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  • Author: Nicolas Fischer
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: Parmi les espaces d'internement destinés aux étrangers qui se multiplient aujourd'hui en Europe, les centres de rétention administrative présentent la particularité de se trouver directement au contact des sociétés occidentales, mais aussi de leurs espaces publics. Ces centres s'insèrent alors dans un dispositif plus général de détection des étrangers présents irrégulièrement sur le territoire des Etats Schengen. Il doivent à ce titre permettre de prélever sur eux une information favorisant leur éloignement du territoire ou tout au moins leur « traçabilité ». A travers l'exemple d'un centre de rétention français, cette contribution s'efforce d'analyser l'organisation de ce prélèvement de l'information, mais elle envisage également la manière dont cette organisation est infléchie voire déjouée par la possibilité d'un contact non formalisé et non maîtrisé des étrangers retenus avec l'espace public dont ils ont été retranchés, notamment à travers le transport de l'information par les équipiers de la Cimade présents au centre.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Claire Rodier, Catherine Teule
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: La République de Malte, située à mi-chemin entre le continent européen et l'Afrique, est depuis toujours à la croisée des circuits migratoires. Avec l'élargissement du 1er mai 2004, Malte est devenue une des portes d'entrée de l'Union européenne pour des centaines de personnes qui échouent par choix ou plus souvent par hasard sur ses plages. Pour faire face à ce phénomène, les autorités maltaises ont mis en œuvre une politique d'enfermement systématique des étrangers qui arrivent irrégulièrement, y compris lorsqu'il s'agit de demandeurs d'asile. Les conditions matérielles de détention ne répondent pas aux standards minimums en matière d'hygiène et de respect de la vie privée. Ceux qui sollicitent l'asile sont soumis à un régime incompatible avec les normes internationales. Par ailleurs, même si Malte accorde un certain nombre de permis de séjour à caractère humanitaire, la sortie des « camps » ne se traduit pas par une intégration dans le pays, où aucune politique d'accueil des réfugiés n'est organisée. La plupart d'entre eux rejoignent donc d'autres pays de l'UE où ils ont vocation à devenir sans-papiers. Mais c'est bien de l'Union européenne que dépendent les solutions pour éviter que Malte ne transforme sa politique de contrôle des frontières en machine répressive aux seules fins de dissuader les réfugiés.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Abdelkrim Belguendouz
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: The political evolution of Europe, the anti-migration policies of European States, and those called "justice, liberty, security" (JLS) weight more and more on the Maghreb countries. Through cooperation and dominated partnerships, Europe imposes its neighbours to subcontract the tracking down, dissuasion and moving away of migrants. Having a financial interest in such collaboration Morocco becomes, as its neighbour countries, an advanced experimentation terrain for the logics of repression and locking of those who exile towards Europe. The euro Mediterranean relations are therefore increasingly oriented by this fight against immigration.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe, Morocco
1284. Foreword
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Didier Bigo
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: This article suggests a discussion on the premises on which rest a specific vision of global (in)security – as a "natural" consequence of the attacks suffered by the US, Australia, Turkey, Spain, and very recently the United-Kingdom – and the corollary of a unique and efficient solution: the globalisation of security professionals and their cooperation against barbarism. Referring to Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault's works, the author tries to understand when and how this discourse on the "globalisation of (in)security" developed through the notions of field of the professionals of unease management and of transnationalisation of (in)securisation processes. A particular attention is given to the way in which these processes are linked to the transformations of political violence but also to the European and Transatlantic development of the police, military, and intelligence agencies, to their structuration in a professional field, and to their effects on our societies of risk, doubt, and uncertainty. Cet article se propose de discuter les prémisses sur lesquelles repose une certaine vision de l'insécurité globale – conséquence « naturelle » des attentats ayant frappé les Etats-Unis, l'Australie, la Turquie, l'Espagne et tout récemment le Royaume-Uni – et le corollaire d'une solution efficace unique : la mondialisation des professionnels de la sécurité et leur collaboration contre la barbarie. Prenant appui sur les travaux de Pierre Bourdieu et de Michel Foucault, l'auteur se propose de comprendre quand et comment s'est développé ce discours sur la « mondialisation de la sécurité » à travers les notions de champ des professionnels de la gestion des inquiétudes, et de transnationalisation des processus d'(in)sécurisation. Une attention particulière est portée sur la manière dont ces processus sont liés aux transformations de la violence politique mais aussi au développement européen et transatlantique des appareils policiers, militaires, de renseignement, à leur structuration en un champ professionnel, et à leurs effets sur nos sociétés du risque, du doute, de l'incertitude.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Turkey, Spain, Australia
  • Author: Valsamis Mitsilegas
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: Recent years witnessed calls for the intensification of surveillance and the monitoring of people globally. This article will examine this intensification of surveillance in the European Union, by analysing legislation requiring carriers to transmit to immigration authorities passenger data, an agreement between the Community and the US on the transfer of passenger name records (PNR) to US authorities, and EU plans to introduce biometrics in passports and visas and enhance the interoperability of EU databases (such as SIS and VIS). These developments, justified by a 'war on terror' discourse, widen the net of surveillance and raise a number of questions regarding legitimacy, democracy and the protection of fundamental rights in the EU. They also appear to be at odds with the concept of the EU as a borderless area. The article will address these issues by analysing the negotiations, content and implications of these initiatives. Ces dernières années les demandes d'intensification de la surveillance et des contrôles du mouvement des personnes au niveau mondial se sont développées. Cet article examine cette intensification de la surveillance au sein de l'UE en analysant la législation obligeant les transporteurs à fournir les données personnelles des passagers aux services d'immigration, un accord entre l'UE et les Etats-Unis sur le transfert des « passenger name records » (PNR) aux autorités américaines, et les plans européens d'introduction de données biométriques aux passeports et visas et d'amélioration de l'interopérabilité des bases de données européennes (SIS et VIS notamment). Ces développements, justifiés par un discours de « guerre au terrorisme », élargissent le réseau de la surveillance et soulèvent un certain nombre de questions sur la légitimité, la démocratie, et la protection des droits fondamentaux dans l'UE. Ils apparaissent également en décalage avec le concept de l'UE comme espace sans frontières. Ce texte abordera ces questions en analysant les négociations, le contenu et les implications de telles initiatives.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Europe
1287. Foreword
  • Publication Date: 06-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: In the current context of the "global war against terrorism", the doctrines of national security are being extended to the whole of the world. They are one of the dimensions of the new dynamics of exception putting security in the forefront as the most central value, thus relegating liberty and justice to past times. Through the presentation of the research initiated by three teams of the European programme ELISE (European Liberty and Security), this new issue of Cultures Conflits tries to shed new light on these security dynamics. It tries to rearticulate the relations between practices of exception and logics of enmity and suspicion. This issue replaces the current focus on the analysis of the 9/11 attacks and the finding of an easily accessible explanation by a focus on the understanding of antiterrorist policies and of their consequences on social cohesion. Thus the contributions of this issue shed new and more critical light on these political “responses” that lead some to present as “new” what is not. They show that by adopting a very broad definition of emergency, these responses transform suspicion into a “certainty” and this “certainty” into a proof of guiltiness.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures & Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures & Conflits
  • Abstract: In France as in Brazil, violence and its modes of usage are thesubject of vivid and intense debates. The acts of violence inquestion have, however, little in common. The authors of this newissue of Cultures Conflits propose to examine the terms of thesedebates that feature and combine in complex shapes myths of nationaldemocracies, media representations, and the (in)abilities of thestate to effectively regulate the social sphere. These Franco-Brazilian dialogues on violence and democracy are part of a largercultural exchange linking since long Latin America and Europe - as Glauber Rocha and Roberto Rossellini remind us. An asymetricexchange, if any, marked by the feeling of being perpetually trappedin an unfinished development. This has, however, never prevented themto show significant inventive capacities, .Confllictual dialogue, useful when the (re)discovery of self isdeveloped through the mirror of the other.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Europe, Brazil
  • Author: Gérard Grunberg
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The 29 May 2005 referendum on the ratification of the European Constitution marks an important date for French political history since the beginning of the Fifth Republic. The widespread victory of the "no" vote requires an interpretation that takes into account the different dimensions of this event. One such dimension is the political context, which played a large role insofar as the referendum took place in a period when the government was particularly unpopular and when, more generally, the political class was suffering from the public's growing distrust. A second and key element was the deep division of the Socialist party, whose leadership was unable to wage a campaign offensive in favor of a "yes" vote. In general, the proponents of the "yes" vote--the major parties of the Right and the Socialist party, as well as the Greens--were incapable of offering voters a truly positive and convincing argument in favor of the Constitution. On the other hand, the proponents of the "no" vote, especially on the Left, succeeded in convincing voters that the social and economic crisis in France (particularly unemployment) was due to "liberal globablization" and that the European Union, far from combatting globalization's effects, was in reality an implicated actor. The campaign played a large role in a context where public opinion wavered right up until the end. The results underscored the massive "no" vote of the working classes, which poses a formidable problem for the principal pro- European parties. The "French no," which will have major repercussions on French political life, brought to an end the process of European political integration as it had developed over the last twenty years.
  • Topic: Globalization
  • Political Geography: Europe, France
  • Author: A. Füsun Arsava
  • Publication Date: 03-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Although the founding treaties of the European Communities were not declared as the founding treaties of a legal community, they had the features of a constitution from the beginning onward. The constitutional features of the founding treaties were concrete facts especially regarding principles of state of law included in the treaties. But the order of law that stemmed from the current founding treaties was complex. That development came into being without the will of the European peoples. The ultimate goal of the EU Constitution today is to complete the process of constitutionalization with the contribution of European peoples. The more the constitution stresses upon the priority of law, democracy, fundamental rights, freedoms as constitutional principles and the more it shapes institutional structure on democratic foundations, the faster the constitutionalization process will be complete and the discussion about the legitimacy of the EU will come to an end. That will make the acceptance of the EU law beyond any doubt.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: Europe