dire humanitarian situation in Gaza resulting from Israeli restrictions on the movement of people and goods. Holmes was appointed Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs in January 2007 by UN Secy.-Gen. Ban Kimoon. The full text is available online at www.ochaonline.un.org.
  • Topic: Security, Humanitarian Aid, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Geneva, Middle East
  • Publication Date: 06-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: Reference and General Davidson, Lawrence. "The Attack on Middle East Studies: A Historical Perspective." MEP 15, no. 1 (Spr. 08): 149-60. Dueck, Jennifer M. "The Middle East and North Africa in the Imperial and Post-Colonial Historiography of France." Historical Journal 50, no. 4 (07): 935-50. Firestone, Reuven. "Contextualizing Anti-Semitism in Islam: Chosenness, Choosing, and the Emergence of New Religion." International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies 4, no. 3 (Sep. 07): 235-54. Kahtani, Hani M. "Islamic Architecture: A Reflection of the Political and Social Structure of the State in Islam" [in Arabic]. MA 30, no. 348 (Feb. 08): 27-40. Kirmanj, Sherko. "The Relationship between Traditional and Contemporary Islamist Political Thought." MERIA 12, no. 1 (Mar. 08): 69-82. Kurzman, Charles. "Cross-Regional Approaches to Middle East Studies: Constructing and Deconstructing a Region." MESA 41, no. 1 (Sum. 07): 24-29. Mahmud, Ahmad I. "The Concept of Terrorism: Ambiguous Terms and Suspicious Functions" [in Arabic]. ShA, no. 133 (Spr. 08): 48-64. Yusef, Ayman T. "The Western Stereotype of Islam: Between Extremism and Phobia" [in Arabic]. MAUS, no. 18 (Spr. 08): 117-46. Zurndorfer, Harriet T. "The Orientation of JESHO's Orient and the Problem of 'Orientalism': Some Reflections on the Occasion of JESHO's Fiftieth Anniversary." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 51, no. 1 (08): 2-30. History (tHROUGH 1948) and Geography Adorno, Massimo L. "De Clementi's Report: The Nineteenth Zionist Congress, Lucerne, 1935, as Viewed by an Italian Diplomat." IsA 14, no. 2 (Apr. 08): 288-300. Bernstein, Deborah, and Badi Hasisi. "'Buy and Promote the National Cause': Consumption, Class Formation and Nationalism in Mandate Palestinian Society." Nations and Nationalism 14, no. 1 (Jan. 08): 127-50. Coleman, Simon. "A Tale of Two Centres? Representing Palestine to the British in the Nineteenth Century." Mobilities 2, no. 3 (Nov. 07): 331-45. Dueck, Jennifer M. "A Muslim Jamboree: Scouting and Youth Culture in Lebanon under the French Mandate." French Historical Studies 30, no. 3 (Sum. 07): 485-517. Gal, Allon, and Isaac Lubelsky. "The Disintegration of the British Empire and the Nationalist Cases of India and Israel: A Comparative Analysis." IsA 14, no. 2 (Apr. 08): 165-83. Hametz, Maura E. "Zionism, Emigration, and Antisemitism in Trieste: Central Europe's 'Gateway to Zion,' 1896-1943." Jewish Social Studies 13, no. 3 (Spr./Sum. 07): 103-34. Hanania, Mary. "Jurji Habib Hanania: History of the Earliest Press in Palestine, 1908-1914." JQ, no. 32 (Fall 07): 51-69. Harel, Yaron. "Jewish Nationalism, Zionism, Journalism and Socialism under Faisal's Rule in Damascus" [in Hebrew]. Pe'amim, nos. 111-12 (Spr.-Sum. 07): 103-44. Kabalo, Paula. "Leadership behind the Curtains: The Case of Israeli Women in 1948." Modern Judaism 28, no. 1 (Feb. 08): 14-40. Keren, Shlomit, and Michael Keren. "Chaplain with a Star of David: Reverend Leib Isaac Falk and the Jewish Legions." IsA 14, no. 2 (Apr. 08): 184-201. Mrowat, Ahmad. "Karimeh Abbud: Early Woman Photographer (1896-1955)." JQ, no. 31 (Sum. 07): 72-78. Newsinger, John. "Liberal Imperialism and the Occupation of Egypt in 1882." Race and Class 49, no. 3 (Jan. 08): 54-75. Renton, James. "Changing Languages of Empire and the Orient: Britain and the Invention of the Middle East, 1917-1918." Historical Journal 50, no. 3 (07): 645-68. Wahrman, Jacob, Ron Shafir, and Dror Wahrman. "The Vanishing Station at Sejed: On the History and Significance of the Jaffa-Jerusalem Railroad" [in Hebrew]. Cathedra, no. 125 (Sep. 07): 31-52. Williams, Manuela. "Mussolini's Secret War in the Mediterranean and the Middle East: Italian Intelligence and the British Response." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 6 (Dec. 07): 881-904. Palestinian Politics and Society Ahmed, Hisham H. "Hamas under the Spotlight." Against the Current 22, no. 6 (08): 26-30. Allam, Do`aa H. "Palestinian Crossings: A Complex Problem" [in Arabic]. SD 44, no. 172 (Apr. 08): 140-45. El-Astal, Sofián. "The Values of the Palestinian University Youth." Revista de Psicología Social 23, no. 1 (Jan. 08): 53-61. Azaar, Muhammad K. "Ambiguous Arab Concepts and Prospects: The Case of Palestine" [in Arabic]. ShA, no. 133 (Spr. 08): 114-26. Baqer, Ibrahim. "Does the Left Resist Compromise When the Homeland is Occupied?" [in Arabic]. MA 30, no. 349 (Mar. 08): 73-80. Barghouti, Omar. "Palestine: débâcle du mouvement national et conditions d'une renaissance." Alternatives Sud 14, no. 4 (07): 155-59. Biger, Gideon. "The Boundaries of Israel-Palestine Past, Present, and Future: A Critical Geographical View." IsS 13, no. 1 (Spr. 07): 68-93. Challand, Benoît. "A Nahda of Charitable Organizations? Health Service Provision and the Politics of Aid in Palestine." IJMES 40, no. 2 (May 08): 227-47. Crispino, Franck. "Importance de la preuve scientifique dans la création d'un Etat: l'exemple palestinien." Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique 60, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 07): 455-60. Gross, Zehavit. "Relocation in Rural and Urban Settings: A Case Study of Uprooted Schools from the Gaza Strip." Education and Urban Society 40, no. 2 (08): 269-95. Hamdan, Lubna K., M. Zarei, R.R. Chianelli, et al. "Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip." Renewable Energy 33, no. 6 (08): 1137-46. Hart, Jason. "Dislocated Masculinity: Adolescence and the Palestinian Nation-in-Exile." Journal of Refugee Studies 21, no. 1 (Mar. 08): 64-81. Hasian, Marouf. "Tangled Rhetorical Histories and Competing Political Memories: Remembering Palestine." Review of Communication 7, no. 4 (Oct. 07): 388-95. Hassan-Bitar, Sahar, and Laura Wick. "Evoking the Guardian Angel: Childbirth Care in a Palestinian Hospital." Reproductive Health Matters 15, no. 30 (Nov. 07): 103-13. al-Houdalieh, Salah H. "The Destruction of Palestinian Archaeological Heritage: Saffa Village as a Model." Near Eastern Archaeology 69, no. 2 (Jun. 07): 102-12. Kayyali, Majed. "The Gaza Crisis: What Next for Fatah and Hamas?" [in Arabic]. SD 44, no. 172 (Apr. 08): 136-39. Legrain, Jean-François. "La dynamique de la 'guerre civile' en Palestine." Critique Internationale, no. 36 (Jul.-Sep. 07): 147-65. Lewis, Frank D. "Compensation and the Abandoned Property of the 1948 Palestinian Refugees: Assessment and Implications." Explorations in Economic History 44, no. 4 (Oct. 07): 520-37. Lybarger, Loren D. "For Church or Nation? Islamism, Secular-Nationalism, and the Transformation of Christian Identities in Palestine." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 75, no. 4 (Dec. 07): 777-813. Mavroudi, Elizabeth. "Palestinians and Pragmatic Citizenship: Negotiating Relationships between Citizenship and National Identity in Diaspora." Geoforum 38, no. 1 (Jan. 08): 307-18. Oliver, Kelly. "Palestinian Women Suicide Bombers: 'Débâcles amoureuses'?" Nottingham French Studies 46, no. 3 (Aut. 07): 17-31. Rabinowitz, Dan, and Daniel Monterescu. "Reconfiguring the 'Mixed Town': Urban Transformations of Ethnonational Relations in Palestine and Israel." IJMES 40, no. 2 (May 08): 195-226. Robinson, Glenn E. "The Fragmentation of Palestine." Current History 107, no. 704 (Dec. 07): 421-26. Sa'ar, Amalia. "Contradictory Location: Assessing the Position of Palestinian Women Citizens of Israel." JMEWS 3, no. 3 (Fall 07): 45-74. ---. "Maneuvering between State, Nation, and Tradition: Palestinian Women in Israel Make Creative Applications of Polygyny." Journal of Anthropological Research 63, no. 4 (Win. 07): 515-36. al-Sa`ed, Rashed. "Sustainability of Natural and Mechanized Aerated Ponds for Domestic and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Palestine." Water International 32, no. 2 (Jun. 07): 310-24. Sakkar, Michel. "Palestine: le Hamas après le coup d'état de Gaza." CM, no. 64 (Win. 07): 147-54. Samuel, S., and C. Rajiv. "The Hamas Takeover and its Aftermath." Strategic Analysis 31, no. 5 (Sep. 07): 843-51. Sayigh, Rosemary. "Product and Producer of Palestinian History: Stereotypes of 'Self' in Camp Women's Life Stories." JMEWS 3, no. 2 (Win. 07): 86-105.Signoles, Aude. "Le Hamas, des islamistes au pouvoir." Maghreb-Machrek, no. 194 (08): 39-54.
  • Topic: Ethnic Conflict
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Palestine, North Africa
  • Author: Hilde Henriksen Waage
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: THIS SEPTEMBER marks the fifteenth anniversary of the signing of the Oslo accord that was expected to bring peace to the Middle East. It is doubtful that the date will be widely celebrated. By now it is clear that the 13 September 1993 Declaration of Principles, though it resulted in the creation of a Palestinian self-governing authority, failed to lead to peace. For the Palestinians, it resulted in the parceling of the West Bank, the doubling of Israeli settlers, the construction of a crippling separation wall, a draconian closure regime, and an unprecedented separation between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Far from being celebrated, Oslo in many quarters in the occupied territories and the Palestinian diaspora is at best desperately clung to as a last-ditch legal basis for some form of a Palestinian state, and at worst vilified as the beginning of the end of Palestinian hopes for meaningful sovereignty.
  • Topic: Sovereignty
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine, Gaza, Oslo
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section lists articles and reviews of books relevant to Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Entries are classified under the following headings: Reference and General; History (to 1948) and Geography; Palestinian Politics and Society; Jerusalem; Israeli Politics, Society, and Zionism; Arab and Middle Eastern Politics; International Relations; Law; Military; Economy, Society, and Education; Literature and Art; Book Reviews; and Reports Received.
  • Topic: International Relations, Politics
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Arabia, Jerusalem
  • Author: Marwa Daoudy
  • Publication Date: 10-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of International Affairs
  • Institution: School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University
  • Abstract: In the Middle East “no war is possible without Egypt, and no peace is possible without Syria,” as suggested by former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in the 1970s. From 1991 to 2000, Syria entered into extensive peace negotiations with Israel, another key actor in the Middle East. The objective of this article is to understand these negotiations, which involved periods of intense discord as well as moments of rapprochement. Spectacular progress was made, for instance, between 1993 and 1995, when the “Rabin deposit,” Israel's promise to withdraw from the Golan Heights to the 4 June 1967 border and thus allow Syria to recover access to Lake Tiberias, was proposed to the U.S. mediator. The two actors came close to an agreement but failed to put an end to the Israeli-Syrian conflict at the Shepherdstown negotiations in January 2000 and the Asad-Clinton summit on 26 March 2000 in Geneva. What lessons can be drawn from the process which took place between 1991 and 2000 in terms of the actors' objectives, motivations and perceptions of each other? Why did the talks fail to produce an agreement? What was the weight of water in stimulating or blocking the process?
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East, Israel, Syria, Egypt
  • Author: Henri J. Barkey
  • Publication Date: 12-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Turkey could not have a more vigorous advocate for its quest for European Union accession than the United States. Successive administrations in Washington have strongly asserted that Turkey is an intrinsic part of Europe, that historically and politically, Ankara has played a critical role in the defence of Europe against the Soviet Union and that now it is an indispensable country in bridging the civilisational divide. In the early 1970s, the United States decided to locate Turkey in Europe, bureaucratically speaking of course. Turkey, which used to be in the Near East bureau in the State Department and elsewhere in the bureaucracy, was transferred to the European divisions of the respective administrative agencies. Hence it is perhaps ironic that after arguing for decades that Turkey is a European country, the United States, through its Iraq invasion, has in one bold stroke managed to push Turkey back into the Middle East. Of course, other events, especially Turkish domestic politics, have also played a role in making this perceptual move possible. Simply stated, as United States security concerns shifted east and away from Europe, it was only natural, though far from intentional, that Washington would take Ankara along with it.
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Alan Germani
  • Publication Date: 09-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Objective Standard
  • Institution: The Objective Standard
  • Abstract: Examines the moral ideas of Christopher Hitchens, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, and Richard Dawkins, exposes some curious truths about their ethics, and provides sound advice for theists and atheists alike who wish to discover and uphold a rational, secular morality.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Brian Kaper
  • Publication Date: 05-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Woodrow Wilson School Journal of Public and International Affairs
  • Institution: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University
  • Abstract: The nuclear non-proliferation regime is not as strong as it once was. The international community has had trouble reaching consensus on extending the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). North Korea has succeeded in building a nuclear weapon despite being party to the NPT, and now Iran appears to be on the verge of becoming the second NPT violator of the new millennium. But there is hope for nuclear rollback. The suspected Iranian program is reminiscent of South Africa's previous nuclear weapons program; a program which was disbanded nearly twenty years ago. By looking at the South African experience, the international community could formulate a comprehensive approach to ensure the Middle East does not become the next nuclear hotbed.
  • Political Geography: Middle East, South Africa
  • Author: Jonathan Spyer
  • Publication Date: 03-2008
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Middle East Review of International Affairs
  • Institution: Global Research in International Affairs Center, Interdisciplinary Center
  • Abstract: The 2006 war between Israel and the Lebanese Hizballah organization, known in Israel as the “Second Lebanon War,” and in Lebanon as “the July War,” formed part of a larger strategic confrontation taking place in the Middle East. This confrontation places the United States and its allies in opposition to Iran and its allies and client organizations. Israel is part of the former camp, while Hizballah is part of the latter. The 2006 war was complicated by the fact that the Lebanese government, which acted as an unwilling host to Hizballah, is also an important U.S. regional ally.
  • Political Geography: United States, Iran, Middle East, Israel, Lebanon
  • Author: Susan Waltz
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: World Policy Institute
  • Abstract: Does United States policy indeed represent the gold standard for export controls on small arms, as often asserted? Recent events suggest that it is time for a fresh look at this common claim.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, International Relations, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, Middle East
  • Author: Michael Lynk
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: UN Security Council Resolution 242 endorsed the "inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war" and called for "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied" in the June 1967 war. Since then, a debate has raged over whether these provisions call for a complete Israeli withdrawal, a minor revision of borders, or license for Israel to retain sovereignty over some of the conquered lands. This article argues that the resolution must be read through the lens of international law. A principled legal interpretation clarifies 242's ambiguities on withdrawal and re-establishes the importance of universal rights to a just and durable peace in the Middle East.
  • Topic: Security, Law
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Canada, Israel
  • Author: Omar M. Dajani
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This essay offers an assessment of the extent to which UNSC Resolution 242's procedural and substantive recommendations have facilitated a negotiated settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict. The historical record of each of the mechanisms of the Middle East peace process demonstrates that the mediation mechanism established in 242 was too feeble for the task assigned to it. The resolution's ambiguities and omissions further diminished its value as a tool of dispute resolution, creating confusion about what acceptance of 242 signified, encouraging hard bargaining by the parties, and denying leaders the political cover for necessary compromise.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Arabia
  • Author: Jamil Dakwar
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: UN Security Council Resolution 242, drafted to deal with the consequences of the 1967 war, left the outstanding issues of 1948 unresolved. For the first time, new Israeli conflict-resolution proposals that are in principle based on 242 directly involve Palestinian citizens of Israel. This essay explores these proposals, which reflect Israel's preoccupation with maintaining a significant Jewish majority and center on population and territorial exchanges between Israeli settlements in the West Bank and heavily populated Arab areas inside the green line. After tracing the genesis of the proposals, the essay assesses them from the standpoint of international law.
  • Topic: Security, International Law
  • Political Geography: New York, America, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Leonard Stone
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Within the context of political narratives, this paper surveys the major contours of research on the Republic of Turkey. It looks at research spaces and research directions, or trajectories and at particular contentious spaces – e.g. the concept of national interest. The article further highlights the difference between realist accounts and multidisciplinary models of understanding and interpretation, the interconnectivity of academia and bureaucracy and then proceeds to reconfigure (remap) the Middle East within a Greater Eurasia. Throughout there is an emphasis on shifting context(s). Turkey's own relations with the Middle East are referenced, as are a number of selected research obstacles. The conclusion focuses on key markers in socio-political research into the Republic.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Melkulangara Kumaran Bhadrakumar
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The 85-year-old Turkish state finds itself at a crossroads. But the implications of Erdoğan's final choice go far beyond Turkey's borders. Turkey's standing as a regional powerhouse, its strategic location as a bridge between Europe and the Middle East, its historical and cultural heritage in the Muslim world – all these are bound to come into play in the coming months. The crucial importance of what is unfolding in Turkey lies in that, to quote former Israeli foreign minister Shlomo Ben-Ami in a recent article, "Engaging political Islam will need to be the central part of any successful strategy for the Middle East. Instead of sticking to doomsday prophecies of categorical perspectives that prevent an understanding of the complex fabric of Islamic movements, the West needs to keep the pressure on the incumbent regimes to stop circumventing political reform."
  • Topic: Islam, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Svitlana Khyeda
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This article focuses on the comparative analysis of major regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, countries that are representative of the Muslim Middle East: the Egyptian legal system has served as a pattern for many of the Middle Eastern countries, Shari'a is the primary source of law in Saudi Arabia as in some other Middle Eastern countries and Turkey is a Muslim secular state which adopted more modern version of the civil code system.
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Egypt
  • Author: Joshua W. Walker
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Turkey stands at the threshold of all major trends within its neighborhood and is actively seeking to harness the assets that its geography and historical experiences afford it. As a staunch ally of the United States which has traditionally privileged its "strategic partnership," Turkey's global role has shifted from being a Western geo-strategic military deterrent to an exemplary model of a Muslim-majority, secular, and democratic nation. This article offers an introduction to Turkey's new foreign policy doctrine known as "strategic depth" and then seeks to examine its implications for Turkey's emerging role in Europe, the Middle East, Russia, and Central Asia. In the following sections, this article will outline how Turkey is beginning to realize its full potential as a versatile multiregional and increasingly powerful international actor.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, Europe, Central Asia, Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Mehmet Ogutcu, Xin Ma
  • Publication Date: 07-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: This paper attempts to analyze the expanding energy linkages between China, one of the most dynamic major consumers, the Middle East, a leading petroleum producer, and the CIS, a core non-OPEC emerging producer, not only because they are well established oil exporting regions, but also because of their geopolitical relevance to China as key players in a possible energy corridor linking China with the Gulf at some point in the future. The paper concludes that the economics and geopolitics of energy supply for China dictate different approaches to each of these regions, with the CIS territory ensuring that its energy to be transported across the ocean where China could be vulnerable to potential maritime disruption in the event of serious international disputes, and with the Gulf offering more flexible commercial arrangements.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: China, Middle East
  • Author: Javier Jordán, Fernando M. Mañas
  • Publication Date: 10-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: Las fuerzas de Estados Unidos se encuentran empeñadas en dos teatros bélicos que son escenario de insurgencia y contrainsurgencia: Afganistán e Irak. En ellos los insurgentes combaten, en la mayor parte de los casos, mediante tácticas que evitan el enfrentamiento directo y que, además de asegurar un goteo continuo de bajas norteamericanas y europeas, prolongan el conflicto y les permiten vislumbrar un horizonte de victoria a través de la obstinación. En semejante contexto los artefactos explosivos improvisados VEDs, acrónimo de Improvised Explosive Device) se han convertido en una de las principales armas de los insurgentes. Prueba de ello es que los ataques con IEDs son responsables de gran parte de las muertes sufridas por las fuerzas internacionales desplegadas en Afganistán e Irak. Este paper ofrece un análisis introductorio sobre las características básicas de los IEDs, las principales contramedidas, y las consecuencias estratégicas y políticas de su empleo.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Iraq, Middle East, Asia
  • Author: Volker Perthes
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The summer 2006 war in Lebanon can be perceived through at least five different frames of reference. The US administration saw the war in Lebanon as a local manifestation of the global war on terror. According to this framework, Hezbollah is an Al Qaeda-type enemy, not a national group with a local agenda and constituency; bargaining with Hezbollah is not possible. This point of view makes fighting global terror more difficult and jeopardises the search for stability and peace in the region. Many Israeli and European politicians saw the war as a confrontation between radical Islam and a modern Israeli state, a clash of cultures between Islamic fundamentalists and Western civilisation. This frame of reference, however, fails to recognise the fault line within the Muslim world itself, between those who want to integrate their societies into a globalised world and those who do not. The conflict in Lebanon can also be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of a state, a framework which underlines the need to strengthen Arab institutions, or as an asymmetrical war between an armed nation state and a guerrilla movement. Finally, the war in Lebanon can be seen as a conflict over power, land, resources and sovereignty - the classic realist perspective. If the international community fails to work toward a comprehensive peace settlement in the Middle East, another framework will gain strength in the Arab world: one that interprets events according to a theory of non-negotiable conflicts between Western imperialism and radical Islamic resistance.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Middle East, Israel, Arabia, Lebanon