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  • Author: G. John Ikenberry, Adam P. Liff
  • Publication Date: 01-2015
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Security
  • Institution: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University
  • Abstract: In the post–Cold War period, scholars have considered the Asia Pacific to be ripe for military competition and conflict. Developments over the past decade have deepened these expectations. Across the region, rising military spending and efforts of various states to bolster their military capabilities appear to have created an increasingly volatile climate, along with potentially vicious cycles of mutual arming and rearming. In this context, claims that China's rapid economic growth and surging military spending are fomenting destabilizing arms races and security dilemmas are widespread. Such claims make for catchy headlines, yet they are rarely subject to rigorous empirical tests. Whether patterns of military competition in the Asia Pacific are in fact attributable to a security dilemma–based logic has important implications for international relations theory and foreign policy. The answer has direct consequences for how leaders can maximize the likelihood that peace and stability will prevail in this economically and strategically vital region. A systematic empirical test derived from influential theoretical scholarship on the security dilemma concept assesses the drivers of bilateral and multilateral frictions and military competition under way in the Asia Pacific. Security dilemma–driven competition appears to be an important contributor, yet the outcome is not structurally determined. Although this military competition could grow significantly in the near future, there are a number of available measures that could help to ameliorate or manage some of its worst aspects.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Cold War
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Dylan Kissane
  • Publication Date: 02-2015
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Central European University Political Science Journal
  • Institution: Central European University
  • Abstract: If there is one issue in contemporary international relations that continues to provoke interest in academic and policy making circles alike it is how states, regions and the world should react to a rising China. While the influence of the People's Republic is being felt from Africa and the Global South through to the developed economies of North America and Europe, it is in East Asia where a re-emerging China has most focused the minds of diplomats and strategists, leaders and scholars and, indeed, the military men and women who must navigate this increasingly precarious great power polity. Within this East Asian context this new volume by David Martin Jones, Nicholas Khoo and MLR Smith delivers thoughtful and attentive analysis to the problem of responding to China's rise. The book is neither a historical account of the rise of China, though it does offer sufficient historical contextualisation for the reader, or another collection of prescriptive policy suggestions, though there are clear conclusions made about which regional and state strategies have best dealt with the rise of the Sinic superpower. Instead, this book is a theoretically informed, consistently argued and well written account of how states in a broadly defined East Asia have and continue to react to the changing security environment that confronts them in the first decades of the twenty-first century.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Economics, Environment
  • Political Geography: Africa, China, America, Asia
  • Author: Motoshi Suzuki
  • Publication Date: 11-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: The Northeast Asian region has attracted at least two types of international relations analyses. A first type focuses primarily on military and hard security and investigates changes in states' power and the politics of coercion, balance of power, and alliances. A second type is interested in cross-border economic activities, regional interdependence, and institutionalization and then examines the states' policies of development, trade, money, and technology, as well as the politics of institutional building and reform. T.J. Pempel's edited volume synthesizes the two approaches by viewing the mutually shaping interactions between economics and security as a major feature of regional politics. The book is a fruit of collaborative efforts by American, Japanese, South Korean, and Chinese scholars who provide in-depth analyses of recent developments in the region.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, Reform
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, America, Asia, South Korea, London
  • Author: Tobias Brandner
  • Publication Date: 11-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs
  • Institution: German Institute of Global and Area Studies
  • Abstract: This article surveys the complex ecumenical, missionary and international church relations of Chinese Protestant Christians. It argues that the inter-church relations to other parts of Asia are overshadowed by relations to Christians in the West, thus reflecting a political preoccupation with relationships to the West. This is evidenced by an analysis of worldwide and Asian ecumenism as well as bilateral church and missionary relationships. The dominance of contacts with the West not only contradicts the idea of a multipolar world and increased South-South contacts, it also stands in contrast to the reality of growing and increasingly important Christianity in Asia. Methodologically, this paper analyses different kinds of international relations (multilateral and bilateral, inter-church and missionary) and develops a typology of different interchurch and inter-state relations to assess international church relations in Asia today. The typology shows how China's international church relations support its political relationships with its neighbours and beyond.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: China, Asia
  • Author: Zdeněk Ludvík
  • Publication Date: 06-2013
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Obrana a strategie (Defence Strategy)
  • Institution: University of Defence
  • Abstract: The realm of privatization of security and the consequent existence of private military companies is an important constitutive element of security with regard to international relations. This phenomenon is most strongly developed in the Anglo-Saxon world. However, in the case of the French Republic, we can observe significant developmental and functional disparities. This paper examines externalization processes in the context of the French approach to the legitimacy, legality and territoriality of the privatization of security functions of the state and explains the different causes of their development. It discusses the main aspects of externalization, defines the typical activities of French private military companies, describes their strengths and weaknesses and outlines the problems and possible solutions that lie before the French, which cannot be ignored in the future. Finally, this paper describes the most important French private military companies and their characteristics.
  • Topic: International Relations, Security, NATO, United Nations
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Europe, Iran, Middle East, Asia, France, Arabia
  • Author: Nicholas D. Anderson, Victor D. Cha
  • Publication Date: 12-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Washington Quarterly
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: Is revolution similar to the Arab Spring possible in North Korea? The answer from most scholars and intelligence analysts has been “no”—that the Pyongyang regime's stability in the aftermath of the events in the Middle East and North Africa is an “old question” that was answered in the 1990s when the DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea, North Korea) faced the most critical test of its life, and survived. The collapse of the Soviet Union, the drastic cuts in patron aid from China, and the onset of famine that killed hundreds of thousands all constituted the ultimate test of DPRK stability, and the regime staggered on through it all. Thus, the assumption is that the Arab Spring has little relevance to the DPRK. The scholarly literature tends to support this assessment. Scholars like Georgetown University's Daniel Byman have argued that Kim Jong-il has effectively “coup-proofed” himself through an elaborate system of patronage, bribery, and draconian rule.
  • Topic: International Relations, Arab Spring
  • Political Geography: Asia, North Korea, Asia-Pacific
  • Author: Patrick Chabal
  • Publication Date: 09-2012
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Affairs
  • Institution: Chatham House
  • Abstract: An ever more pressing issue in the social sciences today is the question of standpoint. From where do social scientists identify and analyse the problems they wish to understand and explain? Which theories do they deploy and why? And what concepts do they use to achieve enlightening results? This question is more often than not elided, both because we feel secure in the use of the standard theories we employ, and because we are not accustomed to think critically about the matter of standpoint, or perspective. Having acquired the theoretical tools of our discipline, we are not tempted to re-examine their merit whenever we embark on our analytical journeys. However, there are now voices calling into question this unthinking use of social, political and economic theories. Two critiques are particularly significant. The first is that which challenges social theory on the grounds that it is the theoretical tool of the West, or North, which is blind to the fact that, in the words of Edward Saïd, it is 'Orientalist'. The second is that which disputes the 'scientific' nature of the so-called social sciences.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Yu Bin
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Comparative Connections
  • Institution: Center for Strategic and International Studies
  • Abstract: Tensions on the Korean Peninsula preoccupied both Russia and China as the two Koreas edged toward war at the end of 2010. Unlike 60 years ago when both Beijing and Moscow backed Pyongyang in the bloody three-year war, their efforts focused on keeping the delicate peace. The worsening security situation in Northeast Asia, however, was not China”s only concern as Russia was dancing closer with NATO while its “reset” with the US appeared to have yielded some substance. Against this backdrop, Chinese Premier Wen Jiaobao traveled to Moscow in late November for the 15th Prime Ministers Meeting with his counterpart Vladimir Putin. This was followed by the ninth SCO Prime Ministers Meeting in Dushanbe Tajikistan. By yearend, Russia”s oil finally started flowing to China through the 900-km Daqing-Skovorodino branch pipeline, 15 years after President Yeltsin first raised the idea.
  • Topic: International Relations, NATO
  • Political Geography: Russia, China, Asia, Tajikistan, Korea
  • Author: Ching-Chang Chen
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: This paper critically examines an ongoing debate in International Relations (IR) as to why there is apparently no non-Western IR theory in Asia and what should be done to 'mitigate' that situation. Its central contention is that simply calling for greater incorporation of ideas from the non-West and contributions by non-Western scholars from local 'vantage points' does not make IR more global or democratic, for that would do little to transform the discipline's Eurocentric epistemological foundations. Re-envisioning IR in Asia is not about discovering or producing as many 'indigenous' national schools of IR as possible, but about reorienting IR itself towards a post-Western era that does not reinforce the hegemony of the West within (and without) the discipline. Otherwise, even if local scholars could succeed in crafting a 'Chinese (or Indian, Japanese, Korean, etc.) School', it would be no more than constructing a 'derivative discourse' of Western modernist social science.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Japan, India, Asia, Korea
  • Author: Sung-Han Kim, Geun Lee
  • Publication Date: 01-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: This study delves into an empirical case analysis of the desecuritization process of the North Korean threat under the Kim Dae-jung government. Unlike previous studies, it analyzes how domestic and international actors desecuritized traditional threats by taking the pluralistic political processes of a democratic polity seriously. This was the process of competition between different political coalitions and the process of transformation from issues of high politics into issues of low politics. It remains to be seen whether the Kim Dae-jung government's desecuritization of North Korean threats was a deep or a shallow one, but it appears to be clear that the desecuritization of North Korean threats by the Kim Dae-jung government paved the way for another 5 years of progressive government with Roh Moo-hyun's 'unexpected' victory in the 2002 presidential election.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Asia, North Korea
  • Author: Muthiah Alagappa
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: This article investigates and explains the development of International Relations studies (IRS) in China, Japan, and India. Beginning in early 1980s IRS experienced exponential growth in China and is becoming a separate discipline in that country. Despite early starts, IRS in Japan and India is still an appendage in other disciplinary departments, programs, and centers although growing interest is discernible in both countries. Continued rise of Asian powers along with their growing roles and responsibilities in constructing and managing regional and global orders is likely sustain and increase interest in IRS in these countries and more generally in Asia. Distinctive trajectories have characterized the development of IRS in China, Japan, and India. Distinctiveness is evident in master narratives and intellectual predispositions that have shaped research and teaching of IR in all three countries. The distinct IRS trajectories are explained by the national and international context of these countries as well as the extensiveness of state domination of their public spheres. Alterations in national circumstances and objectives along with changes in the international position explain the master narratives that have focused the efforts of IR research communities. Extensiveness of state domination and government support, respectively, explain intellectual predispositions and institutional opportunities for the development of IRS. IRS in Asia has had a predominantly practical orientation with emphasis on understanding and interpreting the world to forge suitable national responses. That orientation contributed to a strong emphasis on normative–ethical dimensions, as well as empirically grounded historical, area, and policy studies. For a number of reasons including intellectual predispositions and constraints, knowledge production in the positivist tradition has not been a priority. However, IR theorizing defined broadly is beginning to attract greater attention among Asian IR scholars. Initial interest in Western IR theory was largely a function of exposure of Asian scholars to Western (primarily American) scholarship that has been in the forefront in the development of IR concepts, theories, and paradigms. Emulation has traveled from copying to application and is now generating interest in developing indigenous ideas and perspectives based on national histories, experiences, and traditions. Although positivism may gain ground it is not deeply embedded in the intellectual traditions of Asian countries. Furthermore, theorizing in the positivist tradition has not made significant progress in the West where it is also encountering sharp criticism and alternative theories. Asian IR scholarship would continue to emphasize normative–ethical concerns. And historical, area, and policy studies would continue to be important in their own right, not simply as evidentiary basis for development of law-like propositions. It also appears likely that Asian IR scholarship would increasingly focus on recovery of indigenous ideas and traditions and their adaptation to contemporary circumstances. The net effect of these trends would be to diversify and enrich existing concepts, theories, methods, and perspectives, and possibly provide fresh ones as well. The flourishing of IRS in Asia would make the IR discipline more international.
  • Topic: International Relations, Development, Government
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, America, India, Asia
  • Author: Marcus Holmes
  • Publication Date: 05-2011
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: There are many stories to be told regarding the development of International Relations (IR) theory in the United States over the last century. Some have pointed out IR's evolutionary properties, emphasizing the debates that have produced fitter theory with empirical reality. Others have argued that the development has been largely scientific with knowledge built hierarchically through time. In this article, I propose an alternative view of American IR's development. Specifically, I argue that IR theory is best understood through heterarchical organization, with core ideas and concepts rerepresented in new ways, and various levels of analysis, over time. In making this argument I trace duel processes of borrowing ideas from other disciplines and rerepresenting those ideas in new forms in order to solve vexing theoretical problems. The article demonstrates how conceptions of anarchy have been significantly affected by other disciplines and relates those conceptions to views of international security both at home and abroad, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Asia
  • Author: Mehmet Özkan
  • Publication Date: 03-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Insight Turkey
  • Institution: SETA Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research
  • Abstract: Based on extensive literature and fieldwork research in international relations, intellectual history and political thought, Cemil Aydin has written an exceptionally detailed account of the boundaries and horizons of pan-Islamic and pan-Asian thoughts on world order. Although his research on the intellectual journey of these two main anti-Western movements only covers the period from the early nineteenth century through to World War II, it still has relevance to today as we speak of “the rise of the rest” and/or “the Second World”.
  • Topic: International Relations, Islam, War
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Norbert Scholz
  • Publication Date: 09-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Journal of Palestine Studies
  • Institution: Institute for Palestine Studies
  • Abstract: This section lists articles and reviews of books relevant to Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Entries are classified under the following headings: Reference and General; History (through 1948) and Geography; Palestinian Politics and Society; Jerusalem; Israeli Politics, Society, and Zionism; Arab and Middle Eastern Politics; International Relations; Law; Military; Economy, Society, and Education; Literature, Arts, and Culture; Book Reviews; and Reports Received. PURCHASE FULL BIBLIOGRAPHY (excerpt below) REFERENCE AND GENERAL Luyendijks, Joris. “Beyond Orientalism.” International Communication Gazette 72, no. 1 (Feb. 10): 9–20. HISTORY (THROUGH 1948) AND GEOGRAPHY Abbasi, Mustafa. “The Fall of Acre in the 1948 Palestine War.” JPS 39, no. 4 (Sum. 10): 6–27. Aytürk, Iker. “Revisiting the Language Factor in Zionism: The Hebrew Language Council from 1904 to 1914.” British Society of Oriental and African Studies 73, no. 1 (Feb. 10): 45–64. Blakely, Jeffrey A. “A Note on Henry Timberlake's Route from Gaza to Beersheba to Hebron in 1601.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 142, no. 1 (Mar. 10): 64–68. Davidson, Lawrence. “Truman the Politician and the Establishment of Israel.” JPS 39, no. 4 (Sum. 10): 28–42. Fleischmann, Ellen L. “Lost in Translation: Home Economics and the Sidon Girls' School of Lebanon, c. 1924–1932.” Social Sciences and Missions 23, no. 1 (10): 32–62. Kark, Ruth, and Seth J. Frantzman. “Bedouin, Abdül Hamid II, British Land Settlement, and Zionism: The Baysan Valley and Sub-district 1831–1948.” IsS 15, no. 2 (Sum. 10): 49–79. Krampf, Arie. “Reception of the Developmental Approach in the Jewish Economic Discourse of Mandatory Palestine, 1934–1938.” IsS 15, no. 2 (Sum. 10): 80–103. Rose, John. “In Praise of the Sun: Zodiac Sun-Gods in Galilee Synagogues and the Palestinian Heritage.” HLS 9, no. 1 (May 10): 25–49. Segev, Tom (interview). “The Israeli Memory Begins in 1917” [in Arabic]. QI 9, no. 36 (09): 76–84. Shehory-Rubin, Zipora, and Shifra Shvarts. “Teaching the Children to Play: The Establishment of the First Playgrounds in Palestine during the Mandate.” IsS 15, no. 2 (Sum. 10): 24–48. PALESTINIAN POLITICS AND SOCIETY Abu `Amra, Rana. “UNRWA in Crisis” [in Arabic]. SD 48, no. 181 (Jul. 10): 186–89. AbuZayd, Karen. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees after Sixty Years: Assessing Developments and Marking Challenges.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 227–28. Agha, Hussein (interview). “Interview: Hussein Agha.” MEP 17, no. 2 (Sum. 10): 142–51. Bartholomeusz, Lance. “The Mandate of UNRWA at Sixty.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 452–74. Bisharat, George. “Mobilizing Palestinians in Support of One State” [in Arabic]. MA 33, no. 375 (May 10): 95–111. Bocco, Riccardo. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees: A History within History.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 229–52. Chatty, Dawn. “Palestinian Refugee Youth: Agency and Aspiration.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 318–38. De Cesari, Chiara. “Hebron, or Heritage as Technology of Life.” JQ, no. 41 (Spr. 10): 6–28. Fahs, Hani. “The Palestine That Brought Us Together: Mahboub Omar—A Story and a Message” [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 82 (Spr. 10): 70–79. Farah, Randa. “UNRWA: Through the Eyes of Its Refugee Employees in Jordan.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 389–411. Harding, Jeremy. “At the Allenby Bridge: Crossing the Jordan.” LRB 31, no. 12 (Jun. 09): 30. Hogan, Elena H. “Jewels of the Occupation: Gold Wedding Jewelry in the West Bank.” JPS 39, no. 4 (Sum. 10): 43–59. Al Husseini, Jalal, and Riccardo Bocco. “The Status of the Palestinian Refugees in the Near East: The Right of Return and UNRWA in Perspective.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 260–85. Imad, Jad. “The Palestinian State between Negotiations and International Resolution” [in Arabic]. SD 48, no. 181 (Jul. 10): 20–23. Jibril, Amjad. “Initiatives for Palestinian Reconciliation Following the Gaza War” [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 82 (Spr. 10): 115–29. Kagan, Michael. “Is There Really a Protection Gap? UNRWA's Role vis-à-vis Palestinian Refugees.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 511–30. Khouri, Rami G. “Sixty Years of UNRWA: From Service Provision to Refugee Protection.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 438–51. Lavie, Ephraim. “Between Settlement and Crisis: The Next Round of the Palestinian Issue.” Strategic Assessment 12, no. 4 (Feb. 10): 73–90. Manor, Yohanan, and Ido Mizrahi. “Hamas's Web School for Suicide Bombers.” MEQ 17, no. 2 (Spr. 10): 31–40. Mardam Bey, Farouk. “Nostalgic for the Sixties: 'Be Realistic and Ask for the Impossible'” [in Arabic]. MDF, no. 82 (Spr. 10): 46–53. Milstein, Michael. “The Challenge of al-Muqawama (Resistance) to Israel.” Strategic Assessment 12, no. 4 (Feb. 10): 57–71. Misselwitz, Philipp, and Sari Hanafi. “Testing a New Paradigm: UNRWA's Camp Improvement Programme.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 360–88. Morris, Nicholas. “Towards a Protection Strategy for UNRWA.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 550–60. Mozes, Tomer, and Gabriel Weimann. “The E-Marketing Strategy of Hamas.” SCT 33, no. 3 (10): 211–25. Mustafa, Mohammad (interview). “The Weakness of the Palestinian Economy” [in Arabic]. MDF, nos. 80¬–81 (Fall–Win. 09–10): 45–57. Pappé, Ilan. “The One-State Solution” [in Arabic]. MA 33, no. 375 (May 10): 149–63. Rabinowitz, Dan. “The Right to Refuse: Abject Theory and the Return of Palestinian Refugees.” Critical Inquiry 36, no. 3 (Spr. 10): 494–516. Rempel, Terry. “UNRWA and the Palestine Refugees: A Genealogy of 'Participatory' Development.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 412–37. Røislien, Hanne E., and Jo Røislien. “The Logic of Palestinian Terrorist Target Choice? Examining the Israel Defense Forces' Official Statistics on Palestinian Terrorist Attacks 2000–2004.” SCT 33, no. 2 (10): 134–48. Rosenfeld, Maya. “From Emergency Relief Assistance to Human Development and Back: UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees, 1950–2009.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 286–317. Rueff, Henri, and Alain Viaro. “Palestinian Refugee Camps: From Shelter to Habitat.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 339–59. Sayre, Edward A. “Relative Deprivation and Palestinian Suicide Bombings.” Asian Journal of Social Science 38, no. 3 (10): 442–61. Shaw, Martin. “Palestine in an International Historical Perspective on Genocide.” HLS 9, no. 1 (May 10): 1–24. Strazzari, Francesco, and Simone Tholens. “Another Nakba: Weapons Availability and the Transformation of the Palestinian National Struggle, 1987–2007.” International Studies Perspectives 11, no. 2 (10): 112–30. Takkenberg, Lex. “UNRWA and the Palestinian Refugees after Sixty Years: Some Reflections.” RSQ 28, nos. 2–3 (10): 253–59. Zomlot, Husam. “Building a State under Occupation” [in Arabic]. MA 33, no. 375 (May 10): 112–30. ———. “Building a State under Occupation: The Palestinians and the Living Legacy of Oslo.” CAA 3, no. 2 (Apr. 10): 180–92.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics
  • Political Geography: Israel, Asia, France
  • Author: Michael Smith, Natee Vichitsorasatra
  • Publication Date: 05-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Politics
  • Institution: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Abstract: European Union (EU)–Asia relations raise linked problems (on the one hand) of EU collective action and identity and (on the other hand) of cooperation. The relationship is characterized by complexity and variety in three dimensions: first, 'voices' and history; second, institutional engagement and structure; and third, issue structure. In order to explore the implications of this complexity and variety, and to generate propositions for further research, we deploy International Relations theories based on material interests, ideas and institutions. These help us to demonstrate not only the application of 'analytical theory' but also the role of 'practitioner theory' in the evolution of relations between the EU and Asia, and thus to reflect systematically on the problems of collective action and cooperation identified at the beginning of the article.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe, Asia
  • Author: Georg Wiessala
  • Publication Date: 05-2010
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Politics
  • Institution: Palgrave Macmillan
  • Abstract: This article investigates EU foreign policies regarding Human Rights with Asia. The perspective adopted here argues for a consideration of selected, social-constructivist, perspectives. The article emphasizes ideas, identities, values, educational exchange and human rights in EU policy towards Asia. Through a number of case studies, the article demonstrates that there is both an 'enabling' and an 'inhibitory' human rights dynamism in EU–Asia dialogue. The article suggests some ways of translating this into policies. It proposes a more inclusive, 'holistic', understanding of human rights discourse in East–West relations.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy, Human Rights
  • Political Geography: Europe, Asia
  • Author: Henryk Szadziewski
  • Publication Date: 04-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Institution: The Caucasian Review of International Affairs
  • Abstract: In the People\'s Republic of China, the Great Western Development Drive has been promoted as a solution to the economic inequalities that exist between the eastern and western regions of the country. Although the initiative has overt economic objectives, these are accompanied by political objectives of internal security in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, an area also known as East Turkestan. The Great Western Development Drive also works in conjunction with China\'s economic and political objectives for the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. As a bridge to the markets of Central Asia, the Great Western Development Drive in East Turkestan has built an infrastructure with which China can export goods and import natural resources. Greater economic cooperation between Central Asia and China has also permitted the silencing of Uyghur dissent in Shanghai Cooperation Organization member states. The net result of China\'s expansion into Central Asia for Uyghurs in the region and in East Turkestan has been economic and political marginalization, most notably in the visible exclusion from the policies and projects of the Great Western Development Drive.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: China, Turkey, Asia
  • Author: Peter Hays Gries, Qingmin Zhang, Yasuki Masui, Yong Wook Lee
  • Publication Date: 05-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: Historical controversies continue to plague northeast Asian politicstoday, with Chinese and Koreans protesting Japanese history textbooksand Japanese politicians\' visits to Yasukuni Shrine, and Koreans protestingChinese claims that the ancient Kingdom of Goguryo was Chinese,not Korean. Yet, there is little empirical research exploring what, if any,impact historical beliefs have on threat perception and foreign policypreferences in northeast Asia today. On the basis of surveys of Chinese,Japanese, and South Korean university students, this paper explores the relationships among beliefs about the past, perceived threat in thepresent, and foreign policy preferences for the future. Results and theirimplications for northeast Asian security are discussed.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: China, Asia, Korea
  • Author: Alan Chong, Natasha Hamilton-Hart
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: The teaching of international relations (IR) at universities in Southeast Asia plays a role in the production of knowledge about the IR of Southeast Asia. As a complement to the scrutiny of published research output, a focus on teaching offers one pathway toward comprehending the constitution of meaning in both the IR of Southeast Asia and the broader IR discipline. This introduction to a collection of essays on the teaching of IR in Southeast Asia also discusses the potential ways by which attention to teaching may uncover the socializing role of pedagogy. An inquiry into the discipline as it is taught in the region throws light on how particular national legitimating myths are reproduced, the transmission of collective historical memories, the dominance of certain schools of international thought, and the role of civil society in Southeast Asian knowledge production.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Asia
  • Author: Bob S. Hadiwinata
  • Publication Date: 01-2009
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Relations of the Asia-Pacific
  • Institution: Japan Association of International Relations
  • Abstract: This paper is about the development of international relations (IR) as a field of study in Indonesian universities. It argues that IR as a discipline has been encountering a paradox. On the one hand, while the discipline has been increasingly held in high esteem by students, marked by an increasing number of applicants to IR departments across the country; on the other hand, IR scholars show too little commitment to research and publication for the development of the discipline; and if they do publish, the quality of writing is generally poor. This article indicates that the paradox of teaching IR in Indonesia has much to do with historical legacies and political intrusion, as well as an economic environment in which universities are increasingly driven toward commercial activities. All these factors shape the current development of social science in general, and IR in particular.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: Asia