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  • Author: Javier Jordán, Humberto Trujillo
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: The Spanish mass media have transmitted during the past weeks various news concerning the presence of jihadist activities in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla (two enclaves of Spain in North Africa): including the detention of suspected jihadists implicated in the terrorist attack of Casablanca in May 2003; the expulsion from the Spanish Army of three members belonging to professional troops for their supposed sympathy with radical Islam; and the appearance of a declaration on a internet forum from a group called Nadim al-Magrebi, calling for jihad against Spain and demanding expressively for the 'liberation' of both cities through terrorist attacks.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Spain, North Africa
  • Author: Kristen Stromberg Childers
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In late May 2005, French voters resoundingly defeated a proposal to adopt a new constitution for the European Union, voting 55 percent to 45 percent to reject a document in which President Jacques Chirac had invested more than a little of his personal political capital. While there were many reasons cited for this negative vote, one issue that surfaced frequently in discussions of the constitution was the French people's concern for their social security benefits and the fear that "liberal" and "Anglo-Saxon" models of the welfare state might come to dominate the EU and would threaten France's hard-won social rights. Here, of course, "liberal" referred to a model of unrelenting laissez-faire economics, rather than the moniker hurled in contemporary American political debates. It is highly significant that the deathblow to the constitution should come from France, where the EU symbolized for many a chance to regain grandeur on the international scene and an opportunity to counterbalance the "hyperpower" of the United States.
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, France
  • Author: François Lagrange
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Testimonies and historical analyses often identify the experiences of the combatants of the “Great War” to sacrifices. Nothing links them, at first looks, to the defined features of voluntary death (kamikazes or suicide-bombings). However some elements allow, at the margins, for example in the frame of the French experiences of WWI, to see common traits between the discourses on self-sacrifice on the one hand, voluntary death on the other. An analysis of the conceptions of military authors before 1914 allows reconstructing their radical vision of self-sacrifice in war leading to a valorisation of “certain death”. A complementary investigation reveals, at the beginning of the “Great War”, some cases of “certain death”. Although limited in number, these borderline-cases are significant. They shall not be overlooked in the comparative approach of the different senses and practices of self-sacrifice.
  • Topic: War, History
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Sylvia Preuss-Laussinotte
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Cet article traite des questions juridiques posées par les bases de données personnelles dans le cadre du recours aux technologies de sécurité, notamment en Europe. La relation entre sécurité et démocratie étant centrale, l'Union européenne a fait le choix de placer cette question sous l'angle du respect des droits fondamentaux. Mais, si la protection de la vie privée et son développement sous forme d'une protection spécifique des données personnelles semble précise dans les textes, dans les faits, elle apparaît comme très formelle et peu efficace, surtout dans le cadre des fichiers de sécurité. A cela s'ajoute une série de dysfonctionnements techniques non résolus et des problèmes soulevés par la transformation des données biométriques en véritables données publiques, stockées dans un nombre considérable de systèmes informatiques. Ces risques sont renforcés par l'objectif d'interconnexion de l'ensemble des fichiers de sécurité au niveau européen.
  • Topic: Security, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Sylvia Preuss-Laussinotte
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Cet article vise à analyser, sous l'angle juridique, le rôle de l'Union européenne dans le choix des technologies de sécurité, choix qui s'est essentiellement traduit par le recours à la biométrie et aux bases de données, deux éléments indissociables. Ce choix l'a été dans un objectif de « cohérence juridique » présenté comme nécessaire pour l'élaboration d'une politique européenne de sécurité. Mais la réalisation de cet objectif reste contraint par une série de décisions extérieures à l'Union, notamment celles des Etats-Unis et de l'OACI. Il se heurte de plus à la réticence de certains Etats, et à la difficulté de mise en œuvre de cette « cohérence juridique », même en créant un « principe de disponibilité » complexe entre les Etats.
  • Topic: Security, Science and Technology
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Les dynamiques de la coopération judiciaire sont des enjeux forts pour l'Europe. Elément fondamental du champ de la sécurité, notamment en termes de légitimation du pouvoir de police, le processus d'européanisation du pouvoir judiciaire renvoie aux questions existantes entre les problématiques européennes et les interrogations sur la gouvernementalité internationale de la sécurité.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Africa, Europe
  • Author: Samuel Azubuike
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The aftermath of the invasion of Iraq has been characterised by continued instability and insecurity. In the midst of all this certain questions have been recurrently asked.Why has Tony Blair, given such unwavering support to the US invasion of Iraq, againts the wishes of the UN, Britain's key European partners, and a majority of public opinion? What, in short, is the overwhelming British interest that an invasion was supposed to protect? This essay argues that the key to understanding Britain's persistent support of the US lies mainly in the notion of the "special relationship".
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Britain, United States, Iraq, Europe
  • Author: Ramazan Gözen
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article analyses the rapprochement process between Turkey and the EU which has been developing since the 1999 Helsinki Summit and especially in the wake of the US invasion of Iraq. As a result of differing perceptions of Turkey and the EU in the post Cold War, the Turkey-EU membership process had faced a deep "structural" crisis. However, after some important changes in the years from 1999-2003, Turkey and the EU rediscovered, and approached eachother in such a way that it is incomperable with the past. The basic character of this rapprochement is the strategic transformation in perceptions.
  • Topic: Cold War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, Europe, Turkey
  • Author: Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Même dans des moments fondateurs de la démocratisation au Brésil, comme pendant les deux décennies suivant 1985, les vestiges de l'autoritarisme persistent. Je discute ici les questions relatives aux garanties constitutionnelles, en particulier les droits civils, et le fonctionnement du pouvoir judiciaire et de la police, en essayant d'attirer l'attention sur la violence endémique et les violations systématiques des droits humains sous les gouvernements constitutionnels démocratiques, en particulier des années 1990 à nos jours. J'y examine les efforts déployés au Brésil par le gouvernement et la société civile en vue d'un élargissement de la jouissance des droits de la personne à toute la population. Enfin, cet essai comporte également un témoignage sur mon bref passage au gouvernement fédéral du Brésil.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Democratization
  • Political Geography: Europe, France, Brazil
  • Author: Claudio Zanotelli
  • Publication Date: 09-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: This article aims at understanding how homicides are distributed within the social space and the urban territory. The main questioning is to know whether homicides are linked to urban fragmentation and to the socioeconomic differentiations between the districts composing the town of Vitoria in the Brazilian State of Espirito Santo. We analyse homicides as revealing the marginalised populations'regulation. The article also deals with the question of homicide related data gathering and police behaviour.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Crime
  • Political Geography: Europe, France, Brazil, South America