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  • Author: Melkulangara Kumaran Bhadrakumar
  • Publication Date: 01-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: The 85-year-old Turkish state finds itself at a crossroads. But the implications of Erdoğan's final choice go far beyond Turkey's borders. Turkey's standing as a regional powerhouse, its strategic location as a bridge between Europe and the Middle East, its historical and cultural heritage in the Muslim world – all these are bound to come into play in the coming months. The crucial importance of what is unfolding in Turkey lies in that, to quote former Israeli foreign minister Shlomo Ben-Ami in a recent article, "Engaging political Islam will need to be the central part of any successful strategy for the Middle East. Instead of sticking to doomsday prophecies of categorical perspectives that prevent an understanding of the complex fabric of Islamic movements, the West needs to keep the pressure on the incumbent regimes to stop circumventing political reform."
  • Topic: Islam, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Volker Perthes
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The summer 2006 war in Lebanon can be perceived through at least five different frames of reference. The US administration saw the war in Lebanon as a local manifestation of the global war on terror. According to this framework, Hezbollah is an Al Qaeda-type enemy, not a national group with a local agenda and constituency; bargaining with Hezbollah is not possible. This point of view makes fighting global terror more difficult and jeopardises the search for stability and peace in the region. Many Israeli and European politicians saw the war as a confrontation between radical Islam and a modern Israeli state, a clash of cultures between Islamic fundamentalists and Western civilisation. This frame of reference, however, fails to recognise the fault line within the Muslim world itself, between those who want to integrate their societies into a globalised world and those who do not. The conflict in Lebanon can also be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of a state, a framework which underlines the need to strengthen Arab institutions, or as an asymmetrical war between an armed nation state and a guerrilla movement. Finally, the war in Lebanon can be seen as a conflict over power, land, resources and sovereignty - the classic realist perspective. If the international community fails to work toward a comprehensive peace settlement in the Middle East, another framework will gain strength in the Arab world: one that interprets events according to a theory of non-negotiable conflicts between Western imperialism and radical Islamic resistance.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Middle East, Israel, Arabia, Lebanon
  • Author: Laetitia Bucaille
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: This article analyses the impact of suicide attacks on the Israeli-Palestinian conflictual relation. Taking Palestinian violence into account, Israeli narratives reinforce or reinvent self-perceptions and visions of the enemy. Palestinian suicide-attacks give rise to an existential fear among Israelis despite the military and economic superiority of the Jewish State in the region. The deep feeling of insecurity fuels a narrative of victimhood and strengthens the security prism. Promoted by political and military decisions-makers and imposing itself in the Israeli society, it supplants a political approach based on the will to find a compromise with the adversary. Anxiety contributes to demonize Palestinians and to diffuse a Manichaean vision in which the Israelis embody the Good and the Just. On this basis, divergent voices are excluded, sometimes at the price of a renunciation to some moral values.
  • Political Geography: Israel, France, Palestine
  • Author: Serhat Erkmen
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Turkish-Israeli relations, which are important in the Middle East, were excellent in the mid-l990s but suffered from ups and downs between 2000 and 2005. Turkish-Israeli relations, which celebrated their “golden age” after 1996, reached their lowest point in 2003-2004. This can be explained by changes in the balances between countries in the Middle East and by internal factors in the two countries. It can be argued that the “golden age,” which began with the birth and strengthening of a shared threat perception, deteriorated in the absence of the threat perception. This article examines the structural and conjunctional factors in Turkish-Isreali relations and attempts to predict how those factors may affect Turkish-Israeli relations in the near future.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East, Israel
  • Author: Michael Bell
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Debate over the construction of the West Bank separation barrier has been ongoing and acrimonious since its inception in June 2002, when the Israeli government announced its intention to erect a fence to control strictly Palestinian entry into Israel and thereby impede terrorist activity directed against the citizens of the Jewish state. Strikes by Palestinian terrorists groups, most notably the fundamentalist Hamas and Islamic Jihad, had reached unparalleled levels against the civilian population following the commencement of the Palestinian uprising against Israel, the Al Aqsa Intifada, in the fall of 2000.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Moshe Hirsch
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The recent International Court of Justice (ICJ) advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory stirred widespread interest in the international community and in Israel. The Opinion includes judicial statements regarding controversial questions that lie at the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, such as the legal status of the West Bank and the Palestinians' right of self-determination. Following a brief survey of the central legal rules arising from the Court's Opinion, the article will examine the expected impacts of the Opinion on Israel's future policy regarding the separation barrier's route and the West Bank.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Ed Morgan
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The response by Israel's Foreign Minister to the International Court of Justice's advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has struck a chord that echoes with history. As Silvan Shalom put it, in condemning his state's defences the Court has condemned its own set of legal norms, in the process becoming 'equally guilty of betrayal.' Other commentators, pointing to the failure of the Court to address the catalogue of violence presented in the Israeli submissions, have accused the United Nations of 'a betrayal of its Charter commitment to peace and security.' It is as if in denying Israel's claim to self-defence with respect to the barrier that snakes along the Green Line and through the West Bank, the Court has both sentenced the country to death and sealed its own fate as a normative authority.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Erdem Denk
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study the advisory opinion given by the ICJ regarding the wall being constructed by Israel in the occupied territories. The Court has found that the wall, which is, according to Israel, being constructed due to security consideraions regard,ng terrorist attacks of various Palestinian gropus, is contarry to various principles and rules of international law. The basic justification of the decision is the fact that the wall is being constructed on areas which have the status of "occupied territories". The Court, which wasted the opportunity to assess the relationship between law and the struggle against terrorism, has also failed to deal sufficiently with the merits of the case althought it dwelled on every objection of Israel regarding procedural matters. Although it is a quite apt judgement,the rather general and abstract conclıisons regarding the mertis of the case gave those who criticised the judgement some space to base thier arguments. The Court should have given much more importance to its legal reasonnig regarding concrete breaches of Israel.
  • Topic: International Law
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine