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  • Author: Kenneth McK. Norrie
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Within the single month of November 2004, Saskatchewan became the latest Canadian province to accept same-sex marriage, South Africa's Supreme Court of Appeal held the limitation of marriage to opposite-sex couples to be unconstitutional, the United Kingdom became the latest European country to introduce civil partnerships as an institution for same-sex couples analogous to marriage, and the government of New Zealand presented a Bill to the New Zealand Parliament to do the same thing in that country. In the 15 years since Denmark became the first country in the world to introduce such an institution most jurisdictions in Western Europe and in Canada, and a handful of states in the United States of America, have followed Denmark's innovation and some have opened up the institution of marriage itself to same-sex couples. The peculiarly North American debate whether civil partnership is a second-rate alternative to marriage as a means of achieving gay and lesbian equality has not been engaged with elsewhere in the world, and it will not be engaged with here. This article intends, rather, to explore the remarkable phenomenon that such a debate is today one of practical reality rather than hypothetical aspiration.
  • Political Geography: United States, United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, South Africa, Denmark, New Zealand
  • Author: Jonathan Goldberg-Hiller
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Over the past century we have seen many changes in American culture. We have witnessed an explosion of new travel opportunities, access to information and advances in medicine. Certainly social norms have shifted. We have made progress, in the truest sense, such as recognizing the fundamental human rights of all people no matter their color or creed. And we have also made egregious regressions such as legalizing the aborting of unborn children. Even in this advanced age, we must continue to wage battles against injustices. … If we do nothing and allow the courts to re-define marriage, State and Federal governments will soon have little or no authority to ultimately restrain any imaginable form of marital contract between couples and groups of people and even animals.
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Evan Gerstmann
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The United States is often perceived as a nation that prefers not only to go its own way, but also to take almost a perverse pride in ignorance of foreign ways and indifference to the opinion of our international peers. Until recently, this perception has certainly extended to America's most powerful court, the Supreme Court of the United States of America. In 2003, for example, an article in The Legal Times, referred to the Court as an 'ostrich' that had only just begun to take its head out of the sand. This perception, however, is likely to change over the next several years. In a single seven-day period in 2003, the United States Supreme Court cited international sources, such as foreign laws and documents, in three high-profile cases in which it interpreted the American constitution.
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Author: Michael Bell
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: Debate over the construction of the West Bank separation barrier has been ongoing and acrimonious since its inception in June 2002, when the Israeli government announced its intention to erect a fence to control strictly Palestinian entry into Israel and thereby impede terrorist activity directed against the citizens of the Jewish state. Strikes by Palestinian terrorists groups, most notably the fundamentalist Hamas and Islamic Jihad, had reached unparalleled levels against the civilian population following the commencement of the Palestinian uprising against Israel, the Al Aqsa Intifada, in the fall of 2000.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Frédéric Mégret
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: In its advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, the International Court of Justice (hereinafter, 'the Court' or 'the ICJ') reminds us that Palestine—'certain communities, formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire'—was once a class 'A' mandate entrusted to Great Britain by the League of Nations. The Court also reminds us that the Pact of the League once described 'the well-being and development of … peoples (under mandates) as forming “a sacred trust of civilization.”'
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Palestine
  • Author: Moshe Hirsch
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The recent International Court of Justice (ICJ) advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory stirred widespread interest in the international community and in Israel. The Opinion includes judicial statements regarding controversial questions that lie at the heart of the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, such as the legal status of the West Bank and the Palestinians' right of self-determination. Following a brief survey of the central legal rules arising from the Court's Opinion, the article will examine the expected impacts of the Opinion on Israel's future policy regarding the separation barrier's route and the West Bank.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Ed Morgan
  • Publication Date: 12-2005
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: The response by Israel's Foreign Minister to the International Court of Justice's advisory opinion on the Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has struck a chord that echoes with history. As Silvan Shalom put it, in condemning his state's defences the Court has condemned its own set of legal norms, in the process becoming 'equally guilty of betrayal.' Other commentators, pointing to the failure of the Court to address the catalogue of violence presented in the Israeli submissions, have accused the United Nations of 'a betrayal of its Charter commitment to peace and security.' It is as if in denying Israel's claim to self-defence with respect to the barrier that snakes along the Green Line and through the West Bank, the Court has both sentenced the country to death and sealed its own fate as a normative authority.
  • Political Geography: Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Olivier Dard
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Décédé depuis 1990, Jean Fourastié demeure présent à travers certains titres d'ouvrages, le plus célèbre étant Les Trente Glorieuses. Le succès de ce livre, comme de bien d'autres, a fait de Fourastié une sorte de phénomène de l'édition, spécialisé dans des ouvrages d'un type particulier qui depuis lors a fait florès: l'essai économique grand public. On ne saurait négliger en effet les 400 000 exemplaires vendus de trois livres à succès publiés de 1945 à 1949: L'Économie française dans le monde, La Civilisation de 1960 et Le Grand Espoir du XX è siècle 1. Dès les lendemains de la guerre, les ouvrages de Fourastié ont connu un incontestable retentissement en France comme à l'étranger, ce don't atteste une quantité impressionnante de comptes rendus, les multiples solicitations dont il est l'objet pour des conférences et les nombreuses traductions de ses ouvrages.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Sally Price
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Susan Sontag seems to have been on to something when she placed her word portraits of Michel Leiris and Claude Lévi-Strauss back to back. An elaboration of her comparison (which was more implied than explicit) may help situate anthropological practice in France-and Leiris' special role in it-within the larger context of trends elsewhere in the world.
  • Author: James G. Shields
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The day began on a solemn note. The laying of a wreath at the war memorial and a minute's silence for the fallen of Saint-Céré, victims of conflicts from the trenches to Algeria. Red, white and blue carnations, laid by Pierre Poujade and his wife, Yvette. Flanking them, two mayors in their Republican sashes, sons of early-day poujadistes. A picture of respectful, patriotic commemoration.
  • Political Geography: Algeria
  • Author: Daphne Josselin
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In the mid-1990s, a series of financial crises placed international financial stability and North-South dialogue once again very firmly on the agenda of economic diplomacy. These had long been pet topics for the French: back in the 1960s, President Charles de Gaulle had famously clamoured for the establishment of a new monetary order; the summitry set up, on French initiative, in 1975, had been largely focused on exchange rate stability and North-South relations; in the 1980s, President Mitterrand had made repeated appeals for a "new Bretton Woods." One could therefore expect the French to contribute actively to debates on how best to reform the international financial architecture.
  • Topic: Diplomacy
  • Political Geography: Europe, France
  • Author: Sharif Gemie
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: There are few politicians who can claim that they have, literally, come back from the dead. Jean-Pierre Chevènement can make a still more dramatic declaration: He is a man who has been reborn twice. Chevènement was the French minister of the Interior from 1997-2000, in the last Jospin government. In October 1998 he was admitted to hospital for a routine gall-bladder operation. Following a complication in the anaesthetic procedure, his heart stopped beating for forty-five minutes. He fell into a deep coma that lasted for three weeks, during which he drifted in a muffled, foggy world inhabited by strange beasts, as he later recalled.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Sophie Meunier
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The most common perception of France found these days in the American media is that of an arrogant country, whose international gesticulations are the last hurrah masking its inevitable decline into oblivion. The French have not yet come to terms with their lengthy collapse, which started with the devastation of World War I, continued with the humiliation of their defeat in 1940 and was furthered by the loss of their colonial empire. This would explain their support, still to this day, for a Gaullist policy made up of power incantations, in contrast to real power-or lack thereof.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Le Monde, or rather its current management team of publisher and editor Jean-Marie Colombani, managing editor Edwy Plenel, and director-of-the-board Alain Minc, has been the critical target over the past year of several best-selling books, accompanied by scores of articles in the rest of the French press. This avalanche of unwelcome attention for the newspaper was launched with the 630-page, exhaustively documented La Face cachée du Monde (The Hidden Face of Le Monde), by Pierre Péan, perhaps France's most highly-regarded investigative journalist, and Philippe Cohen, economics editor for the newsweekly Marianne. Other critical books that appeared during 2003 included Ma part du Monde by former Le Monde journalist Alain Rollat; Le Pouvoir du Monde by Bernard Poulet, an assistant managing editor at business magazine L'Expansion; Bien entendu … c'est off by former Le Monde political reporter Daniel Carton and Le Cauchemar médiatique by former Le Monde television chronicler Daniel Schneidermann.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Pierre Grémion
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Lorsque, le 26 février, le livre de Pierre Péan et de Philippe Cohen est sorti, je me suis précipité chez mon libraire. Trop tard! Les quelques exemplaires don't il disposait avaient déjà été enlevés. C'est le lendemain seulement que j'ai pu être servi. Le libraire s'était levé aux aurores pour faire lui-même son réassortiment. Il ne put en mettre en vente que 30 exemplaires: tous épuisés le soir même. "Si j'en avais pris 50 (mais nous ne pouvions pas, nous étions contingentés), ç'aurait été pareil. Je les aurais vendus dans la journée", m'a-t- il dit.
  • Author: Dominique Kalifa
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Il est de nombreuses façons d'envisager l'oeuvre d'Alain Corbin dans le paysage historique contemporain. On peut partir des divers objets élaborés par l'historien jusqu'ici (les sociétés et les comportements ruraux, l'histoire des sens et des appréciations, le paysage, etc.) et montrer l'étonnante capacité d'invention ou de renouvellement dont il fit preuve dans leur mise en forme. Souvent privilégiée, cette approche est évidemment pertinente, mais elle peine parfois à se dégager du simple panégyrique. On peut, de façon plus synthétique, insister sur la cohérence du projet d'ensemble (l'histoire des sensibilités), le penser dans le temps long de l'historiographie et l'inscrire dans une série de filiations (la psychologie historique de Lucien Febvre, l'histoire des mentalités façon Robert Mandrou, l'ombre portée de Michelet et du projet romantique de réanimation du passé), elles-mêmes infléchies par l'apport de sociologues comme Norbert Élias ou de philosophes comme Michel Foucault.
  • Author: Emmanuelle Saada
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Laboratoire de Sciences Sociales À l'origine de ces quelques éléments de réflexion sur les lectures américaines d'Alain Corbin, il y a le souci de percer une énigme et, plus encore, de comprendre un malentendu: ces deux objectifs offrent une belle occasion de saisir les modes sur lesquels sont appropriés les travaux des historiens français et, au-delà, d'éclairer certains points nodaux de l'oeuvre de Corbin. La réception américaine sera donc surtout ici prétexte à une entrée un peu décalée dans l'imposant massif corbinien. Les termes de l'énigme sont bien simples: dans une conjoncture extrêmement difficile pour les presses universitaires aux États-Unis, et plus encore pour la publication de travaux étrangers, presque tous les livres d'Alain Corbin sont traduits en anglais 1, ce dont je crois aucun autre historien français de sa génération ne peut se flatter. Puisque l'on peut raisonnablement penser que les spécialistes de la France lisent ces ouvrages à leur parution, en version originale, la persistance de ce flux depuis 1986 2 semble indiquer l'existence d'un public non francophone, constant et peut-être même fidèle.
  • Author: Michelle Perrot
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: De la vaste table ovale des Archives départementales de Caen (Calvados) où Alain Corbin, étudiant-"le beau ténébreux", disait-on alors-préparait, à la fin des années cinquante, son diplôme d'études supérieures à ce dossier qui lui est consacré, presque un demi-siècle s'est écoulé: le temps d'une vie, le temps d'une oeuvre particulièrement originale qui a introduit, dans la pratique de l'histoire contemporaine, des ruptures et des novations libératrices; une autre manière de voir et de sentir; un autre imaginaire. J'en ai été le témoin ébloui et, à maintes reprises, une collaboratrice amicale. Qu'il s'agisse de l'Histoire de la vie privée (tome IV), dont Alain Corbin a écrit près d'un tiers-"Le secret de l'individu"-,sans doute la partie la plus brillante, des recherches sur un dix-neuvième siècle dont nous partageons l'attrait, des thèses d'étudiants, ou encore de l'histoire des femmes, nos rencontres ont été fréquentes, nos échanges constants, et notre complicité de plus en plus vive.
  • Author: Christophe Prochasson
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Qui n'aurait de l'oeuvre d'Alain Corbin qu'une connaissance superficielle pourrait soutenir que l'étude de la politique n'y trouve guère sa place. L'historien ne s'est-il pas d'abord tourné vers l'examen attentif des structures profondes, du mental qui organise la vie de tous les jours, commande ses dérives, gouverne les sentiments et les passions qui s'y déploient? Quoi de plus contraire donc à la politique telle que ses représentations les plus communes nous la donnent aujourd'hui à voir: une activité rationnelle, où la cognition semble l'emporter sur l'émotion, lieu de la résolution technique des problèmes quotidiens, espace d'affrontements idéologiques? On pourra sans mal juger naïve cette imagerie. Elle n'en est pas moins courante. Et ce n'est rien dire qu'Alain Corbin n'y cède point! Traite-t- il pour autant la politique avec désinvolture? C'est le contraire que je souhaiterais mettre en évidence. Il y a d'ailleurs belle lurette que les lecteurs les plus attentifs de Corbin savent de quoi il retourne: il arriva même à un recenseur des Filles de noce 1 de présenter l'ouvrage comme le plus grandlivre d'histoire politique de l'année.
  • Author: Arthur Goldhammer
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Alain Corbin is a historian of astonishing range.1 Two of his works, The Life of an Unknown and The Village of Cannibals, exemplify the breadth of his historical vision. The latter reconstructs a murder that takes place in the village of Hautefaye in 1870, while the former recovers the lost world of a forgotten man who, as it happens, died within a few years of that event. The Village is thus a study of what Corbin calls, in the preface to The Life, "a fortuitous event" that casts "a brief and lurid light on the myriads of the disappeared." But such events were, as Corbin reminds us, "exceptional, products of a paroxysm offering momentary access to an underlying reality without telling us much about the torpor of ordinary existences." The torpor of ordinary existences: the phrase is striking, and it is not only an apt description of the life of Louis-François Pinagot but also an important clue to what Corbin believed was missing from the reigning schools of French historiography.
  • Author: Michel Beaujour
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: L'historiographie pratiquée par Alain Corbin implique, comme condition de possibilité, l'existence d'une archive d'observations "sociologiques" contemporaines des modes de vie que l'historien évoque, à son tour, dans une perspective épistémologique et idéologique propre à la fin du vingtième siècle. Il faut qu'un discours de type (pré) ethnographique, sociologique, géographique, hygiénique, médical, etc., soit constitué dès le dix-huitième et le dixneuvième siècle pour que Corbin ait la possibilité de pratiquer aujourd'hui ce qu'il appelle selon les contextes une "histoire culturelle" , une "histoire des mentalités" ou bien une "psychohistoire", etc.
  • Author: Stéphane Gerson
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Parti "sur les traces d'un inconnu" au dix-neuvième siècle, Le Monde retrouvé de Louis- François Pinagot marque, non pas un tournant, mais une étape significative dans l'oeuvre d'Alain Corbin. Ce livre détonne dans l'historiographie contemporaine, interpellant ses lecteurs dans sa conception et dans sa rhétorique. Il le fait dès ses premières pages, surtout dans ses premières pages: un "prélude" singulier, mélange de voix, de genres, de caractères typographiques qui appréhende Louis-François Pinagot, l'énigmatique sabotier percheron, dans sa présence et dans son absence. "Louis-François Pinagot a existé", lance Corbin en ouverture, avant de présenter l'ouvrage, un peu plus loin, comme une "méditation sur la disparition". Le prélude renvoie à Pinagot, mais aussi à un auteur qui se découvre dans ce même espace liminal entre absence et présence. On trouve d'une part l'historien qui intervient comme sujet (le "je") et comme personne (avec sa biographie, ses convictions et incertitudes, ses émotions ), l'historien qui adopte de multiples figures et acquiert, au sein d'une relation personnelle avec cet individu, une visibilité qu'il n'avait pas dans les écrits antérieurs de Corbin; d'autre part, l'historien qui, loin de se complaire dans cette visibilité, tente de la cantonner, s'estompant, se dérobant, rechignant à se mettre en avant.
  • Author: Alain Corbin
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Vous admettrez aisément que je n'ai pas manqué d'éprouver, au cours de ces deux journées, un sentiment mêlé de surprise et d'étrangeté. Étant loin d'estimer mon travail digne d'une telle attention, je suis très touché du regard porté sur lui par l'ensemble des participants à cette réunion. Cela dit, Priscilla Ferguson nous a proposé une explication de l'intérêt paradoxal suscité par mes travaux: la Frenchness de mes French Stories ferait que mes livres plaisent aux lecteurs anglo-saxons, ou les agacent. Je veux dire aussi ma reconnaissance. L'identité de chacun de nous se forge sous le regard de l'autre. Aussi est- il évident que, de ces deux jours, je vais sortir transformé. Vous m'avez éclairé sur moi- même; à cela près que je discerne dans vos propos un trop-plein d'indulgence. Les contempteurs ne sont pas ici, si ce n'est par l'écho de quelques recensions ironiques.
  • Political Geography: New York
  • Author: Lionel Jospin
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Since the relationship between France and the United States is going through a difficult period, we must find opportunities to talk things over. It is true that it is not always easy to broach the subject of this relationship between the US and France in a balanced and reasonable way. We idealize its past and blacken its present. On the one hand, invoking the illustrious names of such figures as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Pierre- Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, or the marquis de la Fayette romanticizes the actually very complicated political and diplomatic process that brought France to America's aid during the War of Independence. Neither the monarchical France of the Ancien Régime, nor that of the revolutionary Terror that led up to the Caesar-state of Bonaparte could have been in perfect symbiosis with the young American democratic republic, despite our shared Enlightenment references.
  • Political Geography: United States, America, France
  • Author: Edward Berenson
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Did ordinary citizens support empire? Did a broad public respond to the plethora of colonialist propaganda, ideas, and images that circulated during the era of high imperialism (1880-1940)? Historians of French colonialism have joined their British counterparts in a renewed scholarly debate over public attitudes toward overseas expansion. Although a few historians have maintained that empire enjoyed wides pread support, until recently the consensus in both the French and British literature has been that imperialism interested elite groups far more than average citizens. Working people, according to most scholars, have been influenced least of all.
  • Topic: Culture
  • Author: Donald Reid
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Germaine Tillion and Geneviève de Gaulle Anthonioz drew on their experiences as deported resisters at the Ravensbrück concentration camp to put forth narratives of deportation with compelling sets of imperatives for survivors and their audiences: Tillion placed the experience of camp prisoners in a continuum of clochardisation preceded by slavery and colonialism, enterprises in which France played a larger role than Germany, while de Gaulle Anthonioz extended the camp experience past 1945 to the creation and maintenance of an underclass in advanced capitalist societies like France. Reflection on their years at Ravensbrück encouraged Tillion and de Gaulle Anthonioz to look upon those left outside of prosperous postwar France - clochards in Algeria and the desperately poor in France - as being of the world they had lived in in the camps. This encouraged them to revisit their experience as providing understanding and insights for the survival and resistance of these disinherited.
  • Political Geography: France, Germany, Algeria
  • Author: Katherine A. R. Opello
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This study uses the case of the French Socialists to show that electoral incentives best explain the timing of party officials' quota decisions. It would be easy to assume that the ideological predispositions of party officials and the agendas of women's organizations and party feminists would be determinant here, but there are two main reasons why this is not the case. First, non-electoral explanations, like ideology, fail to consider the constraints imposed on actors by the electoral system. If political actors try to ensure that they win an electoral game defined by the existing electoral system, it seems unlikely that non-electoral concerns would outweigh strategic or electoral ones. Second, evidence suggests that PS officials responded to feminists' requests for gender quotas only when they had electoral incentives to do so. Specifically, women's organizations' demands for quotas were met when these organizations posed an electoral threat, and PS feminists' quota proposals succeeded when party officials had electoral incentives to co-opt them.
  • Author: Elisabeth Vallet
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Les évolutions amenées par la révision constitutionnelle du 28 mars 2003 -la plus importante depuis 1958 - présentent le risque de transformer un État nation en un État groupusculaire et consacrent le principe d'une décentralisation "dissymétrique". Dans ce contexte, transposer à la Corse par exemple le raisonnement qui a conduit à la reconnaissance en 1998 de l'existence du peuple kanak pourrait durablement fragiliser les fondations de l'État. Pour autant, les dispositions constitutionnelles présentent une élasticité qui permet de "supporter des interprétations très diverses". Elles offrent notamment la possibilité d'un glissement vers la forme hybride de l'État autonomique. Si cette mutation contrevient à la perception traditionnelle de l'unité étatique, elle met un terme aux pragmatismes de circonstance et au traitement conjoncturel des revendications régionales.
  • Author: Catherine Grémion
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Ainsi, la conjonction de trois facteurs-les mouvements de mobilité spatiale et résidentielle chez les uns, la progression des mesures en faveur du droit à la vie familiale et la fin de l'emploi faiblement qualifié chez les autres-a-t-elle contribué à générer une situation nouvelle et créé un phénomène spécifique, les "quartiers en difficulté". La tendance à l'exit 21 des plus qualifiés de ces habitants, qui quittent ces lieux pour des zones plus favorisées, se voit contre-balancée par un attachement réel d'une forte proportion de ses membres à un mode de vie spécifique.
  • Author: Richard Kuisel
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: What do the French think of Americans and the United States? This is a grand question whose answer reveals a crucial dimension of the current tension in Franco-American relations. It is also a question that can be answered reasonably well. Transatlantic troubles have stirred interest in ascertaining the state of public opinion. The result is an extraordinary number of comprehensive surveys conducted over the last five years. The US Department of State, for example, has systematically monitored French attitudes. So have many French and American polling agencies like SOFRES, CSA, and the Pew Center. Foundations like the French-American Foundation and the German Marshall Fund of the US have also sponsored research. Between fifteen and twenty thousand Frenchmen and women have recorded their opinion in such surveys. This evidence provides a unique opportunity for research into how the man- or woman-in-the-street views the United States.
  • Topic: International Relations
  • Political Geography: United States, America, France
  • Author: Charles Cogan
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The level of damage from the March 2003 imbroglio in the UN Security Council remains to be thoroughly assessed, particularly in view of the continuing violence in Iraq. In a sense, this crisis was a heaven-sent opportunity for France to stand for a principle and at the same time maintain its reputation of being able to face up to the United States, in this case threatening the use of a powerful diplomatic tool at its disposal, the veto in the UN Security Council. The crisis that landed in the Security Council represented a unique way for France to assert its "difference" from the United States, which it had been seeking to do, with varying degrees of success, since de Gaulle's time. The French could hardly be expected to pass up such an opportunity, especially since, as they saw it, the issue was crystal clear from the point of view of logic: The United States had failed to make the case for invading Iraq that had any contemporaneity to it-Resolution 687 was twelve years old. The question of "Why now?" had not been satisfactorily answered.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, France
  • Author: Jean Baubérot
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: République, appelée plus généralement "Commission Stasi," du nom de son président, a joué un rôle central dans l'adoption de la loi du 15 mars 2004 interdisant le port "ostensible" de signes religieux à l'école publique. Pourtant, dans le rapport qu'elle a remis au président de la République le 11 décembre 2003, la question des "signes religieux" à l'école n'occupe qu'environ huit pages sur les 151 qui constituent le rapport. Ce rapport propose vingt-six mesures, et seule celle sur les signes religieux a été adoptée par les députés et les sénateurs pour avoir force de loi. La commission a-t-elle été "trahie"? Certains de ses membres l'affirment. Pour ma part, je ne le pense pas. Il est vrai que je n'ai pas voté cette proposition d'interdiction, et j'ai été moins surpris que mes collègues par la tournure des événements. Par ailleurs, étant à la fois historien et sociologue, j'ai tenté-au fur et à mesure du déroulement des travaux de la commission-de comprendre ce qui se passait et dans quel contexte cela advenait. C'est de cela dont je voudrais rendre compte.
  • Author: Patrick Weil
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: On July 3, 2003, President Jacques Chirac set up an independent commission to study the implementation of the principle of laïcité [secularism] in the French Republic. I was a member of that commission, chosen most likely for my expertise in the field of immigration policy and nationality law and as a former member of the High Advisory Council on Integration. I arrived with the idea that a law was probably unnecessary for resolving the problems. Yet, after four months of public hearings involving representatives of all religious confessions, political parties, unions, NGOs, and above all actors on the ground-principals, teachers, parents, students, directors of hospitals and jails, company managers - I endorsed a report recommending twenty - five different measures, including the ban on conspicuous religious symbols in public schools. In this essay I would like to explain why.
  • Topic: Law
  • Author: Sinem Akgül Açikmese
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This article contends that most of the intellectual work on European integration reflect major dichotomies between the theories of International Relations. During the first few decades of the integration process, the core European integration debate involved idealism-oriented neo-functionalists and realism-oriented intergovernmentalist approaches; whereas the current scholarship on European integration mirrors the main division that has emerged within the discipline of International Relations since 1980's between rationalists regarding the integration process as the products conscious member states' behaviour and constructivists focusing on policy-formation based on norms and common values. The main purpose of this article is to analyse the evolution of European integration within the context of the traditional and contemporary debates of International Relations. Since the sui generis nature of the integration process in the shape of the European Union constitutes a barrier to theorizing efforts in general terms, this article argues that each theory can only explain some pieces of the integration puzzle.
  • Topic: Government, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Mustafa Aydin
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Realist theory occupies a special place in the theoretical development of International Relations discipline. As the dominant theory of the discipline from mid-1930s up until mid-1980s, realism has often been dubbed as the theory of the International Relations because of its overwhelming influence on IR academia. In addition to controversial concepts it brought into IR discussions, realism has served the discipline by pioneering the study of international developments through conceptual analysis instead of traditional methods based on historical, legal, and philosophical studies. Although its various fundamental aspects (such as its conservative approach to world politics, emphasis on state and power, failure to define national interest convincingly, deterministic approach to international politics) have been criticized over the years from many perspectives, realist tradition has re-emerged time and again as the leading conceptual explanation of the discipline. Finally, despite all its exposed weaknesses, the realist theory of IR, with its clear and simple explanations, is still the most widely used approach in the area.
  • Topic: International Relations, International Political Economy, Political Economy
  • Author: Sennur Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study elaborates and (re)conceptualizes the 'east' and the 'west', representing the two distinct historical and 'socio-economic whole from a 'sociology of knowledge' dimension. The most important consequence of the defining characteristics of 'the west' (as being hierarchical, class-based and exclusive), lies in its class-based and partial nature resulting in an identification of knowledge with power. This is also responsible for the 'metaphysical nature' of the 'western' knowledge and science: 'Dualistic-exclusive and polaristic' character of 'western habitus' creating a large gap between 'theory and practice' can also be understood in this context. All these together explain the reasons for not being capable of 'universal and representative' of modern knowledge and science. As a result, this study projects that as 'eastern characteristics' has increasingly become more hegemonical on global level, a transition from cyclically reproducing 'exclusive and contradictory' relational and methodological 'western' 'style' to comprehensive new paradigmatic methodologies and syntheses will be expected.
  • Topic: Islam, Religion, Political Theory
  • Author: Nihat Ali Özcan
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The US carried out the Iraqi occupation quickly, easily and with few casualties. It put an end to the security bureaucracy in the name of building new Iraq after the war. After a short while it faced unexpected resistance in the regions where Sunnite Arabs live. Insurgents have proved by their choice of targets and use of methods that they have a long-term and systematical resistance strategy. The insurgents could organize quickly because of effective tribal order, power of old security bureaucracy which kept its integrity after the war and refusal of foreign occupation. Insurgents want to control the public in order to get rid of weakness. Therefore, the keypoint of contention is who will control the public. While insurgents commonly use "terror" and "violence", occupiers try on the one hand to make insurgents ineffective, on the other, to win the "heart and brain" of the public. Security questions may spread to whole country in Iraq where there are ethnic and religious struggles. Iraqi Shiites may be involved in the conflict. Kurdish claims on Kirkuk may bring an ethnic conflict to the agenda. If the US administration can't provide stability in Iraq as soon as possible, Iraq may drift into a civil war.
  • Topic: Conflict Resolution, Conflict Prevention, Terrorism, War
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Arabia, Kirkuk
  • Author: Sanem Baykal
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: One of the pivotal issues the European Union is trying to solve right now is the link between identity, legitimacy and political order in Europe. This study argues that the Union will have to strike a balance between democracy and efficiency while reshaping its institutional structure, as it can only secure the allegiances of European peoples if it is deemed to be useful and successful by its citizens, while accomplishments would only be regarded as satisfactory when the process is legitimate and democratic. This study illustrates that the Draft Constitution adopts the option of maintaining the essence of the status quo as regards the institutional structure. The democratic and political deficits of the Union need to be bridged by innovative approaches which are compatible with the unique qualities of the Community method. The European Union constitutes a novel type of polity which necessitates original approaches to issues such as democracy, legitimacy and politics.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Mustafa Kibaroglu
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Because of the inferiority complex first against Japan, then against the United States, the North Korean leadership embarked upon nuclear weapons development program from the inception of their state. Due to the tangible and comprehensive support provided by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China in the field of nuclear science and technology, North Korea has seemingly passed a significant threshold on the way to become a de facto nuclear weapons state. As of 2004, it is widely believed that North Korea has already extracted enough plutonium for a couple of nuclear warheads. Combined with its 1,350 kilometer-range ballistic missile capability, North Korea stands as one of the most significant threats to regional and global security and stability. In the aftermath of the September 11 terror attacks on the United States, Russia and China have greatly reduced their support to North Korea and intensified their efforts to mend the differences between that country and the US, just like Japan and South Korea did for long, with a view to not to pave the way to the escalation of a crisis on the Korean Peninsula.
  • Topic: Nuclear Weapons, Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, China, Asia, South Korea, North Korea, Soviet Union, Korean Peninsula
  • Author: Selçuk Çolakoglu
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Sino-Russian bilateral relations have steadily developed during the 1990s. With the help of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), which was established in 1996, China and Russia had the chance to balance the hegemony of the US in the world and to prevent the interfering of other great powers to central Eurasian issues. Central Asian countries, which have been historically and strategically squeezed between Russia and China, have also taken part in the SCO. With the US military operation of Afghanistan after September 11th terrorist attacks in 2001, the new era has started in Central Asia and the SCO has been affected negatively within this process. The attitude of Russia and China is very important for the future of the SCO as an organization. The SCO will be able to protect its entity and continue to develop, as long as the cooperation between China and Russia carries on depending on mutual interests.
  • Topic: Regional Cooperation, Bilateral Relations
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, China, Central Asia, Asia
  • Author: A. Füsun Arsava
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The discussion over the proposed derogations regarding the establishment of the United Cyprus Republic on the basis of Annan Plan and its EU membership has been the main motive in writing this paper. Since the acceptance of these derogations as secondary law stipulations could have resulted in a risk of annulment on the basis of their being in breach of primary EU law, some attention was paid to the possibility of accepting them as part of the accession agreement, thus rendering onto them primary law status. In connection with these discussions, this paper discusses the validity of derogations as primary law rules vis-à-vis founding treaties of the Union within the context of hierarchy of different norms in the EU legal system.
  • Topic: Law
  • Political Geography: Europe, Cyprus
  • Author: Johan Galtung
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Galtung develops a theory of imperialism to account for inequality within and between nations and the resistance of this inequality to change. He distinguishes between Centre and Periphery and argues that those in power in the former have a community of interest with those in power in the latter. The result is a relationship which operates at the expense of the majority of the people in the Peripheral countries, but which is largely in the interest of the majority of the people in Centre countries. Two mechanisms of imperialism are defined. One is the pattern of vertical interaction whereby the dominating nation enriches itself as a result of the interaction process. The second mechanism is the feudal interaction structure whereby the dominated nations in the periphery are kept apart.
  • Topic: Imperialism, Political Theory
  • Author: Ismail Hakki Iscan
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Geopolitics, which is the science of politics on geography, has throughout the history focused on geographical areas to be controlled or on geographical reasons for expansion of states. Those who aim to rule the world by controlling certain geographical areas have especially searched for ways of controlling Eurasia. In the core of geopolitical approaches that this paper deals with, is the aim of controlling the World through control of Eurasia first.
  • Topic: International Relations, Energy Policy, Politics
  • Political Geography: Europe, Eurasia, Asia
  • Author: Ercüment Tezcan
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The modernization of the application of the competition law of the European Community (EC) was carried out by the Council Regulation 1/2003 of December 16, 2002. This Regulation has repealed the regulation 17/62 of 16 February 1962 in force for more than 40 years. The Regulation 1/2003 is characterized by the abrogation of the notification and the preliminary authorization and its decentralization attempt for the application of the competition law of the EC. The national authorities and jurisdictions will be qualified from now on in this field by legal exception. Besides various details, the most important aspect of the new regulation is its gradual decentralization of the EC competition law, which should be considered within a broader framework of the reforms on the EC competition law, undertaken in the second half of 1990's.
  • Topic: Government, Markets, Reform
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Mustafa Aydin, Damla Aras
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The political logic (i.e., political perceptions of the ruling elite in a given country and nature of the political relations with other countries) determines economic activity, not the other way around, among the proto-capitalist states of the Middle East. As the political ties has primacy in the region in determining the course of economic relations, even market oriented democratic (or quasi-democratic) countries have to accept the prominence of political-strategic relations when dealing with such states. This paper will examine the interrelated fluctuation of trade and political tensions between Turkey and its immediate Middle Eastern neighbours - Iran, Iraq, and Syria. It will highlight the political determinants of the relationship between these countries; will discuss the role of the US as the independent variable; and will assess the possible effects of the emergence of Justice and Development Party government in Turkey on country's political and economic relations with its Middle Eastern neighbours.
  • Topic: International Relations, Economics, International Political Economy
  • Political Geography: United States, Iraq, Europe, Iran, Turkey, Middle East, Syria
  • Author: Atay Akdevelioglu
  • Publication Date: 06-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: While Iran did not have a clearly deliniated policy towards Central Aisa (and Azerbaijan) during the Soviet period and conducted its relations through Moscow, it tried to develop constructive engagement with the regional states since the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, Iran clearly came to accept the dominant postion of Russia in the region. Although it avoided involvement in internal affairs of the regional countries, Iran's political relations with them have not develop into a satisfactory level. In this, American discouragement of the regional countries to enter close relations with Iran, their identification of political Islam as domestic threat and Iran as its external hub, as well as Iran's own economic and technological weaknesses played important roles. Despite this political weaknesses and US pressures, however, Iran, with its suitable geographic location and acceptance of trampa with the energy reach countries, has emerged as an importan regional economic partner and alternative transit route.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy, Islam
  • Political Geography: United States, Iran, Central Asia, Asia, Azerbaijan
  • Author: Fulya A. Ereker
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: When taken as an aspect of "thinking on war", the concept of "just war" can be defined to include the ideas and practices that demonstrate when it could be justifiable to conduct a "war" and that aim at limiting the use of force even when it is deemed a just war. The concept of just war is a product of various cultural sources that have developed for centuries especially in the Western world. This study examines the historical development of the concept of "just war" and attempts to demonstrate the place that the tradition reached today. With this purpose in mind, the study, first of all, tries to explain the terms of "jus ad bellum" and "jus in bello" that together draw the conceptual framework of the theory of war and at the same time constitute the two different dimensions of the theory. Historical development of the concept is examined in sequential phrases that correspond to philosophical contributions to the tradition. The classification is based on the historical development of the West, because the concept itself is an element of the Western culture and tradition.
  • Topic: Development, War, Culture
  • Author: Johan Galtung
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Galtung develops a theory of imperialism to account for inequality within and between nations and the resistance of this inequality to change. He distinguishes between Centre and Periphery and argues that those in power in the former have a community of interest with those in power in the latter. The result is a relationship which operates at the expense of the majority of the people in the Peripheral countries, but which is largely in the interest of the majority of the people in Centre countries. Two mechanisms of imperialism are defined. One is the pattern of vertical interaction whereby the dominating nation enriches itself as a result of the interaction process. The second mechanism is the feudal interaction structure whereby the dominated nations in the periphery are kept apart.
  • Topic: Imperialism, Political Theory
  • Author: Sennur Özdemir
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: A radical crisis in capitalist system has been determined in the first part of the study, in relation with the present chaotic international atmosphere, resulting in a civilisational turn (from the West to the East). The dominant role attributed to the (Islamic) East in this process will be argued in the second section. Lastly, this argument will be discussed around the MÜSİAD in Turkey, as an organisation (with an Islamic reputation) in recently declared 'model country' for the Islamic Middle East. The MÜSİAD has stamped on the agenda of 1990's in many respects with its multi-functional and multilateral positioning determined by the kinds of activities intersecting economic and socio-cultural (indirectly political as well) fields. This organisation is representative in reflecting Turkey's overall transformation in its multidimensionality (from a specific form of state capitalism to a specific form of market capitalism).
  • Topic: Economics, Islam, Religion
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Middle East
  • Author: Gökhan Koçer
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Globalization, frequently attributed to the Post-Cold War era, ignites discussions in different disciplines of social sciences. It also affects the IR theory. In the process, while various new paradigms are added to IR discipline, some of the current paradigms have lost their influences on the discipline. Today there is neither a consensus on naming the era in which we live in, nor a general paradigm, capable to explain the dynamics of the era under consideration. Globalization, at the same time, is considered as a joker concept, which can fill the vacuum between international system and international relations paradigm. Although globalization is not accepted as a system by itself, it is quite clear that it contains certain elements that contribute to the construction of a new international system. On the other hand, it can also be said that globalization -which is historically originated from liberalism- is a new version of realism and as such constitute a theory of IR.
  • Topic: International Relations, Cold War, Globalization
  • Author: Çagri Erhan
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: As is had been the case during the Cold War, Central Asian region was one of the priorities in the US foreign policy in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Howevwr, this gegan to change in the second half of the 1990s as the US became aware of its vital interests in the region. This led to a situıation in which the place accorded to Central Asia in the American national security strategies began to increase. Following September 11 attacks the US started cooperating with the Central Asian republics closely. US troops began to enter the region under the rhetoric of "fight against terrorism" since the end of 2001. Thus, US administration began its military opening toward the region as it had been seeking ways to gain influence in the region since the second half of the 1900s. Wahington realized its aim guickly due to the "temporary approval" of Russia and willingness of the regional countries to cooperate.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Russia, United States, America, Central Asia, Asia, Soviet Union
  • Author: Erdem Denk
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study the advisory opinion given by the ICJ regarding the wall being constructed by Israel in the occupied territories. The Court has found that the wall, which is, according to Israel, being constructed due to security consideraions regard,ng terrorist attacks of various Palestinian gropus, is contarry to various principles and rules of international law. The basic justification of the decision is the fact that the wall is being constructed on areas which have the status of "occupied territories". The Court, which wasted the opportunity to assess the relationship between law and the struggle against terrorism, has also failed to deal sufficiently with the merits of the case althought it dwelled on every objection of Israel regarding procedural matters. Although it is a quite apt judgement,the rather general and abstract conclıisons regarding the mertis of the case gave those who criticised the judgement some space to base thier arguments. The Court should have given much more importance to its legal reasonnig regarding concrete breaches of Israel.
  • Topic: International Law
  • Political Geography: Middle East, Israel, Palestine
  • Author: Beril Dedeoglu
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Karl Deutsch's "security community" approach which defends that development of mutual relations between societies rather than states will be beneficial, suggests that the increase of communication and displacement possibilities between social sectors allowing the elaboration of common values. largely contributed to this comprehension. This approach insists that establishment of mutual confidence between similar societies is important to assure peace. This kind of cooperation has also contributed to the formation of an opponent, enemy or "the other". In the actual complex interdependence system, those who are defined as the others are threatening the security of societies. Deutsch's approach which offers several important clues regarding the assurence of confidence between societies, when applied to the relationship between different societies rather than similar ones, could help reestablishing security societies.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society
  • Author: Elçin Aktoprak
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Immanuel Wallerstein is one of the distinguished social scientists differentiating our general way of understanding and perceiving the world by developing the thesis that is based on world-system analysis. The aim of this article is limited to a short explanation of his approach. In this context, in the first chapter Wallerstein's world-system analysis and social sciences approach will be dealt with and in the second chapter modern world-system will be examined. Wallerstein considers modern world-system as a capitalist world-economy. Hence, Wallerstein's perception on capitalism and geoculture and his opinions on class, race, national and ethnic identity will be held in the second chapter.
  • Topic: Civil Society, Economics, Globalization
  • Author: Yücel Bozdaglioglu, Çinar Özen
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This paper analyzes and compares the concept of power as defined both in liberalism/neolibaeralism and realism. As a result of this analysis, it is presented that there is not a big difference between the definitions of liberal/neoliberal and realist approaches in terms of the goals and both schools converge in that aspect. While realism emphasizes the importance of military power, liberalism/neoliberalism points out the importance of power arising from economic relations. Under this analytical framework, a definition of systemic power is presented. Systemic power is not the capacity of a state to have a direct influence on others' behaviors but power that arises from a state's ability to change the political and economic structure of the system. In this context, systemic power is crucial in creating and maintaining hegemony.
  • Topic: International Political Economy, Political Theory
  • Author: Rasim Özgür Dönmez
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: The aim of the article is to evaluate the relationship between globalization, modernity and violence in the context of the antagonistic relationship between political Islam and the West. To put it more succinctly, this study seeks an answer for the question "why and how do globalization and modernity breed global political violence?" It tries to answer this question by means of evaluating the formation, the development and the transformation process of political Islam by considering and examining the role of the West, modernity and the changing political, economic and psychological conditions stemming from globalization. In this framework, this study consists of two sections. The first section evaluates the effects of globalization and modernity on the formation of political violence. The second section explains and examines the relationship between globalization, modernity, violence and political Islam.
  • Topic: Development, Economics, Globalization, Islam, Terrorism
  • Author: Hakan Gönen
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: This study examines the formation, evolution and consequences of the US-Japan post-war security relations. Since the end of World War II, the close US-Japan security relationship has benefited both nations. Japan relies on the US for protection from outside attacks by either conventional or nuclear forces. In turn, under the terms of the security treaty, Tokyo lends military bases on Japanese soil to American forces. In this context, Japan has been able to concentrate on rebuilding its economy with relatively little concern for its own defense. But both Tokyo and Washington have begun to reassess their security requirements in view of changing global threats in the post-cold war era.
  • Topic: Security, Cold War
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, America
  • Author: Mert Bilgin
  • Publication Date: 12-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Institution: Uluslararasi Iliskiler
  • Abstract: Post-Soviet countries are either passing through a transition period, or have already completed it, as an outcome of the neoliberal pressures of international actors. The attempts have focused on reconstruction of the state because of its being conceived as an impediment in front of political and economic liberalization. The states of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan resemble other transition economies in the sense that they share a similar Soviet legacy. Nevertheless, they deviate from the rest by the virtue of natural resources which endow the state the ability to re-produce itself. The state of Azerbaijan has liberated itself from the society by using the natural resource rents, which in turn outmode taxation as an instrument of revenue. Despite Kazakhstan's discernible progress in launching economic reforms, the state has politically kept its solid structure. The Kazakh state has preferred to allocate the natural gas revenues for economic transformation with no political liberalization. Under an autocratic regime, the Turkmen state has strengthened its positioning vis-à-vis the society with no economic and political transformation.
  • Topic: Communism, Development, Economics
  • Political Geography: Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Soviet Union, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan
  • Author: Michael McDevitt
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The US-ROK security relationship is in transition. It is a transition that started some time ago, in 1989 to be precise, with the end of the Cold War. What we are experiencing today is simply the latest, and perhaps most public manifestation, of a process that has been gathering momentum since the early days of the first Bush Administration.
  • Political Geography: United States, Korea
  • Author: Jae-Kap Ryoo
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Is the ROK-U.S. alliance relationship in crisis or at a turning point where it can be transformed into a more resilient alliance? Is there simply a semantic debate raising questions at the moment or is the alliance suffering a real crisis? Most observers worry about the alliance's future, and many experts consider that the alliance relationship is in a transitional period: to be redefined and restructured to meet new requirements for the 21st century on the Korean peninsula and in the Asia-Pacific region more generally. At present, the Republic of Korea and the United States need to prepare for the future. In light of various challenges to their security alliance, future prospects do not seem bright. This article is an attempt to do three things: to analyze various challenges to the ROK-U.S. alliance relationship and to consider the strategic implications for the future of the alliance in the Asia-Pacific region; to explore more effective ways to develop a new relationship for the 21st century; and to search for a more appropriate method to make the alliance “unique” in the Asia-Pacific while remaining comparable with the U.S.-Japan alliance and other treaty relationships.
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, Korea
  • Author: Choong Nam Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: With the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s Inter-Korean relations, a lasting reminder of that Cold War, have undergone drastic changes, especially during and after the Kim Dae Jung administration. Peace and stability in Northeast Asia depend on what happens on the Korean peninsula. How Seoul's North Korea policy evolves is of great interest to its allies and will likely impact South Korea's stature in the regional strategic order. In particular, the U.S.-ROK relationship can improve or deteriorate based on the diplomatic direction that South Korea takes with North Korea.
  • Political Geography: United States, South Korea, North Korea, Korea, Northeast Asia
  • Author: Samuel S. Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: There has been much talk lately about the changing role of China on the Korean peninsula. China's proactive diplomacy during the second standoff over nuclear weapons between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) stands in marked contrast to the risk-averse “who me?” posture it held during the conflict of the early 1990s that culminated in the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework on October 21, 1994. In that earlier conflict, the Chinese opted to sit on the sidelines with the familiar refrain that this was a dispute to be resolved bilaterally between Washington and Pyongyang. In the latest (second) nuclear standoff, China has played the primary catalytic role of facilitating bi-trilateral (DPRK-U.S.-China) and multilateral six-nation dialogues among all the Northeast Asian concerned states, drawing North Korea into a sui generis regional multilateral setting that it had previously sworn off in a quest for bilateral negotiations with the United States. In this process, the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of Korea (ROK) have increasingly come into virtual geopolitical alignment, in tandem with the straining and fracturing of the ROK-US alliance.
  • Political Geography: United States, China, Washington, Asia, Korea, Pyongyang
  • Author: Robert Sutter
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: Beginning in 2003, Chinese leaders began a new stage in China's efforts to define China's approach toward its neighboring countries and what China's approach meant for the United States and US interests in Asia and the world. Premier Wen Jiabao addressed the topic of China's peaceful rise in a speech in New York on December 9, 2003. Despite such high level pronouncements, the exact purpose and scope of the new emphasis on China's “peaceful rise” remained less than clear to Chinese and foreign specialists. Consultations in May 2004 with 50 Chinese officials and non-government specialists closely involved in this issue helped to clarify the state of play in Chinese decision-making circles regarding China's peaceful rise and what it meant for China's approach to Korea and the rest of Asia and for US interests and policy in the region.
  • Political Geography: United States, China, Asia, Korea
  • Author: Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: While the use of weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear programs and missiles has been part of Pyongyang's brinkmanship strategy almost since the very beginning of the Kim Chong-il era, the current string of events that have occurred since the fall of 2002 is unique. Instead of the world and the region having concerns over the nuclear facility at Yongbyon, the situation now exists where North Korea has the potential for weaponizing, using, and proliferating two nuclear programs - both plutonium based, and the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) program which came into existence during the 1990s.
  • Political Geography: United States, North Korea
  • Author: Young Whan Kihl
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: The United States - ROK Mutual Defense Treaty, commemorating its half-century mark on October 1, 2003, was hailed as one of the successful, long-standing, military alliances that the U.S. had entered into with its allies in the post-World War II era. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Korean War, there was a wide-ranging commemorative community program and activities throughout the United States, to honor Korean War veterans and their family members.
  • Political Geography: United States, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Sunwoong Kim
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: According to an opinion survey reported in chosun-Ilbo on May 10, 2004, 79.3 percent of the general public and 90.2% of experts viewed the existing economic situation in Korea as a crisis. However, the two groups' views differed substantially when they were asked how the 17th National Assembly Elections (NAE) held on April 15, 2004, would affect the economy. While the majority of the general public (56.8%) stated that the elections would have a positive effect on the economy, 48.7% of the experts said that the elections would have a negative effect. What explains such divergent views between the general public and the experts?
  • Political Geography: Korea
  • Author: Edward J. Button
  • Publication Date: 09-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: International Journal of Korean Studies
  • Institution: International Council on Korean Studies
  • Abstract: You can take the Korean out of Korea, but you cannot take Korea out of the Korean. This saying implies that experts on Korean affairs with Korean ethnicity, regardless of their citizenship, regardless of how many generations ago their families immigrated to other countries, may evaluate situations through Korean eyes and be biased towards traditional Korean points of view. Even though an increasing number of non-Koreans are becoming involved in the study of Korean affairs, which is a good sign for global awareness of the importance of Korea in world affairs, these individuals, of necessity, spend limited time in Korea and interact mostly with other professionals with similar interests and ideas. For these reasons, the author, who has lived and worked continuously in Korea since 1982, may be able to describe and discuss changes in Korean society as seen through non-Korean eyes.
  • Political Geography: America, South Korea, Korea
9468. Foreword
  • Author: Chernor Jalloh
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: On behalf of the entire Editorial Board, I am pleased to present the inaugural issue of the African Journal of Legal Studies (‘AJLS’) on the theme of Justice and Reconciliation. It is dedicated to the memory of all those who were killed in the genocide in Rwanda in 1994.
  • Political Geography: Africa
  • Author: Rosemary Nagy
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: Whereas amnesty is generally associated with impunity and denial, in South Africa, amnesty was pulled into the reach of justice and reconciliation. This article assesses the extent to which South Africa's amnesty fulfilled these normative goals. It centers on the difficulty of differentiating between “private” acts and “political” crimes deserving of amnesty. It argues that the determination of political crimes obfuscated the full extent of apartheid violence and responsibility for it. Consequently, the amnesty process produced a truncated “truth” about apartheid violence that was insufficient to the task of overcoming the past. This is in part an intractable problem embedded in the conflicting tasks of transitional law. The lesson of hope that South Africa offers to other transitional nations is that amnesty should be wound into the promises of democracy without creating false expectations of reconciliation or simplistic truths about the past.
  • Political Geography: South Africa
  • Author: Eugenia Zorbas
  • Publication Date: 03-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: African Journal of Legal Studies
  • Institution: The Africa Law Institute
  • Abstract: National reconciliation is a vague and 'messy' process. In post-genocide Rwanda, it presents special difficulties that stem from the particular nature of the Rwandan crisis and the popular participation that characterized the Rwandan atrocities. This article outlines the main approaches being used in Rwanda to achieve reconciliation, highlighting some of the major obstacles faced by these institutions. It then goes on to argue that certain 'Silences' are being imposed on the reconciliation process, including the failure to prosecute alleged RPA crimes, the lack of debate on, and the instrumentalization of, Rwanda's 'histories', the collective stigmatization of all Hutu as génocidaires, and the papering over of societal cleavages through the 'outlawing' of 'divisionism'. The role economic development can play in the reconciliation process is also discussed. Given the Government of Rwanda's central role in the reconciliation process and its progressive drift towards authoritarianism, the article ends with a reflection on the worrisome parallels between the pre and post-genocide socio-political contexts.
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
9472. Foreword
  • Author: Ahmed I. Samatar, Lidwien Kapteijns
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: This issue of Bildhaan is dedicated to some of the commissioned proceedingsof an international conference, “Somalis in America: TheChallenges of Adaptation,” which was held at Macalester College, July15–17, 2004.
  • Political Geography: America, Somalia
  • Author: Ahmed I Samatar
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: A key feature of this phase of globalization is a speedy catalyzation of a heretofore unseen degree of human mobility and cultural interpenetration. Unlike the earlier epochs in the making of the modern world (16th through the early 20th-century), when Europeans were the main groups leaving their homelands to find better lives in other parts of the word, the contemporary era is witness to a dramatic reversal movement. Many in Africa, Central and South America, and Asia have come or are earnestly planning to lift their heels for the “old” West (even to Southern and Eastern Europe) and “neo-Europe” (e.g., the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand). The phenomenal arrival of tens of thousands of Somalis in the United States within the last two decades (first as a trickle and then in larger numbers since the 1990s) is to a great extent part of this trend. It is a happening that is, in one sense, part of an old story, as President Roosevelt correctly asserted, and a continuous aspect in the quintessential making of these United States, marked by the settlement of people from almost every region of the world. As a matter of fact, since the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 and the Refugee Act of 1980, more than twenty million legal immigrants have entered the U.S. A dramatic demographic consequence of these flows of people, according to the 2000 U.S. Census, is this: At present, those Americans who are foreign-born and their children compose around one-fifth of the American population. If the Somali presence in America is one slice of the latest iteration, the potential for a decent, let alone notable success—in both material and mental terms—depends on how, individually and collectively, they assess the complexities of the new environment and, subsequently, snatch any legitimate turns of chance. To state this point is not to under estimate how difficult circumstances have been, are, or could be. The life histories of others who came before Somalis, including some of European ancestry (e.g., the Irish and southerners from around the Mediterranean),testify to the cruel treatment that might await and the bogushindrances that one must struggle against during the transition.
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand
  • Author: Lidwien Kapteijns, Abukar Arman
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Becoming “a diasporic people, blasted from one history into another,” is a great tragedy. However, in the heart of the storm, new opportunities and new dangers are born. The Somalis today constitute a complex transnational set of communities fanning out from Somalia and spanning the globe from Australia to Western Europe and North America. The Somali diaspora consists of individuals (and groups) who arrived and were received in a wide range of host societies at different times and in different ways, bringing with them the social, cultural, and political divisions of back home. All this has been exacerbated by the divisive legacy of the civil war (1978–present). Even after resettlement Somalis do not sit still. Instead, they are characterized by continuous movement within the diaspora. The complex set of communities resulting from these histories is also unique, as they shared life—however imperfectly and at times unequally—in Somalia.
  • Political Geography: Australia, North America, Somalia, Western Europe
  • Author: Helga Leitner
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: United States immigration policy is based on the assumption that every legal immigrant to this country is on the road to becoming a U.S. citizen. In order to become a citizen, immigrants are explicitly or tacitly expected to assimilate into the U.S. sociocultural and economic system, to shed their attachment and allegiance to their home country, and to devote their loyalty to just one country, the United States. The first line of the citizenship oath makes this clear: “I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign…state…of…which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen.” Viewing loyalty in such zero-sum terms has blinded American policymakers to migrants' transnational practices, ties, and multiple allegiances.
  • Political Geography: United States, America
  • Author: David McGraw Schuchman, Colleen McDonald
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Over the past seven years, there has been a vast influx of Somali refugees and immigrants making their new home in Minnesota, with the overwhelming majority residing in the Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul. While official estimates indicate that less than 20,000 Somalis are in Minnesota, it is well accepted that there are actually 50,000–75,000. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact number due to limitations in census data collection and the continual growth resulting from such factors as secondary migration. Since Minnesota has welcomed African immigrants, family members who live in other states within the U.S. and Canada continue to join many newly arrived families. The prospect of Somali immigrants and refugees returning to their homelands is unlikely. Continuing war, civil strife, and economic crises make the outlook for return bleak. Therefore, it is important that Minnesota continue to embrace and welcome Somalis into the community and assist in their acculturation process.
  • Political Geography: Africa, United States, Canada
  • Author: Hussein M Samatar
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: There is a universal belief among Somali entrepreneurs in the Twin Cities that they can become rich very quickly; therefore, they need to hurry up and start their business so they can get to the Promised Land and strike a fortune in the process. This sometimes leads to jumping into business without thinking it through. There is no question that Somali entrepreneurs are ambitious and hardworking people. Some of them work more than sixteen hours a day in a full-time job and at the same time run their own business. What they have accomplished in less than ten years is quite remarkable. Somali entrepreneurs and other new immigrants, such as Latinos and Asians, are overwhelmingly responsible for revitalizing old and neglected commercial corridors in south Minneapolis, such as Nicollet Avenue and Lake Street, and University Avenue in Saint Paul.
  • Political Geography: Asia, Somalia
  • Author: Saad A. Shire
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: According to the English dictionary, “to remit” means to send money. But nowadays the term remittance seems to have assumed a more specific significance. It is very much used to mean money sent back to the home country by migrants. Since the Somali community is part of a wider international migrant community, I would like to start my presentation with some myths and facts about migrants in general in order to put into perspective the Somali case, the subject of this conference.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Amina Said Ali
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
9480. Appendix
  • Publication Date: 07-2004
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Among the enormous costs of the civil strife and the demise of Somali national institutions is the exodus of hundreds of thousands of people who have sought refuge in almost every continent. A large portion of those in flight have found succor in North America, particularly the United States, with the state of Minnesota as an epicenter. As was the case with others who fled their native lands, the degree of success of all arrivals to settle in the new environment depends on two interconnected processes: the construction of adaptive individual/ collective identities fit for the new time, and the willingness of the receiving communities to embrace cultural diversity, within a national framework, in the perennial remaking of America.
  • Political Geography: America, North America, Somalia
  • Author: Pierre Martin
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The 2002 presidential and parliamentary elections were marked by stunning outcomes, like the defeat of socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in the first round of the presidential election and the reelection of incumbing President Jacques Chirac, who garnered more than 80 percent of the votes and defeated the far right candidate, Jean- Marie Le Pen. The presidential election was also marked by a weakening of the communist party, which collected less than 5 percent of the votes, and an exceptional rise of the far right. The number of abstentions was also on the rise. As for the parliamentary elections, they represented a blunt defeat for the left and reinstated the moderate right in power, unified as UMP behind its leader Jacques Chirac. Still, even such major electoral moves were not able to destroy the roots of the party system and electoral order instated after the 1981-1984 years.
  • Author: Sophie Meunier
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: France has become a worldwide champion of anti-globalization. French intellectuals have long denounced the cultural and economic shortcomings of US-led globalization, while French politicians, on the Left as on the Right, load their speeches with rhetoric critical of a phenomenon that gets a lot less attention in other European countries and in the United States. Yet, at the same time, France is a country whose economy and society have adapted well to this much-criticized globalization. Why this double-speak? Why this disjuncture between words and actions? This article explores this paradox, analyzes the role that France's double discourse on globalization has played in producing the surprising outcome of the 2002 elections, and reflects on the options open to the main political parties today.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, France
  • Author: Brian A. McKenzie
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article examines the promotion of American tourism to France during the Marshall Plan. The paper assesses the cultural and economic goals of the tourism program. Economic aid provided by the United States was essential for the post-war reconstruction of the French tourism industry. Furthermore, transatlantic air carriers adopted new guidelines for tourist class airfares at the urging of U.S. officials. The paper also examines marketing strategies and the creation of tourism infrastructures that facilitated transatlantic tourism. Representatives from the French tourism industry visited the United States to study American hotels and they agreed to adopt practices and rebuild French hotels in ways that would be congenial to American tourists. The paper demonstrates that French and American officials and tourism professionals Americanized the French tourism industry during the Marshall Plan.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, America, France
  • Author: Christopher Endy
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In the late 1950s and 1960s, many French politicians, journalists, and travel industry leaders argued that the French had lost their manners. Although some foreigners, most notably Americans, spoke of rude French hosts, this negative stereotype was largely a French construction. Defenders of artisanal tradition reinforced the idea of French rudeness to highlight the dangers of postwar modernization, while technocratic commentators used the stereotype to criticize artisanal practices. Responding to this perceived crisis in hospitality, Charles de Gaulle's Fifth Republic expanded its involvement in mass tourism, launching "amicability" campaigns and boosting investment in high-rise hotels. The discourse of French rudeness helps explain the evolution of France's travel industry and illuminates cultural dimensions to postwar modernization and Franco-American relations.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Robert A. Nye
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: It is useful to think about the debate and passage of the recent legislation on the PACS in terms of the long run of the history of sexuality in France. Owing in part to a perceived demographic crisis, the French have expressed a strong bias in favor of reproductive sexuality. This has meant that sexual discourse has discouraged non-procreative sexuality, including same sex sexuality, and favored heterosexual relationships, which have been regarded as the only legitimate foundation for family life. Despite the decriminalization of homosexuality, this historic bias continues to shape public debate about marriage and the family, as the recent debate over the PACS reveals.
  • Topic: History
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Joan W. Scott
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Robert Nye's elegant essay rightly puts the PaCS, and the debates about it into a historical context of French natalism. At least since the late nineteenth century, reproduction has been the raison d'être of the married couple and the state has often made fertility synonymous with patriotism. From this has followed all manner of representations, many of them contradictory. Although it surely was the case, as Nys shows, that marriage was eroticized and marital love idealized, it was also the case that reproduction and sexual satisfaction were considered separate domains.
  • Topic: History
  • Political Geography: France
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The new Mansfield and Winthrop translation of Tocqueville's classic text, notable for the lengthy introduction the translators provide as well as their determined effort to create the most literal word-for-word translation that has ever been published of the work, draws the critical eye of four Tocqueville specialists. Focusing on the introduction, Seymour Drescher points out that the translators' decision to regard the Democracy of 1935 and the one of 1840 as a single work, a decision made against the grain of recent scholarship, leads them into misunderstandings of how Tocqueville came to view the strengths and weaknesses of American democracy by the 1840s. Arthur Goldhammer, at work on his own translation of Democracy, goes beyond the longstanding debates over literal versus interpretive translation to point out a large number of errors in rendering French expressions into English. Melvin Richter explores a number of instances where the pursuit of literalness leads to distortions, and then focuses on the consequences translating l'état social as "social state" rather than "state of society." Cheryl Welch examines how the decision to translate inquiet as "restive" rather than "restless" or "anxious," as she would have preferred, leads the translators to underestimate how much Tocqueville's views of religion and women were informed by his own anxieties about moral disorder in a democratic society. Mansfield and Winthrop respond to their critics with a detailed discussion of several of their most controversial word choices and with a defense of their strategy of literal translation.
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Françoise Mélonio
  • Publication Date: 03-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Sheldon Wolin propose de Tocqueville une interprétation dont le principe est énoncé dès le titre: «Tocqueville entre deux mondes». Tocqueville est pour Wolin un démocrate réticent, attaché a la démocratie comme à une épreuve inévitable, tant il reste lié à ce que Wolin appelle, d'un mot que Tocqueville n'emploie guère, «l'ancienneté», c'est à dire les valeurs de la société hiérarchique. La thèse n'est pas nouvelle, mais elle fait l'objet ici d'une argumentation extrèmement fouillée.
  • Author: Gilberte Furstenberg
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The MIT Cultura project juxtaposes French/American opinion and expression, in order to involve respondents in a collaborative and ongoing process designed to identify perspectives and values, and so to undermine cross-cultural misconceptions and stereotypes.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Sophie Body-Gendrot
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Analysis of opinion polls shows that even Americans unfamiliar with France are prepared to hold opinions about the country. Many see France as a non-America, a positive or negative counter-model. Moreover, "Americans" comprise many different perspectives and so "France" does not mean the same thing to everyone.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Jean-Phlippe Mathy
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Francophobia is at base a systematic and recurrent critique of an alleged societal model based on political centralization and cultural elitism, seen as beginning with the monarchy and continuing on into the Republic, and contrasting with American liberalism, democracy, egalitarianism, and anti-statism.
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Justin Vaïsse
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Francophobia, a set of stereotypes, insults, and ready-made judgments designed to prove one's patriotism and score political points, is based primarily in diplomatic and conservative circles. The war in Iraq was a moment of special mobilization of Francophobia by the administration and a large share of the media, and may prove to have been a crystallizing moment for the discourse.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Iraq, America
  • Author: Pierre Verdaguer
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: From a highly critical position in the early 1990s, the Washington Post evolved toward move favorable coverage of France in areas even beyond the familiar one of culture, as a function of a perceived tendency on the part of the French to follow at last the American lead. But for how long?
  • Political Geography: Washington, France
  • Author: Carolyn Durham
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Dane Johnson's Le Divorce and Le Mariage are representative of contemporary novels that use French-American interpersonal relations to reconfigure questions of national identity and cultural specificity, via metaphorical networks that recall the "complex connectivity" that characterizes globalization.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Brigitte Humbert
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: American films about France or French people seek to maintain a certain level of Frenchness, usually through superficial traits and stereotypes, while also naturalizing them for perceived American expectations, including a taste for romance, a clear demarcation between good and evil, a certain type of action, and happy closure.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Edward C. Knox
  • Publication Date: 06-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In search of authenticity and a tradition of quality, and as a response to an increasingly standardized US, personal narratives set in Paris or the provinces recount attempts at cultural integration, through mastery of French cooking, learning French, or redoing a house into a home.
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Philip Nord
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: French Catholicism experienced a renaissance in the interwar decades, which expressed itself in a variety of forms: associational activism, cultural production, and political organizing. The new Catholic activism left a mark on the life of the late Third Republic; it played a well-known part at Vichy; and it made a major, if not always acknowledged, contribution to the renovation of French public life in the aftermath of the Second World War.
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Joshua Cole
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In October 1961, an as yet undetermined number of Algerian protesters were killed by the police in Paris while demonstrating for Algerian independence. In the last two decades, these killings have become the focal point of a public controversy in France, as questions about the memory of the Algerian war converged with debates about immigration and citizenship in the 1980s and 1990s and with the willingness of the French state to confront the crimes committed during the last phase of decolonization between 1945 and 1962. Most commentaries have emphasized the connections of this debate with an earlier bout of French soul-searching over the question of the Vichy government's collaboration with Germany during World War II. This connection seemed all the more relevant when the man who was the prefect of police in Paris in 1961, Maurice Papon, was accused and eventually convicted of assisting in the deportation of Jews from Bordeaux in 1942-1944. This article argues that the public attention to the connections between Maurice Papon and the Holocaust have obscured the extent to which the debate in France about October 1961 has been driven by developments in Algerian politics in the last four decades. The extent to which historical accounts of the events of October 1961 are shaped by very contemporary political concerns presents particular challenges to the historian, who must find a way of retelling the story without merely reproducing the ideological conflict that produced the violence in the first place.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Paris, France, Germany, Algeria
  • Author: Bruno Palier
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Le système français de retraite présente de façon typique, voire caricaturale, les caractéristiques des systèmes continentaux de protection sociale, qualifiés de conservateurs et de corporatistes par Gosta Esping-Andersen 2. Ce système d'as-surance vieillesse, financé en répartition, vise au maintien du revenu des salariés et garantit des prestations relativement généreuses aux travailleurs mais se soucie peu des plus pauvres ou de ceux (surtout celles) aux carrières discon-tinues et aux faibles revenus. Ce système, obligatoire, n'est pas géré directement par l'État mais par les partenaires sociaux, représentants de ceux qui cotisent et bénéficient du système. Dans la mesure où chaque catégorie professionnelle atenu a conserver son propre régime de retraite, le système est très fragmenté.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Kerry Whiteside
  • Publication Date: 09-2003
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The cultivation of genetically modified crops has re-energized a tendency within French culture to apply broad, humanistic values to social and technological trends perceived to endanger them. Humanists invoke qualitative standards of refined taste, social equity, humane work conditions, aesthetic satisfaction, and critical political engagement in their judgments. The spread of transgenic plants challenges humanistic culture to the extent that biotechnological innovations are perceived to be driven by narrower considerations of scientific curiosity, agronomic advantage, and corporate profitability. The French state has had to balance a desire to put those techno-economic interests in the service of its international standing and an imperative to respond to skeptical citizens intent on having more say in decisions affecting the quality of their lives. Consequently, the state has experimented with new participatory practices designed to register concerns that might be shortchanged in the culture of political and scientific elites.
  • Political Geography: France