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  • Author: Jean-Pierre Cassarino
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: A number of factors explain why some EU member states, particularly France Italy and Spain are gradually opting for informal patterns of cooperation on readmission issues with Mediterranean and African countries. This adaptive inclination is more of a necessity than an option. It reflects the more urgent need of some EU member states to find flexible solutions for cooperation on readmission rather than to conclude bilateral readmission agreements. The agenda remains unchanged, but there has been a shift in priority actions with regard to these countries. The operability of cooperation on readmission has been prioritised over formalisation.
  • Political Geography: Africa, Canada, Shanghai, France, Spain, Italy
  • Author: Francesco Palermo
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: What does regional external power mean? To what extent is it allowed? What are the limits for its exercise? And how is it carried our in today's quasi-federal Italy? Not only is regional foreign policy a litmus test for the legal development of a compound system; it is also extremely telling as far as the political maturity of the actors in a multi-level governmental system is concerned. In the present constitutional and political framework in Italy, there is a cleavage between the rather developed normative framework and the immature practical reality. Regional foreign policy is something very important about which too little ado is made.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Italy
  • Author: M. Theo Jans, Patrick Stouthuysen
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The Belgian regions and communities have an unparalleled external role. Their treaty-making powers and their representation in the EU policy process require extensive coordination efforts to ensure coherence. Paradoxically the regional quest for external autonomy has actually forced the regions/communities to cooperate much more than was initially expected. Few intergovernmental conflicts have emerged and those that have arisen have been settled in a pragmatic (technocratic) fashion.
  • Author: Bruno Coppieters
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Application of the federal principle of shared sovereignty to external security policies directed against foreign states can easily give rise to a situation in which the federation ceases to be an indivisible subject in an international setting. This can in turn lead to conflicts between the two levels. A comparison of three instances of sanctions adopted by federated states - the sanction policies of Massachusetts in support of the democratisation of Myanmar/Burma (1996-2000), the divestment policies of Illinois in opposition to the governmental policies of Sudan (2006- ), and the participation by Flanders in Belgian and European sanctions in protest against the Freedom Party's participation in the Austrian government (2000) - confirms this thesis.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Europe, Sudan, Burma
  • Author: James Ker-Lindsay
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: New Democracy's victory in the March 2004 Greek elections immediately raised questions about the continued development of the process of rapprochement between Greece and Turkey, which had started five years earlier in 1999. However, concerns were misplaced. The incoming administration made it clear that it intended to maintain the policy of détente. Like the previous PASOK government, it sought to minimise the role of Cyprus as a factor in bilateral relations and continued to support Turkey's membership of the European Union. Where differences did arise between New Democracy and PASOK, they appeared to be more a result of the differing styles of George Papandreou and Petros Molyviatis, the two foreign ministers, than as a result of any significant disparity in basic foreign policy principles.
  • Political Geography: Europe, Turkey, Jayapura
  • Author: Gian Luigi Tosato
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The European Union's difficulty in functioning is a result in large measure of its decision-making mechanisms, which expose any measure to a veto by a scant minority or even a single state. The flexible model of Europe, and that is of differentiated integration, attempts to overcome this deadlock. The flexible model is based on the simple and reasonable idea that a member state which dissents is not obligated to associate itself with a certain initiative, but cannot block the others from carrying it out. In certain "virtuous" conditions, flexibility does not imply a risk of breaking up the Union. On the contrary, it offers a dynamic instrument to reconcile the requirements of unity and diversity and promote the process of European integration.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Gianni Bonvicini, Elfriede Regelsberger
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Since its inclusion in the treaties of the European Union (EU) with the Maastricht Treaty of 1992, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) has drawn considerable interest from both the European public and all participating states. The collective framework offers the EU member states a unique chance to play a role in world politics which none of them would be able to play individually. No member state has ever fundamentally questioned participation or even left the system. On the contrary: all EU members – big or small, ''old'' or ''new'' – are keen on improving the procedures and the institutional set-up of their collective endeavours as the reform proposals put forward from the time of the Maastricht Treaty onward, through the Amsterdam and Nice Treaties, up to the European Convention and the Constitutional Treaty in 2003, have shown.
  • Political Geography: Amsterdam
  • Author: Cesare Pinelli
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: While attributing the main tasks relating to CFSP to various institutions, the EU Treaty mirrors the traditional EU structure, which does not appear to be able to provide the coherence and efficiency needed in the foreign policy field. The Constitutional Treaty attempted to achieve coherence by introducing important changes, including an EU Minister for Foreign Affairs (the "double-hatting" solution). After the CT ratification failures, however, thinking must be directed at finding steps that lead towards the CT solutions but are at the same time compatible with the TEU. While double-hatting is difficult to reconcile with some of the TEU's provisions, other measures and devices could to some extent anticipate the CT's perspective without contravening the treaties in force.
  • Topic: Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Michele Nones
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The prospect of transatlantic cooperation in the field of defence systems depends on reaching an acceptable point of equilibrium. Without it, Europe would find the strategic, political, economic, and industrial risks of total American predominance in this field (with the consequent loss of technical and production expertise) unacceptable. The reduction of the gap between Europe and the United States depends on the integration of the European defence market. This must not be seen as a risk for transatlantic collaboration, but as an opportunity. Building up a transatlantic market could also improve the efficiency of the American market by increasing competition. This collaboration, based not on bilateral, national, or multilateral agreements, but instead on bi-continental cooperation, is the challenge that Europe and the United States must face and meet together.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: United States, America, Europe
  • Author: Emiliano Alessandri
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Dangerous nation, Robert Kagan, Knopf, 2006
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Arianna Checchi
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: The age of oil : the mythology, history, and future of the world's most controversial resource, Leonardo Maugeri, Praeger, 2006 and The global oil market : risks and uncertainties, Anthony H. Cordesman and Khalid R. Al-Rodhan, CSIS Press, 2006
  • Author: Daniela Pioppi
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Democratization and development : new political strategies for the Middle East, edited by Dietrich Jung, Palgrave MacMillan, 2006
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Middle East
  • Author: Christopher Hughes
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: This article explains the emerging security dynamics in the Asia-Pacific in the context of the project to establish an "Asian Community". Although the model of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been constrained by a post-colonial attachment to sovereignty, new processes of domestic democratisation, taking in new members and dealing with non-traditional security threats have led to an acceptance of the need to deepen its social and political pillars. The real test for this project, however, will be whether it can be extended to Northeast Asia, where relations between states are still characterised by traditional power-balancing and rising nationalism.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: Northeast Asia, Asia-Pacific
  • Author: Michael Yahuda
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: China's continuing rise has brought it to a new stage in its engagement with the outside world. China's growing economic and diplomatic weight has made it an influential player in all parts of the world and it is seeking to consolidate its image as a responsible major player within its own region and in the wider world. The Olympic Games to be held in Beijing next year will offer a major opportunity to show that China has come of age as a modern power. China is reaching a point where the extent and depth of its international interests are not only increasing its stake in the global system, but are also allowing it to begin to make its mark as a potential rule-maker in world affairs. This is particularly noticeable in Africa, where it is successfully challenging the approach of international organisations and Western governments which have made aid and certain other economic exchanges and arms sales conditional on improving the governance of relevant states. China's ''model of development'', which combines rapid economic growth with authoritarian rule, is gaining approval by certain third world governments as a viable alternative to the so-called ''Washington consensus'', which emphasises liberal economics and democratic politics.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: China, Washington, Beijing
  • Author: May-Britt U. Stumbaum
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: In its European Security Strategy, the European Union defined the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a strategic partner and envisaged comprehensive cooperation with it, including in the security sector. China and the EU often use the same terms, but the connotation of these terms differs due to fundamentally different security concerns. This article critically assesses the possibilities, prospects and difficulties from a European point of view of pursuing Sino-European cooperation in security matters. It concludes that given basic differences in perception, cooperation is likely to be successful in such fields as environmental disasters and pandemics, but will remain limited in such areas as non-proliferation, the fight against terrorism and energy security.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: China, Europe
  • Author: Nicola Casarini
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: The Chinese arms embargo issue has gone beyond Sino-European bilateral relations to become a matter of significance - and concern - for East Asian and US policymakers. Thus, an eventual solution depends not only on the interplay between EU and Chinese policymakers' interests and considerations, but is now interconnected with China's domestic developments and regional posture, the security concerns of China's neighbours (especially Japan and Taiwan), the evolution of US-China relations and transatlantic relations.
  • Topic: Development
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, Europe, Taiwan, East Asia
  • Author: François Godement
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: China's energy policy is traditionally based on self-sufficiency. While energy bottlenecks have often been cited as a limitation to China's economic growth, China has been successful at producing energy using its domestic coal - albeit putting a strain on transport and producing a high degree of pollution. Aggressively after 2001, China has started to search for external resources, both to supply its voracious appetite for oil and to insure its economy against possible geopolitical disruptions - including the threat of sanctions. This has given Chinese companies a life of their own, making them large international actors. Today, China is both saddled with new responsibilities for the developing countries in which it owns sizeable exploitation rights, and influenced by a new thinking on energy security, based on the idea of improving energy efficiency before developing resources. This offers opportunities for the West - and Japan - in cooperating with China, a huge energy importing country, to lessen the dominance of producers, create business opportunities for energy efficiency equipment, and also to cap CO2 and other emissions.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: Japan, China
  • Author: Lorenzo Sasso
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: China now holds the world's largest foreign exchange reserves mainly thanks to dynamic export activities. In order to invest and manage these foreign exchange reserves, the Chinese government recently announced the constitution of a new State Foreign Exchange Investment Company (SFEIC) aimed at improving the yield on them. This new investment vehicle will face multiple challenges ranging from showing solid financial gains to establishing effective rules for corporate governance that guarantee transparency in company management. In addition to the legal aspects, numerous economic and political implications will arise from this new government-controlled tool.
  • Topic: Government, Governance
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Maria Teresa Salvemini
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: There is a general consensus that the long period of stagnation that has afflicted the European economy is a symptom of more profound structural problems that cannot be solved with expansionary macroeconomic demand policies, much less left up to market forces or financial rigour. The most important problem is the low productivity of European economies, which has now been recorded for many years. This low productivity can be explained in a number of ways, including inadequate public investment in both physical and human capital. Although the link between public investment and productivity and efficiency in the private sector is indirect, and therefore cannot always be precisely quantified, there can be no doubt that the effect of market failures are being felt in numerous sectors of the economy: advanced and applied research, training in information technologies, environmentally compatible infrastructure, low-yield and capital-intensive investments, to mention just a few. Thus, there is room for new development policies based on building the public capital – material and immaterial – which is needed to stimulate that growth of productivity in the private sector that economic theory and historical experience have found to be important.
  • Topic: Financial Crisis
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Bart Kerremans, Edith Drieskens, Daniele Marchesi
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Both Belgium and Italy want to give their current mandate in the UN Security Council a European dimension. Yet, the conclusion that they are natural partners in doing so may be premature. Before focussing on Belgian and Italian objectives, the article presents the current state of the ongoing reform processes in Brussels and New York and of EU actorness in the Security Council more generally, as both are critical for estimating the prospects for a stronger European profile. It concludes by discussing the possibilities and constraints that the non-permanent members face within this framework.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: New York, Europe, Belgium, Italy, Brussels
  • Author: Roberto Menotti
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: NATO, the EU, and the UN have been the cornerstones of Italy's foreign policy since WWII: although they continue to provide a point of reference, these institutions are undergoing major changes that reflect - and partly create - a very unpredictable international environment. The evolving security agenda, choices made by key allies (especially the United States), and domestic political forces, are putting Italian decision-makers under pressure. There is a serious problem of resource constraints while the country is still unwilling to make clear-cut choices based on unavoidable tradeoffs. The past few years witnessed a mix of continuity and change due to the political orientations of successive governments under these challenging circumstances.
  • Topic: Security, NATO
  • Political Geography: United States, Italy
  • Author: Xu Xin
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: New directions in the study of China's foreign policy, edited by Alastair Iain Johnston and Robert S. Ross, Stanford University Press, 2006.
  • Topic: International Relations, Foreign Policy
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Claudia Astarita
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Il secolo cinese : storie di uomini, città e denaro dalla fabbrica del mondo, Federico Rampini, Mondadori, 2006 and La Cina alla conquista del mondo : la società, la politica, l'economia e le relazioni internazionali, Maria Weber, Newton Compton, 2006.
  • Political Geography: China, Italy
  • Author: Erik Jones
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: The one percent doctrine : deep inside America's pursuit of its enemies since 9/11, Ron Suskind, Simon Schuster, 2006 and State of denial, Bob Woodward, Simon Schuster, 2006.
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Mario Del Pero
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Among empires : American ascendancy and its predecessors, Charles S. Maier, Harvard University Press, 2006
  • Political Geography: America
  • Author: Emiliano Alessandri
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: Uncouth nation : why Europe dislikes America, Andrei S. Markovits, Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Political Geography: America, Europe
  • Author: Natalino Ronzitti
  • Publication Date: 09-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The International Spectator
  • Institution: Istituto Affari Internazionali
  • Abstract: Review of: The parliament of man : the past, present, and future of the United Nations, Paul Kennedy, Random House, 2006.
  • Topic: United Nations
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: No abstract is available.
  • Political Geography: Afghanistan, Iraq
  • Author: Ahmed I. Samatar
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: This special volume has a complicated history, and its release has been long in coming. The distant hinterland includes many months of preparation and discussion to form what became the National Civic Forum (NCF). Twenty-seven Somalis, made up of a mixture of scholars, senior professionals, and highly experienced national figures, assembled in Nairobi, Kenya, in late 2004 to start a disciplined exploration of the Somali conditions and what might possibly be done about them. That initial and successful retreat led to a public and widely circulated press release that underscored a nonpartisan commitment to the well-being of the Somali people through ideas that stress unity, peace, freedom, and constitutional civic life.
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Somalia, Nairobi
  • Author: Janis Grobbelaar, Jama M. Ghalib
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: At the more macro and general level, this article is concerned with societal transition towards the rule of law and sustainable democracy in post-conflict societies. It departs from an understanding that sufficient institutional capacity, in particular that needed to root and implement the rule of law, is ultimately required if secure, peaceful, and democratically viable post-conflict-ridden society is to be built and maintained over time. It assumes, in other words, that a legitimate and functioning normative order and a culture predisposed to such an order are key to security, reconciliation, and sustainable democracy. More particularly, the article engages the time and the methods, as well as the concerns of transition from societal violence, authoritarianism, and tyranny, towards the rule of law and secure democracy. To use Jon Elster's words, it deals with “the time” of attempting “to close the books” after a cessation of conflict has been agreed to and democracy is introduced.
  • Political Geography: South Africa, Somalia
  • Author: Ahmed I. Samatar
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: As of this writing, too far from “civil happiness,” Somalis continue sliding deeper into a fallen time—pitiful victims of their own follies and an ill-informed, if not manipulative, international and regional system. More precisely, the fight over the state in the past decade and a half has been at once violent and so disabling that, in the eyes of the rest of the world, Somalis have become the paradigmatic embodiment of self-inflicted politicide. Dismayingly, though the Somali state institutions are no more, the contestants wage their battles as if the prize is just waiting to be picked up. Oblivious, then, to the fact that the state and governance are more than the sum of capricious self-promotion and claims of Potemkin political appellations and appointments, the aggressively ambitious bestow a vulgar concreteness to Jorge Luis Borges' metaphor of the condition of “two bald men fighting over a comb.” The ultimate costs of the death of the state and subsequent communal strife are a withering of the national civic identity and spirit and, therefore, a descent into a form of moronic existence. Six instantiations of this condition are: (a) disunity exemplified by some in the northern Somali Republic (Somaliland) calling for a separate sovereignty in that region; (b) an essentialization of clanist maneuvers and mischief that have proven to be incapable of producing legitimate and competent leaders fit for the challenges of the epoch, let alone bring forth workable institutions for the immediate juncture; (c) the degeneration of Mogadishu from the once breezy, relatively cosmopolitan nerve-center of the post-colonial order to a dilapidated hell's gate overwhelmed by new deadly conflagrations and mountains of illdisposed filth; (d) a deepening socioeconomic impoverishment, barely assuaged by remittances from relatives in the diaspora, decline in educational opportunities and standards, and deteriorating public health, including the return of polio; (e) an acute national vulnerability to easy bamboozlement, and now direct military intervention or invasion by foreign actors, particularly neighboring Ethiopia; and (f) a mixture of incredulity and contempt on the part of the larger global community. To be sure, these negative attributes (and many more) make up the defining face of Somali reality. But it is also vital to note that, among the paradoxes of the current sharp cut in time (the meaning of civil war), numerous ordinary women and men, in every zone of the country, have taken it upon themselves to address the immediate concerns of their families and neighborhoods, the virus of sectarian cabals, and, commensurately, keep the candle of civic values flickering for a future undergirded by a peaceful and legitimate and competent governance.
  • Political Geography: Ethiopia, Somalia
  • Author: Lee Cassanelli, Farah Sheikh Abdikadir
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: We begin with the premise that education is a basic human right, as well as a precondition for any serious effort to return peace, prosperity, and justice to Somalia's citizens on a lasting basis. The collapse of the Somali state and the subsequent civil war(s) have altered most aspects of Somali life; but they have been particularly devastating in the area of education, where an entire generation has lost out on one of the most precious opportunities of childhood. The restoration of regular schooling is critical if Somalis expect to survive the present upheaval and envision a hopeful future. Education can provide structure and stability for children who have been traumatized by war. It is the starting point for creating a skilled workforce that can compete in the global economy. Education fosters the intellectual discipline necessary to solve problems, and the civic virtues essential for good governance. Good education can help reduce gender inequalities, child exploitation, and the likelihood of future violence in the wider society.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Abdi Ismail Samatar
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Much discussion has taken place about reviving the Somali economy since the dawn of the new century. These conversations have not critically assessed what bedeviled the Somali economy during the tenure of the old regime and since its collapse. Further, no one has yet articulated an appropriate framework that accounts for the country's past and the ways in which a new Somali order can profitably learn from and engage with recent developments in the global environment. The factors that crippled the old order and that sustain the civil war must be identified and contained, if not fully controlled, during and after the transition. Among the ills that plague the Somali economy are structural constraints, mismanagement of public resources, a political elite whose preoccupation is looting the commons, lawlessness and warlord rule, and a disorganized public that failed to unite against a sectarian political agenda that stoked conflict between communities. The prospect that the transition will be economically successful is grim unless a conscious and concerted effort is made to reduce these political liabilities.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Yusuf Ahmed Nur
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: This contribution suggests a number of business and economic policies that a new government of the Somali Republic might consider in order to put the country on the path to successful economic reconstruction and development. The proposed policies are derived from a critical reassessment of today's integrated and interdependent world economy, which presents both opportunities and dire threats that could jeopardize the sovereignty and statehood of Somalia. The crucial role of a good and strong government is emphasized. Recent developments are also integrated into the analysis. The essay concludes by suggesting policies for creating a business and investment climate that guides and regulates (but does not stifle) the entrepreneurial spirit of the Somali people, which has flourished for fifteen years in the absence of state and government.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Author: Mohamed Gedi Qayad
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: Universal access to health care is an ideal goal for all nations. Nations often base their health care development plans on this principle. In Somalia, provision of health care services was also driven by this principle, and delivery of services was publicly funded like other social services, such as education. However, that goal was never achieved and the health status indicators for Somalia, even before the collapse of the central government, showed grim statistics.
  • Political Geography: Somalia
  • Publication Date: 06-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies
  • Institution: Macalester College
  • Abstract: The National Civic Forum is an independent, non-partisan organization founded by a cohort of Somali scholars and professionals who met on September 20th–24th, 2004 in Nairobi, Kenya. NCF's mission is to generate and disseminate creative ideas that may assist in educating the Somali people in order for them to establish a democratic political order, durable peace, justice, rule of law and sustainable development.
  • Political Geography: Kenya, Somalia, Nairobi
  • Author: Armağan Öztürk
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Makale sendikal çözümleme üzerine daha çok altyapı ilişkilerine atıfta bulunan tarihsel-ekonomik perspektifi, toplumsal yapı ve siyasal kültüre değinen alternatif bir okumayla zenginleştirmeyi hedeflemektedir. Temel iddia Türkiye'de siyasi kültürün örgütlü toplumun gelişmesini yapısal özelikleri nedeniyle geciktirdiği yönünde olduğudur. Dayanışmacı, paternalist, popülist, elitist, cemaatçi, solidarist ve patrimonyal kültürel öğeler çatışma karşıtı bir eylem-söylem zemini yaratmaktadır. Bu zemin, seçkinci pratiğin kendini sivil toplum içinde yeniden üretmesine olanak sağlayan meşrulaştırıcı bir dizi politik enstrümanı mümkün kılar. Sendikalar da sağcı popülizmin ve cemaatçiliğin koşullanması altında patronajcı mantığı içselleştirmişlerdir. Kamusal imkânların patronajcı kullanımı hükümet ile sivil toplumu bir çıkar ağı sistemi ile birbirine bağlayan yozlaşmış siyaset örgütlenme biçimine yol açmıştır. Sendikaların araçsal siyasete tabi olması ya da sendikanın patronajcı bilince teslim olması olgusu örgüt özelinde temsil sorununu ve birçok noktada bu sorunu kesen bir sendikal demokrasi-sendikal bürokrasi karşıtlığını beraberinde getirmektedir.
  • Political Geography: Turkey, Latin America
  • Author: Serdar Gülener
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmanın amacı, Amerikalı sosyolog Edward Shils tarafından ortaya konmuş olan ve Şerif Mardin tarafından Türk siyaseti'ne uyarlanan merkez-çevre ikiliğini açıklamak ve bu ikiliği 27 Mayıs 1960 Darbesi'nde kullanmaktır. Öncelikli olarak Edward Shils'in merkez ve çevre kavramları ile ne anlatmak istediğine değinilmiş, daha sonra, bu kavramlar ile Türk siyaseti'ne tarihsel bir bakış açısı sunan Şerif Mardin'in merkez ve çevre kavramları anlatılmıştır. Son olarak ise 27 Mayıs 1960 Darbesi'ne giden süreç, darbe ve bu darbenin bir ürünü olan 1961 Anayasası merkez-çevre ikiliği açısından değerlendirilmiştir.
  • Author: Ayça Şimşek
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Dünya ekonomisinde küreselleşme süreci ile birlikte hızla artan dışa açılma eğilimleri özellikle gelişmekte olan ülkelerin finansal piyasalarında önemli değişimlere yol açmıştır. Bu ülkelerde erken dışa açılma (finansal piyasaların gelişimini tamamlamadan dışsal aktörlere açılması) ve sığ piyasaların varlığı piyasaların dışsal şoklardan etkilenme derecesini arttırarak krizlerin oluşumunu tetiklemiştir. Latin Amerika ülkeleri bu özellikleri bünyesinde barındıran ve dolayısıyla krizlerden önemli ölçüde etkilenen ülkeler olmuşlardır. Bu ülkelerin finansal piyasalarında 1960'lı yıllardan itibaren küreselleşmenin hız kazanmasıyla birlikte krizler ortaya çıkmaya başlamıştır. Bu krizler ile mücadelede özellikle IMF tarafından önerilen ortodoks ekonomi politikaları uygulanmış ve bu çerçevede sıkı para ve maliye politikası önlemleri ile finansal krizlerin piyasalar üzerindeki etkileri azaltılmaya çalışılmıştır. Ancak bu politikalar; uygulama sonuçları itibariyle kısa dönemde finansal piyasalarda kısmi bir iyileşme sağlamışsa da uzun dönemde ekonomide daraltıcı etkilere yol açarak reel ekonomideki durgunluk sürecini körüklemiştir. Dolayısıyla bu piyasalarda krizlerle mücadelede uygulanan para ve maliye politikalarının eşanlı yürütülmesi ve bu bağlamda makroekonomik politikaların birbiriyle tutarlılığı önem taşımaktadır. Bu açıdan Latin Amerika ülkelerinde reel piyasaları daraltmadan finansal risklerin azaltılmasını sağlayacak güvenilir ve istikrarlı bir ekonomi politikasının uygulanabilirliğinin sağlanması, sadece finansal istikrarın değil tüm makroekonomik istikrarın gerçekleştirilmesi için gerekli görülmektedir.
  • Political Geography: Latin America
  • Author: Serpil Döm
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Bu çalışmada Türkiye'de finansal serbestleşme uygulamaları ve ekonomik büyümeye olan etkileri incelenmektedir. Yaygın görüşe göre finansal sistemin serbestleşmesi; yabancı portföy akımlarına sınırlamaların kalkması ve yabancı fon girişleri, ekonomik büyümenin motoru olarak kabul edilmektedir. Karşıt görüşe göre ise, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde yabancı kaynaklı büyük fon hareketleri ve sistemden ani çıkışlar finansal krizlerin baş aktörleri olarak görülmektedir. Genel anlamda finansal serbestleşmenin faydaları ve olumsuz etkileri gelişmekte olan ülkeler açısından; özelde ise, Türkiye açısından ele alınmaktadır.
  • Political Geography: Turkey
  • Author: Hamza Al
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Son yıllarda kamu yönetiminde parçalı fakat kendi içersinde tutarlı birtakım değişimler meydana gelmektedir. Dikkat çeken en önemli değişimlerden birisi kamu kesimi ile piyasa arasındaki ilişkidir. Geleneksel yaklaşımdan farklı olarak yeni yaklaşım, piyasa değerlerinden beslenmektedir. Bununla ilişkili diğer bir gelişme de, yönetimde süreçlerden çok sonuçlara odaklanılmasıdır. Kamu kesimi yönetiminin piyasa tutkusu ve sonuçlara odaklanması, yönetim anlayışı gibi denetim anlayışını da etkilemektedir. Artık denetimin de piyasa değerleriyle performans kriterleriyle yapılması zorunlu hale gelmektedir.
  • Author: Ali Balcı
  • Publication Date: 03-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Bilgi
  • Institution: Değişim Yayınları
  • Abstract: Çalışma, “bölgesel, sosyal ve dini kültürel temelleri bakımından yeni bir Türk elitinin ortaya çıktığı” [15] tespitinden hareketle Türkiye'yi analiz etmeye girişmektedir. Editör M. Hakan Yavuz'a göre, bu yeni elit 1980'li yıllardan itibaren yaşanan gelişmelerin ortaya çıkardığı bir olgu olduğu için, AK Parti “Türkiye'de yaşanan sessiz devrimin bir nedeni değil aksine soncudur.” [1] Bu yeni [İslamcı] elitle birlikte, hem-Oryantalistlerin iddia ettiği gibiİslam, demokrasi ve kapitalizm arasında bir gerilim olmadığı görülmüş, hem de öteden beri Türk toplumuna hâkim olan devletin yarı kutsal anlamı değişime uğramış ve insanların devlete değil devletin insanlara hizmet etmesi gerektiği anlayışı yaygınlaşmıştır [4]. Nihayetinde bu bakış açılarının AK Parti'de bir yansıma bulmuş olması da bir tesadüf olarak görülemez. Kısacası, Türkiye AK Parti ile somutlaştığı üzere “muhafazakâr” ve “normatif” bir devrim [7] geçirmiş ve tam da bu nedenle bugünkü Türkiye için “yeni” sıfatı [15] bir gereklilik olmuştur.
  • Author: Ruben Zaiotti, Laura Zizzo
  • Publication Date: 04-2007
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: The Journal of International Law and International Relations
  • Institution: Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto
  • Abstract: One of the recurrent charges levelled against International Law it that, when questions of high politics get into the picture, its relevance in world affairs inexorably wanes. This condition is even more apparent when issues of national security are at stake. As the argument goes, when states are trying to protect their very existence in an anarchical world, formal legal preoccupations should give way to the pragmatism of realpolitik.
  • Author: Linus Hagström
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Pacific Affairs
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: The message of Japanese insignificance in international affairs can be found in many different literatures, including that on the formation of policy towards North Korea in the 1990s and 2000s, in particular in regard to the recurring nuclear crisis. Books and articles on the topic either exclude Japanese foreign policy altogether or tend to emphasize the predominant role, or power, of the United States. Japanese foreign policy, it is implied, is under US control. The aim of this article is to question that dominant view, (1) by demonstrating that there is an undercurrent of statements in the same literature which could well be interpreted as implying Tokyo's exercising of political, economic and perhaps even military power over Washington; (2) by clarifying the conceptual bias upon which the predominant view rests; and (3) by suggesting how another understanding of power is more coherent with the first two points, but at the same time renders the whole question of power in North Korea policy coordination practically a quagmire. By doing so, this article deconstructs the more uniform understanding of power in that discourse and reveals a patchwork of inconsistencies, differences and questions.
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, Washington, North Korea, Tokyo
  • Author: Kuniko Ashizawa
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Pacific Affairs
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: The record of Japan's diplomacy in the Six-Party Talks (SPT), the key multilateral mechanism to address North Korea's unflagging nuclear ambitions, is unpronounced. Tokyo's position in the SPT process has been often viewed as a secondary one, as if it was functioning as Washington's henchman, and at times as unproductive, thanks to its attempts to address the abductions issue in this multilateral setting. This represents an interesting contrast to China's SPT diplomacy, which has seen Beijing play an indispensable role, projecting itself as an honest broker. Further, the contrast between the two countries is intriguing when their general policies toward regional multilateral institutions over the past decade are taken into account. Both countries made a conspicuous shift in their attitudes toward regional multilateral institution-building, from negative and skeptical to positive and active. In the case of the SPT, a new multilateral institution in Asia, Tokyo's activism appeared to be muted, while Beijing positioned itself in a most visible manner. With this backdrop, the article examines Japanese policy making toward the SPT through a specific comparison with the country's general attitude toward regional institution-building and with China's SPT diplomacy. It argues that three aspects of the decision-making context—the nature of foreign policy questions, the composition of actors, and the type of available diplomatic tools—unique to Japan's dealings with the SPT essentially shaped its diplomacy and thus brought about a conspicuous contrast with its general attitude toward regional institution-building and with Beijing's growing regional activism.
  • Political Geography: Japan, China, Washington, Beijing, Asia, North Korea, Tokyo
  • Author: Marie Söderberg
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Pacific Affairs
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: Peace building and peace preservation are new key concepts in Japanese foreign aid policy. According to the revised ODA Charter of 2003, "Japan aspires for world peace. Actively promoting the aforementioned effort with ODA," which Japan will carry out "even more strategically" in the future. Asia, and especially East Asia, is singled out as a priority region. North Korea, with which Japan has not yet normalized relations, would therefore seem like an important starting point. How come development aid is not extended to that country? The answer is that aid is a very complex issue, and not giving is often regarded as being as effective as giving when it comes to eliciting concessions and bringing about changes in the recipients' policy behaviour. For Japan, the question of North Korea policy is made much more complicated by the nuclear issue and the abductions of Japanese citizens by North Korea. Various domestic opinions and interest groups have to be taken into consideration as well as security interests and foreign pressure. This article uses I. William Zartman's "ripe moment" theory and addresses the question of whether Japanese ODA can be an effective tool for the normalization of relations between Japan and North Korea as well as for helping to generate peace and stability in the Northeast Asia region.
  • Political Geography: Japan, North Korea
  • Author: Mohan Malik
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: This article examines the changing nature of Australian-American relations in the aftermath of the Iraq imbroglio and China's rise. While many observers see differences in Australian and US approaches toward China as a reflection of different interests, it is the contention of this paper that these different Australian-US perspectives on China are, in fact, premised more on some highly skewed assumptions and fallacious beliefs, misconceptions and myths that have lately come to underlie Australia's China policy than on divergent Australian-US interests. This article looks at the proposition that China's rise has the potential to divide Australia and America but concludes that Beijing is unlikely to succeed in driving a wedge between Washington and Canberra. The shared values and shared strategic interests ensure broad support for the Australia-US alliance in Australia which has now expanded into a global partnership encompassing the transnational security issues as well as the traditional geopolitical issues of managing the rise of new powers.
  • Topic: Security
  • Political Geography: China, America, Beijing, Asia, Australia
  • Author: Mark Beeson
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: Australian policymakers have traditionally made cultivating close strategic ties with the dominant power of the era the centerpiece of foreign policy. As Australia's prominent role in the "coalition of the willing" in Iraq demonstrates, this strategy is alive and well. It is, however, no longer clear whether this strategy is in either Australia's national interest or that of the international community more generally. I argue that, in reality, close ties with the current Bush administration have been costly and may further complicate Australia's relations with an East Asian region in which China is becoming an increasingly important actor.
  • Political Geography: China, East Asia, Australia
  • Author: Marc Lanteigne
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: As the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation observed its fifth anniversary in June 2006, the question of where the regime fits within the expanding area of international strategic institutions in Asia and elsewhere assumes an even greater importance. The SCO has begun to establish itself as a more formal actor in the complex area of Eurasian security, and has evolved from a largely consultative grouping into a security community. As well, the SCO has become the cornerstone of China's Central Asian diplomacy and its promotion of "non-alliance" forms of strategic cooperation. However, despite the SCO's endeavours to portray itself as a forum for information-sharing and confidence-building, as well as political and economic cooperation, hard power considerations remain an important part of the organisation's policymaking. Although the SCO was seen as marginalized when Western forces entered Central Asia after September 2001, the organisation plays key roles and should not be dismissed as a strategic actor and source of regional cooperation. Moreover, with American forces remaining in Central Asia for the foreseeable future and Central Asian governments becoming increasingly concerned about the potential after-shocks of the recent "colour revolutions" in the former USSR, there is the greater possibility that a more mature SCO may engage in overt power-balancing behaviour vis-à-vis the West, resulting in rivalries rather than cooperation. To prevent this scenario, it is argued that the international community should take the opportunity to better engage the SCO in the name of promoting peace and stability in Eurasia.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: China, America, Central Asia, Eurasia
  • Author: Linda Wong, Jun Tang
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: In socialist China, rapid aging, severe shortage of public provisions for frail elders, and the state's admitted failure to meet vast unmet needs have led the state to promote the use of non-profits as a key peg of welfare policy for the elderly. To this end, the Chinese government passed the Provisional Regulation on the Registration and Management of Civilian-run Non-enterprise Units in 1998 to set out the legal framework. Using tax exemption and preferential utility charges as baits, the 1998 decree encourages the birth of nonprofits to meet the shortfall in social services. The sharp rise in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) after 1998 suggests the policy is achieving its intended effect. However, the insistence on self-sufficiency and ban on profit taking means that such agencies have to operate as social enterprises, combining their social mission with an entrepreneurial mode of management as they rely on fee charges as the primary income source. The paper begins by examining the policy and demographic contexts for old age care and the concepts of NPOs, social enterprises and social entrepreneurship. It then presents research findings on the agency profiles and operational experiences of 137 non-state care homes in three Chinese cities. This is followed by an analysis of the motives for social entrepreneurship, namely family circumstances, personal attributes, social commitment, and entrepreneurial drive. The final part discusses the link between the nonprofit policy, NPO attributes and social entrepreneurship. It is argued that it is the peculiarity of the existing policy that attracted a very special group of social investors into the old age care business.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: China
  • Author: Michael Strausz
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: In 1985, 10,000 foreign residents of Japan refused to be fingerprinted by the Japanese state. Why did this protest take place when it did, and why have we not seen a movement of similar size and intensity since the end of the fingerprinting refusal movement? This article argues that the fingerprinting refusal movement occurred because a convergence of factors—including demographic change, Japan's ratification of human rights treaties, ideational changes within the Japanese state and the Korean community in Japan, and local political developments—opened a window of political opportunity for activism. Moreover, the reforms that Japan made in the 1970s and 1980s closed that window because they satisfied many of the demands of foreign activists, and activists subsequently had a difficult time finding an issue on which to focus community outrage.
  • Topic: Politics
  • Political Geography: Japan
  • Author: Christopher W. Hughes
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Pacific Affairs
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: Japan has often been dismissed by mainstream international relations and policy discourse as a bit-part actor in Korean Peninsula security affairs. If ascribed any role at all, it is seen as a secondary and submissive actor, generally bending to US strategy and international systemic pressures. This paper argues, however, that Japanese policy towards North Korea is now challenging these international systemic pressures, and threatening divergence with US policy. This is due to the fact that Japan's policy is increasingly driven by domestic political considerations that are rivalling or even superseding international influences in importance. In order to highlight these domestic dynamics, the paper utilizes domestic sanctions theory and a detailed empirical analysis of the Japanese policy-making process with regard to the imposition of sanctions on North Korea. It demonstrates that a "threshold coalition" has now emerged in Japan which is tipping government policy towards sanctions, irrespective of, or even in opposition to, international systemic pressures to desist from such actions. The paper highlights the changing disposition of a pluralistic range of domestic actors away from default engagement to default containment. The consequence of these aggregate domestic pressures is that the Japanese government is finding it progressively harder to converge with US and international strategy towards North Korea. Japan is thus set to augment its influence in Korean Peninsula security affairs by becoming a more obstructive partner in attempts to find an international resolution to the nuclear crisis.
  • Topic: Government
  • Political Geography: Japan, North Korea, Korea
  • Author: Hyung Gu Lynn
  • Publication Date: 09-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Pacific Affairs
  • Institution: University of British Columbia
  • Abstract: Critiques of American mainstream and conservative media for their often dubious cheerleading of the US war against Iraq have become familiar elements of recent public discourse. However, such analyses have not generated equivalent intellectual engagement with media representations of North Korea. Considering how difficult it has been to obtain accurate information on North Korea, this relative paucity is surprising. I address this lacuna by analyzing the role of the Japanese media, particularly television, in generating public perceptions of North Korea. Why did Japanese television coverage of North Korea reach saturation points following the 9/17 summit? Why were audiences so receptive? How did television shape public opinion? And how did domestic public opinion influence or constrict Japan's North Korea policy? In answering these questions, rather than simply observe that the abductions themselves have been the most important issue in Japan, or note that there have been temporary increases or decreases in Japanese media coverage of North Korea, I argue that television (and other forms of mass media) herded the public into a relatively constricted range of views through narrow, biased saturation coverage of the issue du jour. An intersection of structural concentration, content isomorphism, malleable audiences and domestic policy conflicts allowed the media not only to set agendas, but to prime the audience and frame the presentation of information. Public opinion, maintained by conservative political lobbies, viewer ratings responses and broadcasting strategies, ultimately constricted the government policy agenda, range and choice in dealing with North Korea, generating very predictable behaviours.
  • Political Geography: United States, Japan, America, North Korea
  • Author: Didier Bigo, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Ce nouveau numéro de Cultures Conflits sur « antiterrorisme et société » est le troisième et dernier volet de la publication des travaux issus du programme-cadre de recherche ELISE1 qui se prolonge maintenant sous le nom de CHALLENGE. Ce numéro est l\'occasion pour nous de revenir plus amplement à la fois sur les implications de la logique militaire de la guerre au terrorisme que nous avions évoquées dans le numéro « Défense et identités. Un contexte sécuritaire global2 ? » et sur le statut même de la guerre dans le monde contemporain lorsqu\'on applique ce terme de guerre à la violence politique qui traverse les régimes libéraux et s\'inscrit dans leurs relations à l\'autre.
  • Author: Vivienne Jabri
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: En matière de politique internationale, la guerre est une technologie de contrôle. Tandis que ses manifestations violentes comme l\'invasion et l\'occupation de l\'Irak sont directement ressenties par les populations visées, les pratiques qui y sont associées ainsi que ladite « guerre au terrorisme » ont des effets d\'une portée mondiale. Cet article offre une lecture de la guerre globale comme forme de contrôle propre à cette modernité tardive. Il montre que les pratiques qui constituent la guerre globale sont à comprendre en termes de matrice, ceci comprenant les Etats et leurs bureaucraties ainsi que des agents non étatiques, visant Etats, communautés particulières et individus. La matrice de la guerre opère au nom de l\'humanité, mais c\'est finalement cette même humanité qui en vient à devenir le sujet de ces opérations de contrôle global. Comme le montre l\'article, les conséquences sont monumentales pour le gouvernement, l\'examen démocratique et les espaces possibles de dissidence.
  • Topic: Government, War
  • Political Geography: Iraq
  • Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: La solidarité naturelle des sociétés démocratiques européennes contre le terrorisme est un discours qui ne peine pas à s'imposer comme vrai tant il s'énonce sur le mode de l'évidence. Evidence de la menace qui produit l'évidence de la réponse : une coopération antiterroriste de tous contre un ennemi communément admis. En analysant ce discours d'autorité, il s'agit de retrouver les conditions de félicité de cette adéquation performative entre « démocratie » et « coopération » antiterroriste. En revenant sur l'histoire, les discours et les pratiques officiels et clandestins de l'antiterrorisme espagnol et leur imposition au niveau européen, l'auteur montre combien la « solidarité démocratique » constitue l'identité européenne au nom de laquelle elle opère.
  • Author: Anastassia Tsoukala
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Cet article vise à étudier la relation entre la sécurité et les libertés publiques, qui se trouve au cœur des débats sur les actuelles politiques antiterroristes en Europe. Il s\'appuie sur une analyse des déclarations politiques faites par les défenseurs de l\'introduction des mesures d\'exception et leurs opposants, lesquelles ont paru dans la presse française, britannique et italienne, entre septembre 2001 et juin 2003. L\'analyse révèle que : a) l\'étendue du débat public est étroitement liée à l\'existence ou non d\'un effet de banalisation des procédures d\'exception ; b) la légitimation des mesures d\'exception s\'appuie sur des arguments liés à la souveraineté qui, in fine, procèdent à une modification de la notion de liberté et de droits de l\'Homme au sein des démocraties actuelles.
  • Topic: Security
  • Author: Martin Moucheron
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: The 19th December 2003 law inserting specific terrorist infractions in the penal Code sets a new step in the evolution of the political offence in Belgium: the "political" moral element in the definition of those infractions has indeed been conceived as an aggravating circumstance, opposing in that way the principle of the "régime de faveur" (preferential treatment) established by the newborn Belgium and progressively restricted in its application. At a larger scale, this "de-politization" of the political offence through terrorism can lead to contemporary governmentality and democratic model which seem to induce an exclusion of ideology out of the field of what Foucault calls "the conditions of true and false". La loi du 19 décembre 2003 inscrivant au Code pénal des infractions terroristes spécifiques marque une nouvelle étape dans l'évolution du délit politique en Belgique. En effet, l'élément moral « politique » retenu dans la définition de ces infractions est conçu comme une circonstance aggravante, et contredit ainsi le principe du régime de faveur établi aux premières heures de la Belgique et progressivement restreint dans son application. Plus largement, cette « dé-politisation » du délit politique à travers le terrorisme renvoie à la gouvernementalité et au modèle démocratique contemporains, qui semblent induire une exclusion de l'idéologie hors du champ de ce qui constitue, selon Foucault, les « conditions du vrai et du faux ».
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe, France, Belgium
  • Author: Didier Bigo, R.B.J. Walker
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: In EU Treaties "liberty" is always the principle against which any state interference on the basis of security must be limited, justified and open to judicial scrutiny. The perspective sketched here, along with the more specific research projects that inform it, suggest an urgent need for much more robust resistance to the marginalization of claims about liberty whenever the necessities of security are invoked. In general terms it might be said that where the possibilities of political liberty are currently being constrained by forms of structural and institutional fragmentation, they ought to be nurtured by imaginative forms of cooperation across existing jurisdictions; and where the possibilities of cooperation and unification are being sought in order to control human populations on a wider scale, they ought to be subject to greater scrutiny and control by many different democratically accountable communities and institutions. The policy implications advanced in this paper follow these principles. La liberté constitue toujours le principe à partir duquel toutes les interférences des Etats en termes de sécurité doivent être limitées, justifiées et transparentes dans les traités de l\'Union européenne. La perspective qui s\'esquisse ici, avec les projets de recherches plus spécifiques qui en font partie, suggère que la résistance face à la marginalisation des revendications de liberté doit être plus forte dès lors que l\'on invoque le besoin d\'une sécurité accrue. En d\'autres termes, là où les possibilités de liberté politique sont désormais retenues par des formes de fragmentation structurelle et institutionnelle, elles devraient se nourrir des formes imaginaires de coopération entre les juridictions existantes ; et là où les possibilités de coopération et d\'unification sont pensées pour contrôler les populations dans une plus grande ampleur, elles devraient faire l\'objet d\'un contrôle démocratique plus important, qu\'il soit parlementaire ou qu\'il vienne de communautés et d\'institutions démocratiques responsables et transparentes. Les implications en termes de politiques, que nous mettons en avant dans ce texte, suivent les principes que nous venons d\'exposer.
  • Topic: Security, Political Theory
  • Author: Antonia Garcia Castro
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Le 15 août 1972, à 18 h 24, commence une opération menée par trois organisations politiques dans la prison de la ville de Rawson. Située à 1 500 kilomètres de Buenos Aires, en Patagonie, cette prison dite de haute sécurité est réputée inviolable en raison de son isolement géographique. On dénombre alors environ deux cents prisonniers politiques à Rawson. Cent dix prévoient de s\'évader.
  • Political Geography: Argentina
  • Author: Elwis Potier
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Jacques Sémelin poursuit sa vaste exploration de la violence en menant une réflexion approfondie sur ses formes les plus extrêmes, les plus négatrices : la violence dans ce qu\'elle a de plus macabre, de plus terrifiant, de plus absurde ou de proprement sidérant. L\'auteur de ce grand livre oriente sa recherche vers ce qui paraît toujours plus inintelligible, l\'énigme éminemment politique ainsi nommée « destructivité humaine de masse », pour comprendre les mécanismes à l\'œuvre, les conditions et les processus qui aboutissent aux meurtres de masse.
  • Author: Jean-Marie Izquierdo
  • Publication Date: 01-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: ETA, l\'enquête. Le titre semble sans appel. Voilà qui résonne comme un bilan qui se veut complet et définitif. Voilà qui appellerait à une fin annoncée d\'un mouvement terroriste que l\'on sait chaque jour plus exsangue, épuisé et isolé. Son titre fait curieusement écho, par ce désir d\'exhaustivité, à celui dirigé par Antonio Elorza, ETA, une histoire. L\'auteur de cet ouvrage, Jean Chalvidant, ancien reporter pour RMC, est aujourd\'hui collaborateur à l\'Institut de criminologie de l\'Université Paris II-Panthéon-Assas. La quatrième de couverture, elle aussi, donne le ton : « Pour la première fois sont révélés dans ce livre de référence cinquante ans de la vie secrète du mouvement séparatiste basque, grâce à un luxe de faits, de précisions, de noms, d\'éclaircissements sur les événements qui ensanglantent l\'Espagne depuis l\'automne du franquisme ». Or, d\'entrée, le lecteur est plongé dans un opuscule-type des années 1970, dans ces livres traitant de sujets sensibles mêlant sympathie et critique.
  • Author: Antoine Megie
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: L'histoire, l'actualité et les dynamiques de la coopération judiciaire sont des enjeux forts pour l'Europe. Elément fondamental du champ de la sécurité, notamment en terme de légitimation du pouvoir de police, l'européanisation du domaine judiciaire renvoie aux questions existantes entre les problématiques européennes et les interrogations sur la gouvernementalité transnationale de la sécurité. Or, la coopération judiciaire en Europe est par trop souvent présentée de manière exclusivement institutionnelle et en dehors d'une analyse des processus d'européanisation que la sociologie de l'Europe nous offre à voir. Aussi, dans la ligne des précédents numéros de la revue dédiés à cette connaissance 1, ce nouveau numéro de Cultures Conflits est une invitation à une lecture de la production des normes pénales de l'Union européenne via la déconstruction du processus de fabrication des différents dispositifs d'arrestation et de reconnaissance des jugements adoptés depuis le Conseil européen de Tampere de 1999. Retraçant ainsi la généalogie de la coopération pénale européenne, à travers l'interrogation des mécanismes à l'œuvre, qu'ils soient politiques, cognitifs ou sociaux, ce numéro offre des moyens pour comprendre la façon dont le pouvoir d'arrêter et de punir a pu trouver, depuis le début des années 1990, une réalisation dans la dimension européenne 2.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Antoine Megie
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: L'objet de l'article est de tracer les pistes d'étude qui permettent de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques et les conséquences de la mise en place d'une coopération pénale à l'échelle européenne. Prenant en considération la littérature juridique et institutionnelle déjà importante sur ce sujet, il s'agit d'expliquer en quoi une approche historique en termes de processus constitue une première piste essentielle pour appréhender les différentes étapes de la construction d'un pouvoir pénal européen qui, loin d'être linéaire, apparaît plutôt comme intermittente et chaotique. Saisir les différentes phases de cette européanisation implique de travailler sur les moments de ruptures et de changements. La mise en évidence de ces instants critiques conduit, dans un second temps, à placer au cœur de l'analyse les interactions entre les acteurs via l'étude de leurs ressources sociales et de leurs représentations. La compréhension des logiques du champ de la coopération pénale permet, enfin, de donner du sens à la forme normative que revêt aujourd'hui le régime judiciaire européen notamment concernant le déséquilibre structurel qui existe en défaveur des droits procéduraux et des libertés civiles.
  • Topic: Political Economy, Political Theory
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Michel Mangenot
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Eurojust est le nouvel organe de coopération judiciaire en matière pénale de l'Union européenne. Cet article consiste en une sociologie de la décision de sa création, analysée en termes de « jeux institutionnels ». La genèse d'Eurojust est illustrative de certaines spécificités des configurations institutionnelles européennes et interactions bruxelloises entre fonctionnaires, magistrats et ministres. Elle donne à voir le leadership du Secrétariat général du Conseil, la socialisation et la spécialisation d'un groupe aux ressources intellectuelles élevées et intéressé au travail « noble » d'innovation institutionnelle. Cet article revient sur les effets déterminants d'une forte concurrence inter-institutionnelle avec la Commission et l'OLAF pris dans une logique autonome et parlementaire, sur le travail spécifique de la présidence ou des présidences et, enfin, sur le rôle décisif de la conjoncture de Conférence intergouvernementale qui, élevant le niveau de la décision, seule, permet certains coups.
  • Author: Maik Martin
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: La reconnaissance mutuelle des décisions judiciaires constitue la pierre angulaire de la coopération pénale européenne. Philosophie officielle de l'Union européenne, ce principe se trouve à la base des instruments de coopération tels le mandat d'arrêt européen. Les premiers arrêts rendus par les Cours anglaises, irlandaises et allemandes démontrent cependant qu'une absence de confiance en les Etats membres de l'UE au niveau des systèmes pénaux gêne considérablement la mise en pratique de cette philosophie. Cet article évalue la jurisprudence émergente sur cette question, dans l'optique de déterminer à la fois l'efficacité des instruments actuels de reconnaissance mutuelle et de mettre en évidence les difficultés inhérentes à ce principe concernant la protection des droits fondamentaux. L'auteur conclut sur la nécessité d'une certaine harmonisation des droits pénaux des Etats membres pour que la confiance mutuelle puisse être à la base du principe de reconnaissance, ce qui permettra de réaliser « un espace de liberté, la sécurité et la justice ».
  • Topic: International Law
  • Author: Natacha Paris
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Dans quelle mesure certains magistrats ou opérateurs issus du Parlement européen et de la Commission sont-ils susceptibles de jouer un rôle dans le cadre restreint du 3e pilier intergouvernemental de l'Union ? Pour tenter de répondre à cette question relative à l'européanisation de la justice et à la « gouvernance européenne », nous partirons de l'examen de la construction d'une mobilisation de magistrats européens : l'appel de Genève, lancé le 1er octobre 1996 pour dénoncer les méfaits de la « criminalité organisée » et en appeler à la mise en place d'un « véritable espace judiciaire européen ». L'analyse du cheminement de cette « cause » dans l'arène institutionnelle de l'Union révèle, d'une part, que ces magistrats ont trouvé des alliés parmi des acteurs du Parlement et de la Commission investis dans la lutte contre la fraude communautaire ; d'autre part, que ce relais répond à la volonté de ces acteurs de prendre position dans le jeu institutionnel européen. Ensemble, et en s'appuyant sur l'enjeu de contrer « la criminalité organisée », cette poignée de protagonistes ont tenté de porter le projet Corpus juris à l'agenda politique de l'UE.
  • Author: Véronique Pujas
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Le processus d'émergence du paradigme de contrôle des fonds communautaires qui a trouvé une réalisation dans la création de l'Office européen de lutte contre les fraudes (OLAF) en 1999, illustre les tentatives d'institutionnalisation d'un espace judiciaire européen. Depuis les débuts de la mise sur agenda des problèmes d'évasion des ressources propres, la formulation de la problématique est surtout le fait des organes financiers européens. Mais le contexte des années 1990, qui voit la dénonciation des délinquances économiques et financières portée par les juges, va infléchir le débat vers l'instauration d'un Parquet européen présenté comme seul garant possible d'un contrôle de légalité des fonds européens. Toutefois, les rendez-vous institutionnels successifs depuis le traité de Nice tendent à invalider cette vision et réorienter le débat vers la promotion de la coopération des agences de contrôle nationales. Le renforcement de l'OLAF, entaché depuis ses débuts par des controverses, apparaît bien compromis.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Amandine Scherrer
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Cet article se propose d'analyser le rôle du G7/8 dans le régime global anti-blanchiment d'argent. Il s'attache à dégager les mécanismes de cette instance mal connue qui ont contribué à la mise en place de normes au niveau international contre le blanchiment d'argent, et plus récemment contre le financement du terrorisme. En ce sens, il sera montré comment des normes particulières ont circulé sur la scène internationale, entre diverses institutions, et notamment entre l'Union européenne et le G7/8. Cette circulation a été largement facilitée par des acteurs engagés dans cette mobilisation anti-blanchiment, et plus particulièrement ces « experts » des administrations publiques des pays membres de ces institutions. Une approche sociologique permettra de mettre en valeur les trajectoires professionnelles de ces experts, trajectoires qui expliquent ces lignes de convergence, mais aussi de clivage qui ont façonné le régime global anti-blanchiment tel qu'il apparaît aujourd'hui.
  • Author: Jacqueline Montain-Domenach
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: L'exercice du pouvoir judiciaire pénal des Etats se trouve confronté au mouvement « d'européanisation » de la coopération judiciaire, en relation avec la notion « d'espace de sécurité, de liberté et de justice » et avec l'évolution du pouvoir décisionnel de l'Union européenne dans ce domaine. Le pouvoir pénal est désormais soumis aux exigences d'efficacité de la sécurité européenne qui impose à la fois une reconnaissance de l'intervention des instances de l'Union, de nouvelles modalités de coopération et une acceptation de l'institutionnalisation, en concurrence étroite avec les modalités de la coopération policière. Ce processus introduit des mutations au sein même du pouvoir pénal, susceptibles d'ouvrir vers un nouveau modèle juridique de l'exercice du pouvoir dans le domaine pénal et qui annonce des éléments de rupture par rapport aux conceptions traditionnelles.
  • Political Geography: Europe
  • Author: Antonia Garcia Castro
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Les « disparitions » ont été abordées à plusieurs reprises par cette revue ; j'y ai également consacré une recherche 2. D'une publication à l'autre, et en dialogue avec divers interlocuteurs, nous avons, en tant qu'équipe, tiré le fil politique pour interroger les logiques à l'oeuvre et les effets nombreux et complexes de l'invisibilité des corps. Sans disqualifier le travail effectué, ce dossier entend prendre le mot « disparu » à contre-courant et le déclarer impropre à nous présenter ceux et celles que l'on a tués et rendus invisibles, du temps où ils étaient vivants. Là encore - c'est l'option majeure de cette rubrique - il s'agit de décaler le regard pour considérer la vie antérieure et « ce qu'ils ont fait ».
  • Political Geography: Argentina
  • Author: Rodolfo Walsh
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: Tout en servant deux grands verres de whisky, il m'apprend, comme ça, qu'il a vingt ans de service aux renseignements, qu'il a étudié la philosophie et les lettres, que c'est un homme curieux de l'art. Il n'insiste sur rien. Il ne fait qu'établir le terrain sur lequel nous pouvons opérer, une zone vaguement commune.
  • Author: Julien Jeandesboz
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Cultures Conflits
  • Institution: Cultures Conflits
  • Abstract: La conférence de James Sheptycki sur « Transnationalisation, politics and policing » offre l'occasion d'une réflexion sur les évolutions d'un champ d'études, moins par un état des lieux de la littérature existante, que par la rencontre avec un chercheur1. A ce titre, la rencontre avec James Sheptycki, du fait de son parcours et des orientations de sa recherche, apporte une mise en perspective des plus instructives sur deux trajectoires générales : celles de l'univers social des professionnels de la sécurité que sont les policiers, et celles du secteur du champ universitaire qui se préoccupe des pratiques de contrôle social, regroupées sous le terme de « policing ».
  • Topic: Crime, Political Economy
  • Author: Javier Jordán, Humberto Trujillo
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: The Spanish mass media have transmitted during the past weeks various news concerning the presence of jihadist activities in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla (two enclaves of Spain in North Africa): including the detention of suspected jihadists implicated in the terrorist attack of Casablanca in May 2003; the expulsion from the Spanish Army of three members belonging to professional troops for their supposed sympathy with radical Islam; and the appearance of a declaration on a internet forum from a group called Nadim al-Magrebi, calling for jihad against Spain and demanding expressively for the 'liberation' of both cities through terrorist attacks.
  • Topic: Security, Civil Society, Terrorism
  • Political Geography: Europe, Spain, North Africa
  • Author: Javier Jordán, Manuel R. Torres
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: On the 23rd of October the venezuelan police discoverd two explosive devices nearby the United States embassy in Caracas. The alarm necessitated the evacuation of a school situated a small distance away and two controlled explosions were carried out a few hours later.
  • Political Geography: United States
  • Author: Manuel R. Torres
  • Publication Date: 10-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: Athena Intelligence Journal
  • Institution: Athena Intelligence
  • Abstract: A lo largo del verano de 2006, de manera paralela a la crisis desatada entre Hezbollah en el Libano y el Estado de Israel, hizo su aparición ante la opinión púiblica una organización que proclamaba ser "Hezbollah en Amtrica Latina". Aunque su "presentación en sociedad" se produjo el 29 de julio de 2005 (fecha en la que se crea su primera página web), fue en los albores del conflicto militar en el Líbano cuando este grupúsculo adquirió mayor notoriedad. La preocupación ante la posibilidad de que organizaciones terroristas de inspiración yihadista estuviesen extendendo sus tentáculos por en Sudamérica confirió, a las proclamas procedentes de este grupo una considerable publicidad y reabrió el debate sobre las posibles derivas del fenómeno terrorista en esta región.
  • Topic: Terrorism
  • Political Geography: South America, Latin America, Central America
  • Author: Arlette Farge
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In this essay, two themes––the body and the political and the individual and society––are used to reflect upon the historian's task. By focusing upon the body as represented in the police archives of the eighteenth century, for example, we learn about the lived experience of domination, and the body-as-royal subject provides us with insight into the mechanisms and preoccupations of political power. The often incoherent and chaotic efforts of thinking bodies to engage with or resist that power are at the very matrix of social relations, and it is up to the historian to reconstruct these efforts in their very incoherence in order to remain as true as possible to the reality in which our historical subjects dwelled. An emphasis on articulating the experience of the individual reinforces this ability to reconstitute the ways in which subjects defined themselves via ruptures, interrupted trajectories, and reconstructed paths, which, in turn, underscores the fact that disorder is the ordinary course of social communities. Individual choices themselves reveal the lack of coherence of the social, and it is by relating and taking account of this incoherence that a historian may provide a non-teleological interpretation of the past that emanates from the interior of a society's fragile and hesitating common fate, that allows him or her to understand and recapture for contemporary readers a world that sought only to exist.
  • Topic: Fragile/Failed State
  • Author: Olivier Ihl
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article focuses on the findings of a study of titles and honors in twentieth-century France, in which these signs are analyzed as a government technique in their own right. This paper shows how, transformed into a state emulation, a style of bureaucratic authority was created, a mode of coercion that favored an impersonal style of control over and between various corps of administrators, artists, managers, journalists, or elected representatives. A government technique was constituted in the distribution of the croix de la légion d'honneur, the most famous of these decorations––one with a conception of exemplarity French Politics, Culture Society, Vol. 24, No. 1, Spring 2006 (that of marks of distinction serving as a model for behaviors transcending the frame of legal obligations) and an emphasis on the soundness of behaviors, the guarantee and objective of a policy of conduct openly intended to replace the policy of rights or classes inherited from the French Revolution. Philosophers and intellectuals were to transform this intuition into a political paradigm: virtue can also, in its own way, be a rule of policing. Rationalized by a fast-growing bureaucracy, these marks of grandeur that constituted a means of emulation have now been trivialized to the extent of no longer being analyzed as such. Reconsidering the conditions in which they operate, this article proposes an interpretation of uses and functions through which the decoration invented by Napoléon spawned an administration of honors, the crucible of a full-blown government science.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Dominique Pestre
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Before addressing its central concern––the convergence of science, war, institutions, and politics in the postwar period in France and the United States––, this essay evokes how scientific knowledge had been of importance to warfare and economic elites in the preceding centuries. In the 1940s and 1950s, scientific activities were profoundly redefined. A culture of laboratory solutions, of calculus, and management won the day. For the scientists, that meant versatility and a willingness to work between disciplines and métiers and to confront the nation's main concerns. It also led to increasingly technocratic versions of politics. Due to science, the state became a managerial apparatus, a "modernizer" arbitrating among different scenarios. Contrary to what happened in the United States, science was not center stage in France in the 1940s and early 1950s. The habitus of scientists was that of the prewar period, and they were still not technique- oriented. They had a more cultural definition of their trade and were not opportunists whose aim was to become pragmatically efficient in the world of business and military action. From the mid-1950s, things started to evolve due to a strong economic recovery and because French scientists had now caught up with the latest developments. The final break, however, occurred in France only when de Gaulle abandoned the Algerian war and elected for an autonomous nuclear deterrence system. By putting la stratégie de l'arsenal at the core of national development, de Gaulle significantly transformed French science, society, industry, and the military.
  • Topic: Cold War, Politics
  • Political Geography: United States, France
  • Author: Mariette Sineau
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In France, the 21 April 2002 presidential election result has renewed interest in the electoral cleavage between women and men, who cast their votes very Abstracts 152 differently to qualify candidates for the second round of the election. Among women voters, Lionel Jospin (the Socialist leader) came in second behind Jacques Chirac, with Jean-Marie Le Pen (leader of the Front national) being eliminated from the contest; among men, Le Pen came out on top followed by Chirac. On the basis of a major quantitative election survey conducted in France in 2002 by the Centre de Recherches Politiques de Sciences Po, this article undertakes to understand why fewer women than men vote for the extreme Right. Sociologically, Le Pen made his lowest scores among two groups of women that contrast in numerous aspects: young, highly educated professional women, and older, retired, widowed women. Strong ideological logics lie behind this contrasted sociology of female anti-Lepenism, rationales that are generation- specific, but gender-specific as well: feminism and Catholicism "process" male and female identity differently. (This research was first published in French in Bruno Cautrès and Nonna Mayer, eds., Le Nouveau Désordre électoral (2004), 207-28.)
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Nicolas Weill
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The issue of the Islamic headscarf has troubled French society since the end of the 1980s and led to legislation, enacted on 15 March 2004, proscribing the wearing of headscarves or any other "conspicuous" religious symbol in schools. But what strained relationship between the state and religions, and more generally minorities, is hidden by this long controversy that preceded the centennial of the 1905 law separating church and state? This article aims to summarize for American readers the stakes involved in this long debate while putting it into historical perspective by trying to clear up misunderstandings that may crop up in discussions (on both sides of the Atlantic) of a subject where the famous "French exception" seems to be crystallized, that is, the practice of laïcité. Underlying these discussions, one must locate the treatment of religious minorities as put into place during the Napoleonic era in the case of the Jews, which has remained, mutatis mutandis, a model for the organization of Islam in the Hexagon at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Such a model is one of an assignment community, organized with the goal, inherited from the Revolution, of emancipating its members and responding to questions of public order.
  • Topic: Islam
  • Political Geography: America, France
  • Author: Yolande Cohen
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Focusing on the history of the Conseil national des femmes françaises, composed mainly of Jewish and Protestant women, this paper shows how women's philanthropies played an important role in defining the scope and the type of welfare policies concerning mothers and children in France in the first half of the twentieth century. Their version of laïcité raises also several questions: did the religious question recede behind the social question? What role did the different religious distinctions continue to play in shaping welfare measures during the Third Republic? What was their role in defining the meaning of laïcité for social policies at this time? This paper shows that the main French social policy of allocations familiales, adopted in 1932, is the product of intense tensions between Church familialism and state maternalism. Catholic familialism promoted the home as the center of women's activity, lobbied against women's professional work, and refused any intervention of the state in family affairs. State maternalism, promoted primarily by religious minorities and some nonreligious feminists, wanted state intervention in protecting mothers and children. These deeply convinced republicans sought to change family laws and improve family morals. If these Protestant and Jewish philanthropies succeeded in defining the mainstream of laïcité during the first thirty years of the Third Republic, they failed to have a bigger impact on social legislation when the big leap to a national family allowance system was established in 1932.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Eric Jabbari
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Pierre Laroque, the architect of French social security, emerged during the 1930s as an advocate for the corporatist management of industrial relations. Laroque's corporatist views were an outgrowth of his educational background and his experiences as a young civil servant. A member of the Conseil d'État, he came under the influence of the main doctrines of French public law. During the first half of the twentieth century, legal thinkers such as Léon Duguit and Maurice Hauriou elaborated theoretical justifications for the growing interventionism of the state. As a student of the law, Pierre Laroque became concerned with maintaining the balance between the necessity of state intervention and the preservation of individual and collective rights, thus explaining his interest in administrative decentralization. By the mid-1930s, after being assigned to the Conseil National Économique, he became interested in industrial conflict and applied a similar approach to the issue of collective bargaining. Impressed by the social achievements of Fascist Italy, Laroque advocated the corporatist management of industrial relations, an objective that he promoted in a succession of political and intellectual forums associated with the nonconformist movement. A new collective bargaining mechanism would bring together the state, business, and labor in order to mediate and resolve industrial disputes. Unlike the Fascists, however, this form of corporatism did not break with democratic or republican principles; rather, it was a decentralized administrative structure that compensated for the weaknesses of the collective bargaining process while providing a new forum for the cultivation of social solidarity.
  • Topic: Politics, Law
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Bruno Valat
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The 1930 law creating social insurance was the Third Republic's great achievement in the social arena. However, the historiography of contemporary France contains barely a trace of this achievement. Victim of the regime's discredit as well as of the lack of any reformist political efforts in its favor, social insurance of the 1930s has also suffered by comparison to later achievements, particularly the creation of Social Security in 1945. However, if we study social insurance in its own historical context––and not in reference to the postwar period––, it can constitute an original source for the study of the modernization of French society. This article proposes three approaches: social insurance constitutes a vector for the acculturation of the working class to retirement and to the medicalization of health, contributing to the history of working class uses and representations of consumption and social rights. On a more institutional level, the experience of social insurance reveals the first legal experiments with cogestion involving employers, workers, and insurance organizations. Finally, a prosopographical study of the militant trajectories linked to social insurance could contribute to the history of the working-class movement between 1930 and the end of the Thirty Glorious Years: is there a "social insurance generation" within French syndicalism?
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Laura Lee Downs
  • Publication Date: 03-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In 1944, Léo Joannon's now-forgotten film Le Carrefour des enfants perdus opened in cinemas across France. The film (which starts in August 1940) recounts the struggle of impassioned journalist Jean Victor and a small group of friends to found a new kind of reform school without locks on the doors or bars on the windows, a vocational school for the professional training of delinquent youth whose methods were to be based on forging bonds of trust with the young offenders, rather than on their simple repression.1 Victor and his friends had all experienced firsthand the terrible bagnes d'enfants (children's penal colonies) of the Third Republic's pitiless juvenile justice system in their youth, and the story of the Carrefour (as their school was named) turns on the dedicated faith of these men in the abilities of children, even those deemed "guilty" in juvenile courts, to remake their own lives along healthier lines. Over the course of the film, the adventures of the Carrefour's 400 "enfants perdus" unfold inside an unexpected blend of progressive pedagogy (confidence in the children) and Vichy's fascistic elevation of the chef (organization of the school in hierarchically-ordered teams, run by older street toughs who are converted from caïdisme to the purer, if no less masculinist, ideology of the chef).
  • Topic: Reform
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Jeffrey H. Jackson
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: By the 1920s, the physical transformation in the urban space of Montmartre led two groups of artists to "secede" from the city of Paris, at least in spirit. Calling themselves the Commune Libre de Montmartre and the République de Montmartre, these painters, illustrators, poets, writers, and musicians articulated a distinctive community-based identity centered around mutual aid, sociability, and limiting urban development. They also reached out to the poor of the neighborhood through charity efforts, thus linking their fates with those of other area residents. Through these organizations, neighborhood artists came to terms with the changes taking place in the city of Paris in the 1920s by navigating between nostalgia and modernism. They sought to keep alive an older vision of the artists' Montmartre while adapting to the new conditions of the post-World War I city.
  • Topic: War
  • Political Geography: Paris, France
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In early 1937, French radio owners participated in elections for governing boards of their local public stations. The election, which had occurred once before in 1935 to little fanfare, became a locus of political and social debate about the state of both government and radio in France. Two parties emerged; one, Radio-Liberty, was supported by the Popular Front and had an overtly democratic and political mission and slate of candidates. The other, Radio-Family, was supported by a coalition of right-wing groups and claimed to champion French listeners and families in a nonpolitical fashion, protecting listeners from far-Left political rhetoric and immoral broadcasts. Radio-Family handily won the election, and state radio responded to the conservative message by producing radio plays like France, a miniseries that espoused a conservative vision of French history, seemingly at odds with the left-wing coalition in government.
  • Political Geography: France
9188. Born in 1925
  • Author: Alan B. Spitzer
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The May 1948 issue of Les Temps Modernes published three short essays entitled "Nés en 1925." The young authors were Jean-François Lyotard, who was to become a philosopher of international distinction; Paul Viallaneix, his generation's outstanding Michelet scholar; and Pierre Gripari, the author of a wide variety of works including popular books for children. They had been comrades (along with the future sociologist Alain Touraine), at the khâgne of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, which prepared a student elite to compete for entrance into the École normale supérieure. Their contributions reflected the experience of an intense traditional education under the pressures of war and the Occupation. Their subsequent careers reveal the relation of the permanent stamp of a common formation and the individual experience of particular circumstances.
  • Topic: War
  • Author: Belinda Thomson
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article praises the methodology used by Debora Silverman in her book Van Gogh and Gauguin: The Search for Sacred Art, in particular her exhaustive exploration of the two artists' religious and cultural formation, seeing this as a long-overdue reinstatement of the value of what are inescapably and quite properly biographical concerns. Silverman's book demonstrates that, taken over the long term, such considerations, far from being extraneous to and distractions from the works of art, offer valuable new ways of explaining them. The author considers the usefulness of applying a similar model to a different artistic pairing, the relationship between Gauguin and his first mentor and teacher, Camille Pissarro, and sees good reason to suppose it would yield similarly illuminating results. Considering the issue of comparative studies more generally, however, the author perceives certain dangers in allowing their built-in imperatives and momentum to skew the researcher's findings. She illustrates this point with two examples of ambiguous documents that point up the potential for over-eager biographers to find significance in every chance piece of data and to force connections for the sake of the overall pattern.
  • Author: Jerrold Seigel
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This essay seeks to extend Debora Silverman's distinction between van Gogh's project of "spiritualizing the material" and Gauguin's related but opposed one of "dematerializing the world" to a wider range of modernist and avant-garde projects. It employs this distinction in connection with Astradur Eysteinsson's analysis of the problems of using such terms as modernism, the avant-garde, and postmodernism in relation to realism and the various revolts against it that have taken place since the age of romanticism. Eysteinsson's general approach is followed, but also in part questioned and given a different direction through discussions of Duchamp, the surrealists, Baudelaire, and Rimbaud.
  • Author: Kenneth E. Silver
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Silverman's intent is to emphasize the "critical role of religion in the development of modernism." As an addendum to that pursuit, it should be pointed out that, well into the twentieth century, religion remained crucial to artistic innovation and development (and still is). We now recognize how important apocalyptic imagery was to Wasily Kandinsky's abstraction. In the wake of the Second World War, and French occupation by the Germans, religion made a powerful reappearance in the art of the avant-garde. Henri Matisse's Chapel of the Rosary at Vence is one of the great works of this period; it is worth briefly examining the ways in which Matisse understood the intersection between modern art and his reengagement with Catholicism.
  • Topic: Development, War
  • Political Geography: Germany
  • Author: Debora Silverman
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: It is very gratifying, at the end of the long journey this book entailed, to have responses generated from two fields and from some of the scholars whose writings have inspired me along the way. What I'd like to do in my comments is not to rehash material in the book—I hope those of you who haven't yet will get a chance to read it. (It is now available in a paperback edition.) Rather, I'd like to raise some broader issues for our future work relating to the position of navigating between the disciplines of art history and cultural history as we try to write in the links between biography, society, and style in specific national contexts, and the particular benefits of comparative analysis as we do so.
  • Author: Arthur Goldhammer
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Belief in the possibility of a revolutionary transformation of French society sustained much of the political and cultural ferment in France in the quarter century following the end of World War II. Perry Anderson, in two articles published in the London Review of Books, argues that the decline of this faith has cast a pall over France, and he traces this decline in large part to the work of historians François Furet and Pierre Nora. It is argued here that Anderson neglects broader economic, societal, and cultural forces that combined to undermine belief in the transformative power of revolution and is therefore led to an unduly pessimistic interpretation of the cultural turn of the 1970s.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: France, London
  • Author: Françoise Gollain
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The last four years have seen the rise of a movement on the French radical left positing a fundamental conflict between economic growth and ecological sustainability and calling for a reversal of growth (décroissance) against the current consensus around the concept of sustainable development. This challenge to the growth imperative and, more widely, of the ideology of progress, represents a return to the explicitly antiproductivist approaches that emerged in the early 1970s with the rise of radical political ecology. This article charts the birth of the décroissance movement, which is comprised of two components: anticonsumerist and antidevelopment. It also contrasts the movement with other closely- related ideological elements of the French antiglobalization and anticapitalist movements, elements that belong to the dominant, mainly Marxist tradition, whose anticapitalist struggle builds on the legacy of the Enlightenment period. The article concludes that, by placing antieconomicist and antiutilitarian thought drawn from social sciences on the agenda of the French radical Left, the décroissance movement could potentially generate a major paradigm shift founded on a critical evaluation of the heritage of modernity.
  • Topic: Development
  • Author: Kristen Stromberg Childers
  • Publication Date: 06-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: In late May 2005, French voters resoundingly defeated a proposal to adopt a new constitution for the European Union, voting 55 percent to 45 percent to reject a document in which President Jacques Chirac had invested more than a little of his personal political capital. While there were many reasons cited for this negative vote, one issue that surfaced frequently in discussions of the constitution was the French people's concern for their social security benefits and the fear that "liberal" and "Anglo-Saxon" models of the welfare state might come to dominate the EU and would threaten France's hard-won social rights. Here, of course, "liberal" referred to a model of unrelenting laissez-faire economics, rather than the moniker hurled in contemporary American political debates. It is highly significant that the deathblow to the constitution should come from France, where the EU symbolized for many a chance to regain grandeur on the international scene and an opportunity to counterbalance the "hyperpower" of the United States.
  • Political Geography: United States, Europe, France
  • Author: Olivier Masclet
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: This article examines why the activism of the children of North African immigrants has not been noticed or recognized by elected officials of the Communist Party. Through historical and ethnographic study of a Communist municipality in the greater Paris region, the article first demonstrates that this militancy, far from being a new thing, is inscribed in the traditional forms of the militancy associated with the "banlieues rouges." In order to understand the urban activists' invisibility in politics, the author analyzes the negative representations of the group from which they come and the tensions between North African immigrants and local officials of the Left, tensions linked to urban renewal in the industrial suburbs. The detour through the history of the "red suburbs" thus reveals the structure of the tense relations between the Left and the housing projects, which seem to be disowned not only economically but also politically.
  • Topic: Economics
  • Political Geography: North Africa
  • Author: Nacira Guénif-Souilamas
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Twentieth-century France invented for itself an "exception" that successfully preserved the French culture industry. Postcolonial France is experiencing another "French exception" that renders a "virtuous racism" commonplace and legitimates the discrimination that expresses this racism by identifying the undesirable "new French" as scapegoat figures. Four gender-specific stereotypes strengthen the belief that there is a form of sexism exclusive to the segregated neighborhoods of the suburbs that are inhabited primarily by French people of immigrant and colonial descent. Associated with the central figure of the garçon arabe are the beurette, the veiled Muslim French woman, and the secular Muslim. The article argues that the model of abstract, universalist France has become one of a fundamentalist republicanism that plays diverse expressions of otherness and singular identities off of one another in order to preserve a soft regime of oppression.
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Sylvie Tissot
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The November 2005 riots in France brought new attention to debates over the situation of underprivileged areas. Rather than analyzing what happened in these areas, this article examines how this social problem was constructed and publicized and has since become an object of public policy since the end of the 1980s. The political focus on underprivileged areas was not primarily or only an effect of increasing concrete problems, like unemployment, poverty, or juvenile delinquency. Instead, it resulted from and contributed to a fundamental restructuring of the French welfare state, by authorizing a recentering of public action on specific urban spaces––rather than across the nation–– and on social ties, rather than economic reality. This constructivist study seeks to understand why politicians, experts, or civil servants have associated the question of "underprivileged areas" with certain problems (like lack of communication and the weakening of social ties) while ignoring others (such as ethnic discrimination).
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: Frédéric Viguier
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: Over the past twenty years, a silent revolution brought 70 percent of a generation to the baccalauréat level (up from 33 percent in 1986), without ensuring students corresponding job opportunities. Sociologists have analyzed the impact of this educational democratization, which sought to solve the economic crisis by adapting the younger members of the French workforce to the new economy of services: it has paradoxically accentuated the stigmatization of youths from working-class and immigrant families who live in suburban housing projects. Therefore, high school teachers have had to deal with students' profound disillusionment with education. Moreover, teachers have been central to all of the recent political controversies in France regarding cultural difference. While there are books, pamphlets, and memoirs reflecting their experiences, there is no research exploring the discrepancy between high school teachers' expectations and those of their predecessors. This article explores this discrepancy and its contribution to the social and political construction of the "problème des banlieues."
  • Political Geography: France
  • Author: George Ross
  • Publication Date: 12-2006
  • Content Type: Journal Article
  • Journal: French Politics, Culture Society
  • Institution: Conference Group on French Politics Society
  • Abstract: The "events" around Dominique de Villepin's abortive promotion of the CPE in spring 2006 were seen by many as a great popular victory in the defense of France's social model and another, albeit modest, version of May 1968. Others, particularly Anglophone neoliberals, saw them as proof that the French were incapable of reform. Both conclusions were wrong. The events and defeat of the CPE may have been enjoyable for many involved, but they resolved none of France's underlying and debilitating economic problems. On the other hand, the neoliberal view that the French are averse to real social policy reform is incorrect. Instead, the unresolved dilemmas surrounding the CPE episode are in large part the product of a particular strategy of reform, the "social management of unemployment," that has nourished and intensified dangerous–– unavowed––social dualism in France. The present problem, illustrated indirectly by the events, is that political actors and social partners are unable to cooperate sufficiently to confront this dualism.
  • Topic: Reform
  • Political Geography: France